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Aliases for SLC44A2 Gene

Aliases for SLC44A2 Gene

  • Solute Carrier Family 44 Member 2 2 3 4 5
  • Solute Carrier Family 44 (Choline Transporter), Member 2 2 3
  • CTL2 3 4
  • Choline Transporter-Like Protein 2 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 47 3
  • PP1292 3

External Ids for SLC44A2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SLC44A2 Gene

  • GC19P010713
  • GC19P010290

Summaries for SLC44A2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for SLC44A2 Gene

SLC44A2 (Solute Carrier Family 44 Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SLC44A2 include Choline Deficiency Disease and Vitreous Detachment. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Immune System. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and choline transmembrane transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is SLC44A5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC44A2 Gene

  • Isoform 1, but not isoform 3, exhibits some choline transporter activity.

Gene Wiki entry for SLC44A2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SLC44A2 Gene

Genomics for SLC44A2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for SLC44A2 Gene

Enhancers for SLC44A2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19F010592 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 26.8 -7.4 -7445 5.6 HDGF ELF3 KLF1 USF1 MAX EBF1 EGR1 ADNP EED MTA2 CDKN2D KRI1 SLC44A2 ICAM3 ATG4D ILF3 TYK2 DNM2 C19orf38 S1PR5
GH19F010615 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 25.1 +14.8 14829 4.1 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT CREB3L1 ELK1 GATA2 KLF13 NCOA1 REST SLC44A2 AP1M2 ILF3-AS1 KRI1 PIR56383
GH19F010661 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 23.9 +60.2 60190 1.5 KLF1 PKNOX1 BACH1 ZFHX2 POLR2A SCRT2 NFE2 FOSL2 ZNF600 EGR2 SLC44A2 KRI1 CDKN2D ILF3 QTRT1
GH19F010624 0.6 ENCODE 22.4 +23.0 22972 2.1 PKNOX1 SIN3A KLF17 ZNF48 ZNF2 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF366 SCRT2 EGR2 SLC44A2 PIR56383
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around SLC44A2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for SLC44A2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000343330 755 2401 ARID4B ZNF2 GLIS2 KLF7 SP3 YY2 SP5 REST TBX21 ZNF610

Genomic Location for SLC44A2 Gene

10,602,445 bp from pter
10,644,559 bp from pter
42,115 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SLC44A2 Gene

Genes around SLC44A2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SLC44A2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SLC44A2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SLC44A2 Gene

Proteins for SLC44A2 Gene

  • Protein details for SLC44A2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Choline transporter-like protein 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RBB1
    • B3KNH3
    • B4DFJ0
    • F2Q9D7
    • Q658V1
    • Q658Z2
    • Q6PJV7
    • Q8N2F0
    • Q9NY68

    Protein attributes for SLC44A2 Gene

    706 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    80124 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with COCH.
    • Sequence=BAC11662.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for SLC44A2 Gene


neXtProt entry for SLC44A2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for SLC44A2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 187, Asn 200, and Asn 417
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SLC44A2 Gene

Domains & Families for SLC44A2 Gene

Gene Families for SLC44A2 Gene

Protein Domains for SLC44A2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SLC44A2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the CTL (choline transporter-like) family.
  • Belongs to the CTL (choline transporter-like) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SLC44A2: view

Function for SLC44A2 Gene

Molecular function for SLC44A2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1, but not isoform 3, exhibits some choline transporter activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SLC44A2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IMP 12761501
GO:0015220 choline transmembrane transporter activity TAS 10677542
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC44A2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SLC44A2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SLC44A2

miRNA for SLC44A2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SLC44A2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SLC44A2 Gene

Localization for SLC44A2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC44A2 Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SLC44A2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SLC44A2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
lysosome 5
plasma membrane 5
vacuole 5
cytoskeleton 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SLC44A2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane IDA 17897319
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA,TAS 10677542
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC44A2: view

Pathways & Interactions for SLC44A2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SLC44A2: view

Pathways by source for SLC44A2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for SLC44A2 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 4 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000336888 Q8IWA5-CTL2_HUMAN for SLC44A2 Gene via STRING IID

