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Aliases for SOST Gene

Aliases for SOST Gene

  • Sclerostin 2 3 3 5
  • Sclerosteosis 2
  • DAND6 3
  • SOST1 3
  • VBCH 3
  • CDD 3

External Ids for SOST Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SOST Gene

  • GC17M041573
  • GC17M044008
  • GC17M041841
  • GC17M042306
  • GC17M039186
  • GC17M037597

Summaries for SOST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SOST Gene

  • Sclerostin is a secreted glycoprotein with a C-terminal cysteine knot-like (CTCK) domain and sequence similarity to the DAN (differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma) family of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene are associated with an autosomal-recessive disorder, sclerosteosis, which causes progressive bone overgrowth. A deletion downstream of this gene, which causes reduced sclerostin expression, is associated with a milder form of the disorder called van Buchem disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for SOST Gene

SOST (Sclerostin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SOST include Van Buchem Disease and Sclerosteosis 1. Among its related pathways are Wnt Signaling Pathways: beta-Catenin-dependent Wnt Signaling and Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor binding and heparin binding. An important paralog of this gene is SOSTDC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SOST Gene

  • Negative regulator of bone growth that acts through inhibition of Wnt signaling and bone formation.

Gene Wiki entry for SOST Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SOST Gene

Genomics for SOST Gene

Regulatory Elements for SOST Gene

Enhancers for SOST Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17F043696 0.5 Ensembl 21.6 +62.3 62288 1.0 TBP ELF3 RAD21 YY1 ZNF335 ELK1 FOS MIXL1 KAT8 NR2F2 SOST MEOX1 WHSC1L2P LOC105371786
GH17F043700 0.5 Ensembl ENCODE 19 +57.7 57666 1.4 ZFP64 SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 GTF3C2 SLC30A9 ZNF121 GLIS2 FOS SOST DHX8 HMGN1P29 ASB16-AS1 VPS25 PSME3 LINC00910 MEOX1 WHSC1L2P LOC105371786
GH17F043719 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE 18.1 +38.1 38067 2.6 HDGF ZFP64 DMAP1 ZNF48 ETS1 ZNF366 ZNF143 ZNF207 EGR2 THAP11 TMEM106A SOST MEOX1 LOC105371786 DUSP3 DHX8 TMUB2 WHSC1L2P GC17P043726 PIR44007
GH17F043724 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 17.3 +34.8 34791 0.8 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 FOS DEK ZNF263 SOST ENSG00000267002 ENSG00000267340 MEOX1 GPATCH8 C17orf105 GC17P043726 PIR44007 WHSC1L2P
GH17F043745 0.9 Ensembl 15.3 +12.9 12888 1.0 PAF1 KLF11 JUND ZGPAT SSRP1 POLR2A SCRT2 ZNF580 MAFK TRIM28 SOST C17orf105 DUSP3 MEOX1 MPP2 GC17M043742 GC17P043729
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around SOST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for SOST Gene

43,753,731 bp from pter
43,758,788 bp from pter
5,058 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SOST Gene

Genes around SOST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SOST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SOST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SOST Gene

Proteins for SOST Gene

  • Protein details for SOST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q495N9

    Protein attributes for SOST Gene

    213 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24031 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with LRP4 (via the extracellular domain); the interaction facilitates the inhibition of Wnt signaling. Interacts with LRP5 (via the first two YWTD-EGF repeat domains); the interaction inhibits Wnt-mediated signaling. Interacts with LRP6.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SOST Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for SOST Gene


neXtProt entry for SOST Gene

Post-translational modifications for SOST Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 53 and Asn 175

Other Protein References for SOST Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for SOST (SOST/Sclerostin)

Assay Products

  • Enzo Life Sciences assays for SOST
  • Cloud-Clone Corp Assay Kits for SOST

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SOST Gene

Domains & Families for SOST Gene

Gene Families for SOST Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SOST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain.
  • Belongs to the sclerostin family.
  • Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain.
  • Belongs to the sclerostin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SOST: view

Function for SOST Gene

Molecular function for SOST Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Negative regulator of bone growth that acts through inhibition of Wnt signaling and bone formation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SOST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15908424
GO:0008134 transcription factor binding IDA 17696759
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SOST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SOST: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for SOST Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for SOST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SOST:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SOST

miRNA for SOST Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SOST

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SOST

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SOST Gene

Localization for SOST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SOST Gene

Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SOST Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SOST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SOST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0031012 colocalizes_with extracellular matrix IDA 20551380
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SOST: view

Pathways & Interactions for SOST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SOST: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for SOST Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SOST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001503 ossification IEA --
GO:0009612 response to mechanical stimulus IEP 21723865
GO:0016055 Wnt signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0030279 negative regulation of ossification NAS 11181578
GO:0030514 negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway IDA 14633986
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SOST: view

Drugs & Compounds for SOST Gene

(5) Drugs for SOST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(1) Additional Compounds for SOST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SOST: view

Transcripts for SOST Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SOST Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(10) Additional mRNA sequences :
(23) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for SOST Gene

Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SOST

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SOST Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SOST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SOST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for SOST Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SOST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Aorta (x27.8), Artery - Tibial (x14.3), and Kidney - Cortex (x5.6).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SOST Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SOST Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SOST Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed at low levels with highest levels in bone, cartilage, kidney, liver, bone marrow and primary osteoblasts differentiated for 21 days. Detected in the subendothelial layer of the aortic intima (at protein level).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SOST: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for SOST Gene

Orthologs for SOST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for SOST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SOST 34 35
  • 99.84 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SOST 34 35
  • 93.74 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SOST 34 35
  • 93.24 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sost 34
  • 89.11 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sost 34 16 35
  • 88.83 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SOST 35
  • 66 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SOST 34 35
  • 68.97 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SOST 35
  • 52 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sost 34 35
  • 59.22 (n)
Species where no ortholog for SOST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for SOST Gene

Gene Tree for SOST (if available)
Gene Tree for SOST (if available)

Paralogs for SOST Gene

Paralogs for SOST Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for SOST Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SOST: view

Variants for SOST Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SOST Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs387907169 Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia autosomal dominant (CDD) [MIM:122860], Pathogenic 43,758,681(-) GTGTA(A/G)TGGAG reference, missense
VAR_063982 Sclerosteosis 1 (SOST1) [MIM:269500]
VAR_065766 Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia autosomal dominant (CDD) [MIM:122860]
rs104894644 Pathogenic 43,755,612(-) AAGTG(A/G)TGGCG reference, stop-gained
rs104894645 Pathogenic 43,755,608(-) GGTGG(C/T)GACCT reference, stop-gained

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SOST Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3640635 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1060861 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv2060 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for SOST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 39.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.39; 8.60% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for SOST Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SOST Gene

Disorders for SOST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for SOST Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
van buchem disease
  • smith-lemli-opitz syndrome
sclerosteosis 1
  • sclerosteosis
craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
  • schaefer stein oshman syndrome
  • cortical hyperostosis with syndactyly
craniodiaphyseal dysplasia
  • cdd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SOST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia autosomal dominant (CDD) [MIM:122860]: A severe bone dysplasia characterized by massive generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis, especially involving the skull and facial bones. The sclerosis is so severe that the resulting facial distortion is referred to as leontiasis ossea (leonine faces) and the bone deposition results in progressive stenosis of craniofacial foramina. Respiratory obstruction due to choanal stenosis compromises the clinical outcomes of affected patients. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21221996}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Heterozygous mutations located in the secretion signal of the SOST gene prevent sclerostin secretion and can be responsible for craniodiaphyseal dysplasia.
  • Sclerosteosis 1 (SOST1) [MIM:269500]: An autosomal recessive sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by a generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis leading to a markedly thickened skull, with mandible, ribs, clavicles and all long bones also being affected. Due to narrowing of the foramina of the cranial nerves, facial nerve palsy, hearing loss and atrophy of the optic nerves can occur. Sclerosteosis is clinically and radiologically very similar to van Buchem disease, mainly differentiated by hand malformations and a large stature in sclerosteosis patients. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11179006, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11181578, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20583295}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Van Buchem disease (VBCH) [MIM:239100]: VBCH is an autosomal recessive sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by endosteal hyperostosis of the mandible, skull, ribs, clavicles, and diaphyses of the long bones. Affected patients present a symmetrically increased thickness of bones, most frequently found as an enlarged jawbone, but also an enlargement of the skull, ribs, diaphysis of long bones, as well as tubular bones of hands and feet. The clinical consequence of increased thickness of the skull include facial nerve palsy causing hearing loss, visual problems, neurological pain, and, very rarely, blindness as a consequence of optic atrophy. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels are elevated. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11836356}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A 52 kb deletion downstream of SOST results in SOST transcription suppression causing van Buchem disease.

Relevant External Links for SOST

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SOST: view

No data available for Genatlas for SOST Gene

Publications for SOST Gene

  1. Bone dysplasia sclerosteosis results from loss of the SOST gene product, a novel cystine knot-containing protein. (PMID: 11179006) Brunkow M.E. … Mulligan J.T. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2001) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Increased bone density in sclerosteosis is due to the deficiency of a novel secreted protein (SOST). (PMID: 11181578) Balemans W. … Van Hul W. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2001) 2 3 4 22 64
  3. The -9247 T/C polymorphism in the SOST upstream regulatory region that potentially affects C/EBPalpha and FOXA1 binding is associated with osteoporosis. (PMID: 19371798) Huang Q.Y. … Kung A.W. (Bone 2009) 3 22 46 64
  4. Characterization of the structural features and interactions of sclerostin: molecular insight into a key regulator of Wnt-mediated bone formation. (PMID: 19208630) Veverka V. … Carr M.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 4 22 64
  5. Analysis of association of LRP5, LRP6, SOST, DKK1, and CTNNB1 genes with bone mineral density in a Slovenian population. (PMID: 19898734) Mencej-Bedrac S. … Marc J. (Calcif. Tissue Int. 2009) 3 22 46 64

Products for SOST Gene

  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for SOST
  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for SOST
  • Cloud-Clone Corp Assay Kits for SOST

Sources for SOST Gene

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