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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

SNCA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC04M090646

Synuclein, Alpha (Non A4 Component Of Amyloid Precursor)

(Previous names: Parkinson disease (autosomal dominant, Lewy body) 4)
(Previous symbols: PARK1, PARK4)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Synuclein, Alpha (Non A4 Component Of Amyloid Precursor)1 2     alpha-synuclein2
PARK11 2 3 5     Non A-Beta Component Of AD Amyloid2
PARK41 2 5     Synuclein Alpha-1402
NACP2 3 5     Non-A Beta Component Of AD Amyloid3
Parkinson Disease (Autosomal Dominant, Lewy Body) 41     Non-A4 Component Of Amyloid Precursor3
PD12     

External Ids:    HGNC: 111381   Entrez Gene: 66222   Ensembl: ENSG000001453357   OMIM: 1638905   UniProtKB: P378403   

Export aliases for SNCA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04M090804 GC04M090948 GC04M091105 GC04M091003 GC04M086396


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for SNCA Gene:
Alpha-synuclein is a member of the synuclein family, which also includes beta- and gamma-synuclein. Synucleins are
abundantly expressed in the brain and alpha- and beta-synuclein inhibit phospholipase D2 selectively. SNCA may
serve to integrate presynaptic signaling and membrane trafficking. Defects in SNCA have been implicated in the
pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. SNCA peptides are a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of
patients with Alzheimer's disease. Four alternatively spliced transcripts encoding two different isoforms have
been identified for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009)

GeneCards Summary for SNCA Gene: 
SNCA (synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with SNCA include multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure, and among its related super-pathways are Parkinson's disease and Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include phospholipid binding and calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is SNCB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYUA_HUMAN, P37840
Function: May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of
microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a
decreased caspase-3 activation

Gene Wiki entry for SNCA (Alpha-synuclein) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000004.11  NT_016354.19  NC_018915.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the SNCA gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): SNCA promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for SNCA

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat SNCA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q22.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q21.3-q22

SNCA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
SNCA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04M090646:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
90,645,250 bp from pter      End:
90,759,466 bp from pter
Size:
114,217 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYUA_HUMAN, P37840 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Alpha-synuclein  
Size: 140 amino acids; 14460 Da
Subunit: Soluble monomer which can form filamentous aggregates. Interacts with UCHL1 (By similarity). Interacts
with phospholipase D and histones
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm. Membrane. Nucleus. Cell junction, synapse. Note=Membrane-bound in dopaminergic
neurons
6/10 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for SNCA (see all 10):
1XQ8 (3D)        2JN5 (3D)        2KKW (3D)        2M55 (3D)        2X6M (3D)        3Q25 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K2A4 Q13701 Q4JHI3 Q6IAU6
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P37840-1   P37840-2   P37840-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for SNCA: NX_P37840

Explore proteomics data for SNCA at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Phosphorylated, predominantly on serine residues. Phosphorylation by CK1 appears to occur on residues distinct
    from the residue phosphorylated by other kinases. Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is selective and extensive in
    synucleinopathy lesions. In vitro, phosphorylation at Ser-129 promoted insoluble fibril formation. Phosphorylated
    on Tyr-125 by a PTK2B-dependent pathway upon osmotic stress
  • UniProtKB: Hallmark lesions of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies contain alpha-synuclein that is modified by nitration of
    tyrosine residues and possibly by dityrosine cross-linking to generated stable oligomers
  • UniProtKB: Ubiquitinated. The predominant conjugate is the diubiquitinated form (By similarity)
  • UniProtKB: Acetylation at Met-1 seems to be important for proper folding and native oligomeric structure
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P37840

  • SNCA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    SNCA Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000336.1  NP_001139526.1  NP_001139527.1  NP_009292.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000343683   ENSP00000378437   ENSP00000378442   ENSP00000338345   ENSP00000426955  
     ENSP00000422238   ENSP00000421485   ENSP00000426034   ENSP00000423445   ENSP00000378440  
     ENSP00000396241  
    Reactome Protein details: P37840
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for SNCA: 
    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant SNCA Protein
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for SNCA (Synuclein-alpha)
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for SNCA
    OriGene Purified Proteins for SNCA
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for SNCA
    OriGene MassSpec for SNCA 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for SNCA
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for SNCA
    Novus Biologicals SNCA Proteins
    Novus Biologicals SNCA Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for SNCA
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for SNCA
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/26 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 26):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA12406186
    GO:0005640nuclear outer membrane IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA12406186
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--

