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Aliases for SNCA Gene

Aliases for SNCA Gene

  • Synuclein, Alpha (Non A4 Component Of Amyloid Precursor) 2 3
  • PARK1 3 4 6
  • NACP 3 4 6
  • PARK4 3 6
  • Parkinson Disease (Autosomal Dominant, Lewy Body) 4 2
  • Non-A4 Component Of Amyloid Precursor 4
  • Non A-Beta Component Of AD Amyloid 3
  • Non-A Beta Component Of AD Amyloid 4
  • Synuclein Alpha-140 3
  • Alpha-Synuclein 3
  • PD1 3

External Ids for SNCA Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SNCA Gene

  • PARK1
  • PARK4

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SNCA Gene

  • GC04M090804
  • GC04M090948
  • GC04M091105
  • GC04M091003
  • GC04M090646
  • GC04M086396

Summaries for SNCA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SNCA Gene

  • Alpha-synuclein is a member of the synuclein family, which also includes beta- and gamma-synuclein. Synucleins are abundantly expressed in the brain and alpha- and beta-synuclein inhibit phospholipase D2 selectively. SNCA may serve to integrate presynaptic signaling and membrane trafficking. Defects in SNCA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. SNCA peptides are a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Four alternatively spliced transcripts encoding two different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GeneCards Summary for SNCA Gene

SNCA (Synuclein, Alpha (Non A4 Component Of Amyloid Precursor)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SNCA include dementia, lewy body and parkinson disease 4. Among its related pathways are Disease and Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and phospholipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is SNCB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SNCA Gene

  • May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a decreased caspase-3 activation

Gene Wiki entry for SNCA Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SNCA Gene

Genomics for SNCA Gene

Regulatory Elements for SNCA Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for SNCA Gene

89,724,099 bp from pter
89,838,315 bp from pter
114,217 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SNCA Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for SNCA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SNCA Gene

Proteins for SNCA Gene

  • Protein details for SNCA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K2A4
    • Q13701
    • Q4JHI3
    • Q6IAU6

    Protein attributes for SNCA Gene

    140 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    14460 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Soluble monomer which can form filamentous aggregates. Interacts with UCHL1 (By similarity). Interacts with phospholipase D and histones.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SNCA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for SNCA Gene


neXtProt entry for SNCA Gene

Proteomics data for SNCA Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for SNCA Gene

  • Acetylation at Met-1 seems to be important for proper folding and native oligomeric structure.
  • Hallmark lesions of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies contain alpha-synuclein that is modified by nitration of tyrosine residues and possibly by dityrosine cross-linking to generated stable oligomers
  • Phosphorylated, predominantly on serine residues. Phosphorylation by CK1 appears to occur on residues distinct from the residue phosphorylated by other kinases. Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is selective and extensive in synucleinopathy lesions. In vitro, phosphorylation at Ser-129 promoted insoluble fibril formation. Phosphorylated on Tyr-125 by a PTK2B-dependent pathway upon osmotic stress.
  • Ubiquitinated. The predominant conjugate is the diubiquitinated form (By similarity).
  • Glycosylation at Thr54
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for SNCA (Synuclein-alpha)

Protein Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SNCA Gene

Domains for SNCA Gene

Gene Families for SNCA Gene

  • PARK :Parkinson disease

Protein Domains for SNCA Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SNCA Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P37840
  • The non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque domain (NAC domain) is involved in fibrils formation. The middle hydrophobic region forms the core of the filaments. The C-terminus may regulate aggregation and determine the diameter of the filaments.
  • Belongs to the synuclein family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SNCA: view

Function for SNCA Gene

Molecular function for SNCA Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
alpha synuclein,homolog to rat brain synuclein,non A/beta component of Alzheimer amyloid precursor alpha,expressed in presynaptic nerve terminals,also expressed in various areas of the brain including the substantia nigra,thalamus,hippocampus,amygdala,corpus callosum,caudate nucleus associating with PRKC and other proteins also binding to 14-3-3 (YWAHs) and acting as a potential chaperone,interacting with synphilin 1 (SNCAIP),putatively involved in exocytosis of synaptic vesicles,contributing to cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and accumulating in dentritic neurites and in Lewy bodies.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a decreased caspase-3 activation

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SNCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IDA 11850416
GO:0005504 NOT fatty acid binding IDA 16687662
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IDA 21319811
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 11312271
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10319874
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SNCA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SNCA: view

Animal Models for SNCA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SNCA:

miRNA for SNCA Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SNCA

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for SNCA

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for SNCA Gene

Localization for SNCA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SNCA Gene

Cytoplasm, cytosol. Membrane. Nucleus. Cell junction, synapse. Secreted. Note=Membrane-bound in dopaminergic neurons. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15282274}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SNCA Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SNCA gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 2
golgi apparatus 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SNCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 24936070
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 12406186
GO:0005640 nuclear outer membrane IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 12406186
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SNCA: view