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SLC44A2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006656 phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0015871 choline transport TAS 10677542
GO:0043123 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IMP 12761501
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC44A2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SLC44A2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SLC44A2 Gene

(1) Drugs for SLC44A2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Choline Approved Nutra Transporter, substrate 148
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SLC44A2: view

Transcripts for SLC44A2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for SLC44A2 Gene

Solute carrier family 44, member 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SLC44A2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b · 16c ·
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: -
SP10: -

ExUns: 16d · 16e ^ 17a · 17b · 17c ^ 18a · 18b · 18c ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for SLC44A2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SLC44A2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SLC44A2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SLC44A2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SLC44A2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (43.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for SLC44A2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SLC44A2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SLC44A2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SLC44A2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SLC44A2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Present in supporting cells of the inner ear (at protein level). Only isoform 3 is expressed in inner ear vestibular tissue.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SLC44A2: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for SLC44A2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SLC44A2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SLC44A2 34 35
  • 99.76 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SLC44A2 34 35
  • 89.73 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SLC44A2 34 35
  • 87.77 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SLC44A2 35
  • 85 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Slc44a2 34
  • 84.95 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Slc44a2 34 16 35
  • 84.78 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SLC44A2 35
  • 56 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SLC44A2 35
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SLC44A2 35
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia slc44a2 34
  • 72.68 (n)
Str.7588 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii slc44a2 34 35
  • 69.24 (n)
SLC44A2 (1 of 2) 35
  • 63 (a)
sbcb39 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10852 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11880 35
  • 31 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea chtl-1 35
  • 35 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PNS1 35
  • 19 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G15380 34
  • 42.49 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0681600 34
  • 43.59 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 46 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.12838 34
Species where no ortholog for SLC44A2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SLC44A2 Gene

Gene Tree for SLC44A2 (if available)
Gene Tree for SLC44A2 (if available)

Paralogs for SLC44A2 Gene

Paralogs for SLC44A2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for SLC44A2 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SLC44A2: view

Variants for SLC44A2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SLC44A2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1036230 -- 10,629,334(-) tgcca(C/T)tgcac intron-variant
rs10405617 -- 10,642,292(+) CCAGC(A/G)TAGGA intron-variant
rs10408934 -- 10,605,580(+) tactc(A/G)ggagg intron-variant
rs10409484 -- 10,618,981(+) ttttt(G/T)ggata intron-variant
rs10412539 -- 10,614,566(+) aactt(A/C)attag intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SLC44A2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1071907 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1127651 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1160584 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv833744 CNV loss 17160897
nsv833745 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for SLC44A2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 20% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.44; 42.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for SLC44A2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC44A2 Gene

Disorders for SLC44A2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for SLC44A2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
choline deficiency disease
  • choline deficiency
vitreous detachment
  • posterior vitreous detachment
  • infection by toxascaris
  • retinochoroiditis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for SLC44A2

Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SLC44A2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SLC44A2 Gene

Publications for SLC44A2 Gene

  1. Cochlin isoforms and their interaction with CTL2 (SLC44A2) in the inner ear. (PMID: 17926100) Kommareddi P.K. … Carey T.E. (J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  2. Identification and characterization of choline transporter-like protein 2, an inner ear glycoprotein of 68 and 72 kDa that is the target of antibody-induced hearing loss. (PMID: 14973250) Nair T.S. … Carey T.E. (J. Neurosci. 2004) 3 4 22 64
  3. An electric lobe suppressor for a yeast choline transport mutation belongs to a new family of transporter-like proteins. (PMID: 10677542) O'Regan S. … Meunier F.-M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000) 2 3 4 64
  4. Characterization of the human neutrophil alloantigen-3a. (PMID: 20037594) Greinacher A. … Bux J. (Nat. Med. 2010) 3 22 64
  5. The neutrophil alloantigen HNA-3a (5b) is located on choline transporter-like protein 2 and appears to be encoded by an R>Q154 amino acid substitution. (PMID: 20040764) Curtis B.R. … Aster R.H. (Blood 2010) 3 22 64

Products for SLC44A2 Gene

Sources for SLC44A2 Gene

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