    SNCA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    SNCA Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of SNCA
    R&D Systems Antibodies for SNCA (Synuclein-alpha)
    OriGene Antibodies for SNCA
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for SNCA
    GenScript Superior Antibodies for SNCA
    Novus Biologicals SNCA Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for SNCA
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for SNCA
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for SNCA 

    Assay Products for SNCA: 
    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of SNCA
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for SNCA
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for SNCA
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    PARK: Parkinson disease

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001058 Synuclein
     IPR002460 Synuclein_alpha

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P37840

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P37840

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001058 Synuclein signature
    IPB002460 Alpha-synuclein signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYUA_HUMAN, P37840
    Domain: The 'non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque' domain (NAC domain) is involved in fibrils
    formation. The middle hydrophobic region forms the core of the filaments. The C-terminus may regulate aggregation
    and determine the diameter of the filaments
    Similarity: Belongs to the synuclein family


    SNCA for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SYUA_HUMAN, P37840
    Function: May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of
    microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a
    decreased caspase-3 activation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for SNCA:
    alpha synuclein,homolog to rat brain synuclein,non A/beta component of Alzheimer amyloid precursor alpha,expressed
    in presynaptic nerve terminals,also expressed in various areas of the brain including the substantia
    nigra,thalamus,hippocampus,amygdala,corpus callosum,caudate nucleus associating with PRKC and other proteins also
    binding to 14-3-3 (YWAHs) and acting as a potential chaperone,interacting with synphilin 1 (SNCAIP),putatively
    involved in exocytosis of synaptic vesicles,contributing to cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and
    accumulating in dentritic neurites and in Lewy bodies.

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/26 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 26):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000287magnesium ion binding IDA11850416
    GO:0005504NOT fatty acid binding IDA16687662
    GO:0005507copper ion binding IDA--
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding IDA11312271
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI11943812
         
    SNCA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         15/16 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Snca) (see all 16):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland 
     growth/size  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  mortality/aging 
     nervous system  no phenotypic analysis  renal/urinary system  reproductive system  skeleton 

    SNCA for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for SNCA: Sncatm1Mjff Sncatm1Nbm Sncatm1Rosl Sncatm1Sud

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for SNCA 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for SNCA

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for SNCA 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for SNCA 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target SNCA:
    hsa-mir-7 (MIRT000032), hsa-mir-153 (MIRT004733)

    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat SNCA
    8/41 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate SNCA (see all 41):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-300 hsa-let-7a-2* hsa-miR-486-3p hsa-miR-223 hsa-miR-1243 hsa-miR-3613-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidSNCA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for SNCA
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat SNCA

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for SNCA
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of SNCA

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for SNCA (see all 25)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for SNCA
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): SNCA (NM_000345)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for SNCA
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SNCA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SNCA
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of SNCA 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of SNCA 

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for SNCA
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for SNCA
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SNCA


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for SNCA About   (see all 10)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    Parkinson's disease0.61
    Alzheimers Disease0.44
    Alzheimer's disease0.46
    2Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
    Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway0.93
    Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway0.89
    3Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
    14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling0.59
    4Packaging Of Telomere Ends
    Amyloids0.41
    5CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6
    Parkinson's Disease Pathway0.31

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for SNCA
        Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for SNCA
        14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
    Parkinson's Disease Pathway

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for SNCA
        Neuroscience

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for SNCA
        Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway

    5 BioSystems Pathways for SNCA
        EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
    Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway
    Parkinsons Disease Pathway
    Alzheimers Disease
    Alpha-synuclein signaling


    2        Reactome Pathways for SNCA
        Amyloids
    Disease


    2         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for SNCA):
        Alzheimer's disease
    Parkinson's disease