Pathways for SNCA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SNCA: view

Pathways by source for SNCA Gene

2 Reactome pathways for SNCA Gene
2 KEGG pathways for SNCA Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for SNCA Gene

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SNCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS 24252804
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation TAS 24252804
GO:0001921 positive regulation of receptor recycling IDA 18980610
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0001956 positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SNCA: view

Compounds for SNCA Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for SNCA Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Armco iron

(98) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SNCA Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
thioflavin t 76.6 14
dopamine 74 192
rotenone 72.3 30
thioflavin 68.4 2
1 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium 65.1 22
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SNCA: view

Transcripts for SNCA Gene

Unigene Clusters for SNCA Gene

Synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for SNCA

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SNCA Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - -

Relevant External Links for SNCA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SNCA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SNCA Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SNCA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (6.2), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (5.2), and Whole Blood (4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for SNCA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (22.8) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for SNCA Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SNCA Gene Hs.21374

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SNCA Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues examined except in liver. Concentrated in presynaptic nerve terminals
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with SNCA: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Expression partners for SNCA Gene

Orthologs for SNCA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for SNCA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SNCA 35
  • 92.38 (n)
  • 94.29 (a)
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SNCA 35
  • 94.05 (n)
  • 96.43 (a)
  • 96 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Snca 35
  • 90.71 (n)
  • 95 (a)
Snca 16
Snca 36
  • 95 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SNCA 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Snca 35
  • 89.76 (n)
  • 95 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SNCA 35
  • 85 (n)
  • 88.57 (a)
  • 82 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SNCA 36
  • 81 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia snca 35
  • 80.05 (n)
  • 89.05 (a)
Str.12735 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia snca-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sncga 36
  • 51 (a)
Species with no ortholog for SNCA:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for SNCA Gene

Gene Tree for SNCA (if available)
Gene Tree for SNCA (if available)

Paralogs for SNCA Gene

Paralogs for SNCA Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for SNCA Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SNCA: view

Variants for SNCA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SNCA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs168550 -- 89,764,481(-) GCACT(C/G)CAGCC intron-variant
rs184810 -- 89,776,828(-) taaga(A/G)ttgct intron-variant
rs189596 -- 89,750,185(+) CTCTC(A/G)TGCCT intron-variant
rs356162 -- 89,776,006(-) CTGTT(A/G)TTGGT intron-variant
rs356163 -- 89,775,676(-) AGGGA(G/T)GTCCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SNCA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv461576 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv879536 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2676889 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for SNCA Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SNCA Gene

Disorders for SNCA Gene

(3) OMIM Diseases for SNCA Gene (163890)


  • Note=Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1.
  • Parkinson disease 1 (PARK1) [MIM:168601]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23427326, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23457019, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24936070, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25561023, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9197268, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9462735}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Parkinson disease 4 (PARK4) [MIM:605543]: A complex neurodegenerative disorder with manifestations ranging from typical Parkinson disease to dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical features include parkinsonian symptoms (resting tremor, rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia), dementia, diffuse Lewy body pathology, autonomic dysfunction, hallucinations and paranoia. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Dementia Lewy body (DLB) [MIM:127750]: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mental impairment leading to dementia, parkinsonism, fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Brainstem or cortical intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies) are the only essential pathologic features. Patients may also have hippocampal and neocortical senile plaques, sometimes in sufficient number to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14755719}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for SNCA Gene

(96) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SNCA Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
parkinson disease 96.4 224
lewy body disease 93.4 99
multiple system atrophy 92.9 122
neurodegenerative diseases 91.5 120
parkinson disease, autosomal dominant 91 32

Relevant External Links for SNCA

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SNCA: view

No data available for Genatlas for SNCA Gene

Publications for SNCA Gene

  1. Constitutive phosphorylation of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein. (PMID: 10617630) Okochi M. … Haass C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 3 4 23
  2. Activated Fyn phosphorylates alpha-synuclein at tyrosine residue 125. (PMID: 11162638) Nakamura T. … Nakamura S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2001) 3 4 23
  3. Decreased platelet glutamate uptake and genetic risk factors in patients with Parkinson's disease. (PMID: 11487204) Ferrarese C. … Frattola L. (Neurol. Sci. 2001) 3 23 48
  4. Alpha-synuclein interacts with phospholipase D isozymes and inhibits pervanadate-induced phospholipase D activation in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. (PMID: 11821392) Ahn B.H. … Min do S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 4 23
  5. Polymorphisms of the alpha-synuclein promoter: expression analyses and association studies in Parkinson's disease. (PMID: 12541013) Holzmann C. … Riess O. (J Neural Transm 2003) 3 23 48

Products for SNCA Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for SNCA

Sources for SNCA Gene

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