Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for SPRR2D Gene

Aliases for SPRR2D Gene

  • Small Proline-Rich Protein 2D 2 3
  • Small Proline-Rich Protein II 3 4
  • SPR-2D 3 4
  • SPR-II 3 4

External Ids for SPRR2D Gene

Summaries for SPRR2D Gene

GeneCards Summary for SPRR2D Gene

SPRR2D (Small Proline-Rich Protein 2D) is a Protein Coding gene. An important paralog of this gene is SPRR2E.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SPRR2D Gene

  • Cross-linked envelope protein of keratinocytes. It is a keratinocyte protein that first appears in the cell cytosol, but ultimately becomes cross-linked to membrane proteins by transglutaminase. All that results in the formation of an insoluble envelope beneath the plasma membrane

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SPRR2D Gene

Genomics for SPRR2D Gene

Genomic Location for SPRR2D Gene

153,039,725 bp from pter
153,041,931 bp from pter
2,207 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SPRR2D Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for SPRR2D Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SPRR2D Gene

Regulatory Elements for SPRR2D Gene

Proteins for SPRR2D Gene

  • Protein details for SPRR2D Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Small proline-rich protein 2D
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4QN03
    • A8K5K2
    • D3DV33
    • Q5T523
    • Q96RM3

    Protein attributes for SPRR2D Gene

    72 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    7905 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for SPRR2D Gene

Proteomics data for SPRR2D Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for SPRR2D Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for SPRR2D Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SPRR2D Gene

Domains for SPRR2D Gene

Protein Domains for SPRR2D Gene


  • Belongs to the cornifin (SPRR) family.:
    • P22532
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SPRR2D: view

No data available for Gene Families for SPRR2D Gene

Function for SPRR2D Gene

Molecular function for SPRR2D Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: small proline rich protein 2D,precursor of cornified cell envelope,cornifin,clustered in the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Cross-linked envelope protein of keratinocytes. It is a keratinocyte protein that first appears in the cell cytosol, but ultimately becomes cross-linked to membrane proteins by transglutaminase. All that results in the formation of an insoluble envelope beneath the plasma membrane
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: During squamous differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes

Phenotypes for SPRR2D Gene

GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for SPRR2D:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SPRR2D: view

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for SPRR2D Gene

Localization for SPRR2D Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SPRR2D Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SPRR2D Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SPRR2D gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 2
extracellular 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SPRR2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001533 cornified envelope IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 16639001
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SPRR2D: view

Pathways for SPRR2D Gene

SuperPathways for SPRR2D Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for SPRR2D Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 2 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: P22532-SPR2D_HUMAN ENSP00000353542 for SPRR2D Gene via MINT STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SPRR2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008544 epidermis development NAS 8325635
GO:0031424 keratinization IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SPRR2D: view

No data available for Pathways by source for SPRR2D Gene

Transcripts for SPRR2D Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SPRR2D Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for SPRR2D Gene

Small proline-rich protein 2D:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SPRR2D Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SPRR2D Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SPRR2D Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SPRR2D Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SPRR2D Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (28.1), Minor Salivary Gland (10.6), Cervix - Ectocervix (5.5), and Vagina (5.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for SPRR2D Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SPRR2D Gene Hs.505327

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with SPRR2D: view

Orthologs for SPRR2D Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and chimp.

Orthologs for SPRR2D Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SPRR2D 37
  • 100 (a)
Species with no ortholog for SPRR2D:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for SPRR2D Gene

Gene Tree for SPRR2D (if available)
Gene Tree for SPRR2D (if available)

Paralogs for SPRR2D Gene

Paralogs for SPRR2D Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SPRR2D: view

Variants for SPRR2D Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SPRR2D Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs409986 -- 153,042,265(+) TCCCA(A/C)AAACT upstream-variant-2KB
rs426360 -- 153,042,234(+) TCTTC(C/T)TTTGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs435633 -- 153,039,335(-) AACTA(C/T)TATTT downstream-variant-500B
rs441229 -- 153,042,583(-) CTTCC(G/T)GGAGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs472076 -- 153,041,266(-) ATTTC(A/C)TAGTT upstream-variant-2KB

Relevant External Links for SPRR2D Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SPRR2D Gene

Disorders for SPRR2D Gene

No disorders were found for SPRR2D Gene.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SPRR2D Gene

Publications for SPRR2D Gene

  1. Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in adaptive barrier function. (PMID: 11279051) Cabral A. … Backendorf C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4
  2. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory S.G. … Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006) 3 4
  3. Isolation, characterization, and UV-stimulated expression of two families of genes encoding polypeptides of related structure in human epidermal keratinocytes. (PMID: 3133554) Kartasova T. … van de Putte P. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1988) 3 4
  4. Molecular characterization and evolution of the SPRR family of keratinocyte differentiation markers encoding small proline-rich proteins. (PMID: 8325635) Gibbs S. … Backendorf C. (Genomics 1993) 2 3
  5. Mouse Sprr2 genes: a clustered family of genes showing differential expression in epithelial tissues. (PMID: 9888996) Song H.J. … Kartasova T. (Genomics 1999) 3

Products for SPRR2D Gene

Sources for SPRR2D Gene

Back to Top