    SNCA for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for SNCA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/160 Interacting proteins for SNCA (P378401, 2, 3 ENSP000003383454) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 160)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ENSG00000232804P081072, 3, ENSP000003930874MINT-7557217 MINT-7555062 MINT-7556887 MINT-8211515 MINT-8211560 MINT-7556911 MINT-7556921 MINT-7556901 MINT-8211605 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000393087
    ENSG00000212866P081072, 3MINT-7557217 MINT-7555062 MINT-7556887 MINT-8211515 MINT-8211560 MINT-7556911 MINT-7556921 MINT-7556901 MINT-8211605 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000215328P081072, 3MINT-7557217 MINT-7555062 MINT-7556887 MINT-8211515 MINT-8211560 MINT-7556911 MINT-7556921 MINT-7556901 MINT-8211605 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000224501P081072, 3MINT-7557217 MINT-7555062 MINT-7556887 MINT-8211515 MINT-8211560 MINT-7556911 MINT-7556921 MINT-7556901 MINT-8211605 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000231555P081072, 3MINT-7557217 MINT-7555062 MINT-7556887 MINT-8211515 MINT-8211560 MINT-7556911 MINT-7556921 MINT-7556901 MINT-8211605 I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/68 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 68):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001774microglial cell activation IEA--
    GO:0001921positive regulation of receptor recycling IDA18980610
    GO:0001933negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA--
    GO:0001956positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion IEA--
    GO:0001963synaptic transmission, dopaminergic ----

    SNCA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    SNCA for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for SNCA (SYUA)

    1 HMDB Compound for SNCA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--

    10/98 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SNCA gene (see all 98)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    thioflavin t 76.6 17 12217698 (1), 19013262 (1), 12435752 (1), 18433772 (1) (see all 14)
    dopamine 74 313 11814405 (6), 19248830 (5), 15845390 (5), 16260788 (5) (see all 99)
    rotenone 72.3 32 15280438 (3), 17041725 (3), 12177198 (2), 16439141 (2) (see all 21)
    thioflavin 68.4 3 12397073 (1), 19266322 (1)
    1 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium 65.1 32 19032594 (5), 16464850 (3), 15978696 (2), 12807439 (2) (see all 11)
    thioflavine s 64.5 3 20502498 (1), 10208537 (1), 9675319 (1)
    mptp 58.5 34 10683860 (4), 15716361 (3), 12360578 (2), 16006134 (2) (see all 14)
    dityrosine 58.3 9 12534296 (1), 12846977 (1), 14640973 (1), 15033422 (1) (see all 7)
    levodopa 56.8 6 15109582 (1), 17427936 (1), 19084027 (1), 19409267 (1) (see all 6)
    lactacystin 56.2 2 19457084 (1), 15035641 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about SNCA / SYUA

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for SNCA gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000345.3  NM_001146054.1  NM_001146055.1  NM_007308.2  

    Unigene Cluster for SNCA:

    Synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)
    Hs.21374  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000345
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000345009 ENST00000394986 ENST00000394991(uc021xqc.1) ENST00000336904
    ENST00000508895 ENST00000506244 ENST00000505199 ENST00000502987 ENST00000506691
    ENST00000394989(uc010ikt.3 uc003hsp.3 uc003hsr.3) ENST00000420646(uc003hsq.3 uc003hso.3)

    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    8/41 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate SNCA (see all 41):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-3607-3p hsa-miR-300 hsa-let-7a-2* hsa-miR-486-3p hsa-miR-223 hsa-miR-1243 hsa-miR-3613-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidSNCA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for SNCA
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat SNCA
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for SNCA (see all 25)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for SNCA
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): SNCA (NM_000345)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SNCA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SNCA
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of SNCA 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of SNCA 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SNCA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SNCA
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SNCA
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SNCA
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SNCA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK290169.1 AY049786.1 BC013293.2 BC108275.1 CR457058.1 CR541653.1 D31839.1 HQ830267.1 
    HQ830268.1 HQ830269.1 L08850.1 L36674.1 L36675.1 

    11 DOTS entries:

    DT.95184593  DT.447727  DT.87008987  DT.92439052  DT.109632  DT.40112165  DT.121222010  DT.100026062 
    DT.95184589  DT.95184594  DT.95361564 

    24/241 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 241):

    BQ007495 BG260394 CA772053 BQ723475 F03751 L36674 CA840988 NM_007308 
    BU616643 CQ824596 BF984352 BI753605 BF725795 AY049786 F07521 F06981 
    AI929792 CD671498 CF529302 AI741740 BQ010547 CR602374 AW156890 AI361980 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/6 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SNCA (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e
    SP1:        -     -     -                       -                                       
    SP2:              -     -                       -                                       
    SP3:                    -                       -                                       
    SP4:                                            -                                       
    SP5:                    -                       -     -                                 


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for SNCA

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    SNCA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      SNCA embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    SNCA Expression
    About this image


