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Aliases for SORD Gene

Aliases for SORD Gene

  • Sorbitol Dehydrogenase 2 3 5
  • L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 95n 3
  • HEL-S-95n 3
  • EC 1.1.1 63
  • SORD1 3

External Ids for SORD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SORD Gene

  • GC15P040873
  • GC15P038362
  • GC15P042894
  • GC15P043031
  • GC15P043102
  • GC15P045315
  • GC15P022139

Summaries for SORD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SORD Gene

  • Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD; EC catalyzes the interconversion of polyols and their corresponding ketoses, and together with aldose reductase (ALDR1; MIM 103880), makes up the sorbitol pathway that is believed to play an important role in the development of diabetic complications (summarized by Carr and Markham, 1995 [PubMed 8535074]). The first reaction of the pathway (also called the polyol pathway) is the reduction of glucose to sorbitol by ALDR1 with NADPH as the cofactor. SORD then oxidizes the sorbitol to fructose using NAD(+) cofactor.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

GeneCards Summary for SORD Gene

SORD (Sorbitol Dehydrogenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SORD include Microvascular Complications Of Diabetes 5. Among its related pathways are Glycosaminoglycan metabolism and Fructose metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SORD Gene

  • Converts sorbitol to fructose. Part of the polyol pathway that plays an important role in sperm physiology. May play a role in the sperm motility by providing an energetic source for sperm.

Gene Wiki entry for SORD Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SORD Gene

Genomics for SORD Gene

Regulatory Elements for SORD Gene

Enhancers for SORD Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around SORD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for SORD Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around SORD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for SORD Gene

45,023,104 bp from pter
45,077,185 bp from pter
54,082 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SORD Gene

Genes around SORD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SORD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SORD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SORD Gene

Proteins for SORD Gene

  • Protein details for SORD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Sorbitol dehydrogenase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R655
    • B7Z3A6
    • J3JZZ5
    • Q16682
    • Q9UMD6

    Protein attributes for SORD Gene

    357 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38325 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.
    • The polyol pathway is proposed to be involved the cellular toxicity of diabetic hyperglycemia.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SORD Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for SORD Gene


neXtProt entry for SORD Gene

Proteomics data for SORD Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SORD Gene

Post-translational modifications for SORD Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 107 and Lys 134
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for SORD Gene

Domains & Families for SORD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SORD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family.
  • Belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SORD: view

No data available for Gene Families for SORD Gene

Function for SORD Gene

Molecular function for SORD Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
sorbitol dehydrogenase,including two homologous genes SORD1,SORD2 resulting of a recent gene duplication event
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-iditol + NAD(+) = L-sorbose + NADH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Converts sorbitol to fructose. Part of the polyol pathway that plays an important role in sperm physiology. May play a role in the sperm motility by providing an energetic source for sperm.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated by androgens and down-regulated by castration.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SORD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SORD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA,ISS --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SORD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SORD: view

miRNA for SORD Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SORD

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SORD Gene

Localization for SORD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SORD Gene

Mitochondrion membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Cell projection, cilium, flagellum. Note=Associated with mitochondria of the midpiece and near the plasma membrane in the principal piece of the flagellum. Also found in the epididymosome, secreted by the epididymal epithelium and that transfers proteins from the epididymal fluid to the sperm surface. {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:Q64442}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SORD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SORD gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 4
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
plasma membrane 1
vacuole 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SORD Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SORD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SORD: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SORD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006000 fructose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006062 sorbitol catabolic process IDA 3365415
GO:0006970 response to osmotic stress IEA --
GO:0030317 sperm motility NAS 16278369
GO:0031667 response to nutrient levels IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SORD: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SORD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SORD Gene

(20) Drugs for SORD Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cp-166572, 2-Hydroxymethyl-4-(4-N,N-Dimethylaminosulfonyl-1-Piperazino)-Pyrimidine Experimental Pharma Target 0
1-Butanol Experimental Pharma 0
1-Proponol Experimental Pharma 0
Sorbitol Experimental Pharma 28
NADH Nutra Target 0

(27) Additional Compounds for SORD Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-Hexanol
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Hydroxyhexane
  • Alcohol C-6
  • Alcohol(C6)
  • 1-Pentanol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Alcool amylique (french)
  • beta-D-Arabino-hexulose
  • beta-D-Fructofuranose
  • beta-D-Fructose
  • beta-delta-Arabino-hexulose
  • beta-delta-Fructofuranose
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
  • 1-Hydroxymethylpropane
  • 2-Methyl propanol
  • 2-Methyl-1-propanol
  • 2-Methyl-1-propanyl alcohol
  • 2-Methylpropan-1-ol
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SORD: view

Transcripts for SORD Gene

Unigene Clusters for SORD Gene

Sorbitol dehydrogenase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SORD Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SORD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SORD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SORD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SORD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x10.1), Prostate (x8.9), and Thyroid (x7.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SORD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (18.7), Liver (10.7), Thyroid (8.0), and Nasal epithelium (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for SORD Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SORD Gene Hs.878