    SNCA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/31 selected tissues (see all 31) fully expand
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 8 entries
             Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hematopoietic Bone Marrow
             Bone Marrow CD105+ Cells   
             umbilical cord reticulocytes   
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 7 entries
             PureStem endothelial progenitor RP1-MV2-18
             Human Bladder Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HBdMEC)   
             blood vessel   
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
             Olfactory Bulb   
     
     Melanocytes (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             skin ; melanocytes   
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Human EpiDermal Melanocytes-medium (HEM-m)   

    See SNCA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for SNCA

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.21374

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYUA_HUMAN, P37840
    Tissue specificity: Expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues
    examined except in liver. Concentrated in presynaptic nerve terminals

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including SNCA (see all 6): 
              Parkinson's Disease in human mouse rat
              GABA & Glutamate in human mouse rat
              Autophagy in human mouse rat
              Alzheimer's Disease in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SNCA
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    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SNCA
    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SNCA

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for SNCA gene from 4/9 species (see all 9)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Snca1 , 5 synuclein, alpha1, 5 90.71(n)1
    95(a)1
      6 (29.15 cM)5
    206171  NM_001042451.11  NP_001035916.11 
     607315735 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves SNCA1 synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor) 85(n)
    88.57(a)
      395393  NM_204673.1  NP_990004.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia SNCA6
    SNCG6
    Uncharacterized protein
    85(a)
    54(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    possible ortholog
    5(46218121-46294378)
    GL343199.1(4187882-4233335)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia snca-prov2 synuclein, alpha 80.1(n)    BC054200.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for SNCA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for SNCA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for SNCA gene
    SNCB2  SNCG2  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for SNCA using alignment to 7 protein entries:     SYUA_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NACP    SNCG    SNCB

    SNCA for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/2309 SNPs in SNCA are shown (see all 2309)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0227034
    Parkinson disease 1 (PARK1)4--see VAR_0227032 E K mis40--------
    VAR_0074544
    Parkinson disease 1 (PARK1)4--see VAR_0074542 A T mis40--------
    VAR_0079574
    Parkinson disease 1 (PARK1)4--see VAR_0079572 A P mis40--------
    rs1048938771,2
    Cpathogenic190557276(-) GTGTGA/GCAACA 8 T A mis10--------
    rs1048938751,2
    Cpathogenic190557297(-) CCAAGA/GAGGGA 8 K E mis10--------
    rs1048938781,2
    Cpathogenic190564706(-) AAGCAC/GCAGGA 8 P A mis10--------
    rs715948901,2
    C--86411425(+) TTTAA-/AGA   
      T
    /GATA
    GATAG
    4 -- int11NA 2
    rs38419961,2
    C--86466996(+) AAAAA-/AGCAGC 4 -- int10--------
    rs125094981,2
    C,F,A,H--86468564(+) AAAAAT/AATATA 4 -- int1 trp32Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA 4
    rs610278351,2
    C--86481738(+) CACAC-/ACAC  
     
    /ACACAC
    CATAC
    8 -- int1 cds10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for SNCA (90645250 - 90759466 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for SNCA:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2676889CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv879536CNV Loss21882294
    nsv461576CNV Gain19166990


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): SNCA

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): SNCA
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing SNCA
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for SNCA

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 163890   
    OMIM disorders: 605543  127750  168601  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYUA_HUMAN, P37840
  • Note=Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with
    several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta
    component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found
    within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration
    with brain iron accumulation type 1
  • Parkinson disease 1 (PARK1) [MIM:168601]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by
    bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic
    postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves
    the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal
    accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is
    progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are
    known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and
    genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of
    the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features. Note=The disease is
    caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Parkinson disease 4 (PARK4) [MIM:605543]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder with manifestations
    ranging from typical Parkinson disease to dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical features include parkinsonian
    symptoms (resting tremor, rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia), dementia, diffuse Lewy body
    pathology, autonomic dysfunction, hallucinations and paranoia. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting
    the gene represented in this entry
  • Dementia Lewy body (DLB) [MIM:127750]: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mental impairment
    leading to dementia, parkinsonism, fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal
    episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Brainstem or cortical intraneuronal accumulations of
    aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies) are the only essential pathologic features. Patients may also have hippocampal
    and neocortical senile plaques, sometimes in sufficient number to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer
    disease. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 20/91 diseases for SNCA (see all 91):    About MalaCards
    multiple system atrophy    pure autonomic failure    lewy body dementia    rem sleep behavior disorder
    fahr's syndrome    frontotemporal dementia, ubiquitin-positive    parkinson disease 1    parkinson disease 4
    snca-related parkinson disease    tauopathy    striatonigral degeneration    parkinson's disease
    dysautonomia    tremor    essential tremor    argyrophilic grain disease
    neuroaxonal dystrophy    aphasia    frontotemporal dementia    hallervorden-spatz syndrome