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SORD Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in kidney and epithelial cells of both benign and malignant prostate tissue. Expressed in epididymis (at protein level).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SORD: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SORD Gene

Primer Products

Orthologs for SORD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SORD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SORD 35
  • 88.54 (n)
  • 89.01 (a)
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SORD 35
  • 86.95 (n)
  • 86.76 (a)
  • 87 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sord 35
  • 81.51 (n)
  • 82.91 (a)
Sord 16
Sord 36
  • 83 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SORD 35
  • 99.07 (n)
  • 98.32 (a)
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sord 35
  • 82.63 (n)
  • 81.79 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SORD 36
  • 67 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 91 (a)
-- 36
  • 86 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SORD 35
  • 74.58 (n)
  • 77.68 (a)
  • 77 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 74 (a)
-- 36
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia sord 35
  • 72.49 (n)
  • 79.15 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.4026 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC570613 35
  • 69.24 (n)
  • 77.14 (a)
zgc63674 35
sord 36
  • 76 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4836 37
  • 28 (a)
Sodh-1 37
  • 55 (a)
Sodh-2 37
  • 55 (a)
Sodh-1 35
  • 60.17 (n)
  • 56.16 (a)
CG4836 36
  • 8 (a)
Sodh-1 36
  • 54 (a)
Sodh-2 36
  • 54 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003584 35
  • 58.45 (n)
  • 58.36 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R04B5.5 37
  • 53 (a)
R04B5.6 37
  • 50 (a)
CELE_R04B5.5 35
  • 54.13 (n)
  • 53.64 (a)
R04B5.5 36
  • 53 (a)
R04B5.6 36
  • 50 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABR229C 35
  • 50.72 (n)
  • 43.56 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D05511g 35
  • 48.51 (n)
  • 42.77 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SOR1 35
  • 49 (n)
  • 43.98 (a)
SOR1 36
  • 41 (a)
SOR2 36
  • 41 (a)
XYL2 36
  • 40 (a)
XYL2 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G51970 35
  • 52.79 (n)
  • 46.92 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os08g0545200 35
  • 50.43 (n)
  • 46.7 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.15386 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU00891 35
  • 51.81 (n)
  • 43.99 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes tms1 35
  • 47.36 (n)
  • 40.3 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 47 (a)
Species with no ortholog for SORD:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SORD Gene

Gene Tree for SORD (if available)
Gene Tree for SORD (if available)

Paralogs for SORD Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for SORD Gene using alignment to 4 proteins: Pseudogenes for SORD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SORD: view

No data available for Paralogs for SORD Gene

Variants for SORD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SORD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 15 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs55739437 - 45,068,982(+) AGGTC(A/T)GCTGG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
VAR_060351 -
rs172021 -- 45,027,790(-) CTTCT(A/G)TGGGG intron-variant
rs175224 -- 45,027,821(-) AGCTT(C/T)CCACC intron-variant
rs270818 -- 45,035,464(-) ccccc(A/C)gatta intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SORD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv744e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv745e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv7264 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv436698 OTHER Inversion 17901297
nsv509570 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv9259 CNV Gain 18304495
dgv435n67 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv827318 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv820141 CNV Gain 19587683
esv27178 CNV Gain 19812545
nsv9260 CNV Loss 18304495
nsv1519 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv9261 CNV Loss 18304495
esv28190 CNV Loss 19812545

Variation tolerance for SORD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 75.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.17; 87.90% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for SORD Gene

Disorders for SORD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for SORD Gene - From: DISEASES and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
microvascular complications of diabetes 5
  • diabetic nephropathy
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SORD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for SORD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SORD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SORD Gene

Publications for SORD Gene

  1. Structural organization of the human sorbitol dehydrogenase gene (SORD). (PMID: 7782086) Iwata T. … Carper D. (Genomics 1995) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Sorbitol dehydrogenase expression is regulated by androgens in the human prostate. (PMID: 20372835) Szabo Z. … Vaarala M.H. (Oncol. Rep. 2010) 3 23
  3. ZAC1 is up-regulated by hypertonicity and decreases sorbitol dehydrogenase expression, allowing accumulation of sorbitol in kidney cells. (PMID: 19423711) Lanaspa M.A. … Berl T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 23
  4. Catalytic mechanism of Zn2+-dependent polyol dehydrogenases: kinetic comparison of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase with wild-type and Glu154-->Cys forms of yeast xylitol dehydrogenase. (PMID: 17343568) Klimacek M. … Nidetzky B. (Biochem. J. 2007) 3 25
  5. Pyridine nucleotide redox abnormalities in diabetes. (PMID: 17508915) Ido Y. (Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2007) 23 25

Products for SORD Gene

Sources for SORD Gene