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for SNCA:
    Parkinson's disease     Lewy body dementia     Multiple system atrophy     Movement disease

    SNCA for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/96 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SNCA gene (see all 96)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    parkinson disease 96.4 1215 20157014 (6), 12558071 (5), 15447678 (4), 19540308 (4) (see all 99)
    lewy body disease 93.4 108 11483242 (3), 16565714 (3), 16297436 (2), 9759660 (2) (see all 87)
    multiple system atrophy 92.9 159 12710935 (2), 16640654 (2), 11893734 (2), 14722716 (2) (see all 99)
    neurodegenerative diseases 91.5 284 10809401 (3), 10407019 (3), 12719631 (3), 11821392 (2) (see all 99)
    parkinson disease, autosomal dominant 91 45 17222106 (2), 11433638 (1), 11447721 (1), 16447757 (1) (see all 31)
    neurodegeneration 87 172 15791003 (3), 15181239 (3), 15681812 (2), 16137567 (2) (see all 99)
    parkinsonism 86.5 93 18571778 (4), 11455179 (2), 15451224 (2), 19139307 (2) (see all 66)
    dementia 84.2 274 19221426 (4), 12576551 (3), 17683088 (3), 17011551 (2) (see all 99)
    tauopathies 82.4 23 19404653 (2), 16897136 (1), 18322396 (1), 19369384 (1) (see all 17)
    alzheimers disease 81 168 18804502 (3), 12223532 (2), 9759660 (2), 7606927 (2) (see all 99)

    GeneTests: SNCA
    GeneReviews: SNCA
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): SNCA
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: SNCA (105 documents)

    Export disorders for SNCA gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for SNCA gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 2048):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with SNCA)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding an unrecognized component of amyloid in Alzheimer disease. (PubMed id 8248242)1, 2, 3 Ueda K.... Saitoh T. (1993)
    2. Alpha-synuclein interacts with phospholipase D isozymes and inhibits pervanadate-induced phospholipase D activation in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. (PubMed id 11821392)1, 2, 9 Ahn B.H.... Min do S. (2002)
    3. Alpha-synuclein gene rearrangements in dominantly inherited parkinsonism: frequency, phenotype, and mechanisms. (PubMed id 19139307)1, 4, 9 IbA!A+ez P....Brice A. (2009)
    4. Lipid rafts mediate the synaptic localization of alpha-synuclein. (PubMed id 15282274)1, 2, 9 Fortin D.L....Edwards R.H. (2004)
    5. Activated Fyn phosphorylates alpha-synuclein at tyrosine residue 125. (PubMed id 11162638)1, 2, 9 Nakamura T....Nakamura S. (2001)
    6. Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. (PubMed id 10617630)1, 2, 9 Okochi M.... Haass C. (2000)
    7. Analysis of Parkinson disease patients from Portugal for mutations in SNCA, PRKN, PINK1 and LRRK2. (PubMed id 18211709)1, 4, 9 Bras J....Singleton A. (2008)
    8. Analysis of PARK genes in a Korean cohort of early-onset Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 18704525)1, 4, 9 Choi J.M....Kim Y.J. (2008)
    9. Screening for SNCA and LRRK2 mutations in Greek sporadic and autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease: identification of two novel LRRK2 variants. (PubMed id 17222106)1, 4, 9 Xiromerisiou G....Singleton A.B. (2007)
    10. alpha-Synuclein and Parkinson disease susceptibility. (PubMed id 17872362)1, 4, 9 Winkler S....Klein C. (2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 6622 HGNC: 11138 AceView: SNCA Ensembl:ENSG00000145335 euGenes: HUgn6622
    ECgene: SNCA Kegg: 6622 H-InvDB: SNCA

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for SNCA Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/SNCA
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/snca/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for SNCA gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving SNCA

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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