Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for SLC18A2 Gene

Aliases for SLC18A2 Gene

  • Solute Carrier Family 18 Member A2 2 3
  • Solute Carrier Family 18 (Vesicular Monoamine Transporter), Member 2 2 3 5
  • Solute Carrier Family 18 Member 2 3 4
  • Vesicular Amine Transporter 2 3 4
  • Monoamine Transporter 3 4
  • VMAT2 3 4
  • SVMT 3 4
  • VAT2 3 4
  • Solute Carrier Family 18 (Vesicular Monoamine), Member 2 3
  • Monoamine Neurotransmitter Transporter 3
  • Vesicle Monoamine Transporter Type 2 3
  • Vesicle Monoamine/H+ Antiporter 3
  • SVAT 3

External Ids for SLC18A2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SLC18A2 Gene

  • VMAT2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SLC18A2 Gene

  • GC10P117919
  • GC10P118244
  • GC10P119131
  • GC10P118665
  • GC10P118990
  • GC10P112628
  • GC10P119000

Summaries for SLC18A2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SLC18A2 Gene

  • The vesicular monoamine transporter acts to accumulate cytosolic monoamines into synaptic vesicles, using the proton gradient maintained across the synaptic vesicular membrane. Its proper function is essential to the correct activity of the monoaminergic systems that have been implicated in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. The transporter is a site of action of important drugs, including reserpine and tetrabenazine (summary by Peter et al., 1993 [PubMed 7905859]). See also SLC18A1 (MIM 193002).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

GeneCards Summary for SLC18A2 Gene

SLC18A2 (Solute Carrier Family 18 Member A2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SLC18A2 include brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease and parkinson disease 1. Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Neurotransmitter Release Cycle. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and transmembrane transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is SLC18B1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC18A2 Gene

  • Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles. Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis.

Gene Wiki entry for SLC18A2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SLC18A2 Gene

Genomics for SLC18A2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for SLC18A2 Gene

Promoters for SLC18A2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around SLC18A2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for SLC18A2 Gene

Chromosome:
10
Start:
117,241,073 bp from pter
End:
117,279,430 bp from pter
Size:
38,358 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for SLC18A2 Gene

Genes around SLC18A2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SLC18A2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SLC18A2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SLC18A2 Gene

Proteins for SLC18A2 Gene

  • Protein details for SLC18A2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q05940-VMAT2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Synaptic vesicular amine transporter
    Protein Accession:
    Q05940
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RC96
    • D3DRC4
    • Q15876
    • Q4G147
    • Q5VW49
    • Q9H3P6

    Protein attributes for SLC18A2 Gene

    Size:
    514 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    55713 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with SLC6A3.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAB19009.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for SLC18A2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for SLC18A2 Gene

Proteomics data for SLC18A2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for SLC18A2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 56, Asn 84, and Asn 91
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for SLC18A2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SLC18A2 Gene

Domains & Families for SLC18A2 Gene

Gene Families for SLC18A2 Gene

Protein Domains for SLC18A2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SLC18A2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q05940

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

VMAT2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Vesicular transporter family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Vesicular transporter family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SLC18A2: view

Function for SLC18A2 Gene

Molecular function for SLC18A2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
solute carrier family 18,member A2,vesicular monoamine transporter,expressed in brain
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles. Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SLC18A2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0015222 serotonin transmembrane transporter activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC18A2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SLC18A2: view

Animal Models for SLC18A2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SLC18A2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for SLC18A2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SLC18A2

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SLC18A2 Gene

Localization for SLC18A2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC18A2 Gene

Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for SLC18A2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SLC18A2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
nucleus 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SLC18A2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane TAS 8095030
GO:0031045 dense core granule IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC18A2: view

Pathways & Interactions for SLC18A2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SLC18A2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SLC18A2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001975 response to amphetamine IEA --
GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion TAS --
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
GO:0007626 locomotory behavior IEA --
GO:0009636 response to toxic substance IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC18A2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SLC18A2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SLC18A2 Gene

(61) Drugs for SLC18A2 Gene - From: Novoseek, DGIdb, DrugBank, IUPHAR, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Tetrabenazine Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, blocker, Target, inhibitor Potent inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transport 15
Reserpine Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, blocker, Target, inhibitor Inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transport 7
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit Pharma antagonist, Target, inhibitor 104
Methamphetamine Approved, Illicit Pharma antagonist, Target, inhibitor 169
Dextroamphetamine Approved, Illicit Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, antagonist, Target, inducer 66

(32) Additional Compounds for SLC18A2 Gene - From: Novoseek, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
[<sup>125</sup>I]8-azido-3-iodoketanserine
FFN 206 dihydrochloride
FFN 511
1004548-96-2
rose bengal
  • 3,4,5,6-Tetrachloro-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodofluorescein, 8CI
  • 4,5,6,7-Tetrachloro-3',6'-dihydroxy-2',4',5',7'-tetraiodospiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H]xanthen]-3-one, 9CI
  • Ak-Rose Liq 1%
  • C.I. 45440
  • C.I. Solvent red 141
4159-77-7, 632-69-9

(5) Tocris Compounds for SLC18A2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
FFN 206 dihydrochloride Fluorescent VMAT2 substrate
FFN 511 Fluorescent substrate for VMAT2 1004548-96-2
Reserpine Inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transport 50-55-5
Rose Bengal Potent VGlut and VMAT inhibitor; cell permeable 632-69-9
Tetrabenazine Potent inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transport 58-46-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SLC18A2: view

Transcripts for SLC18A2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SLC18A2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(55) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for SLC18A2 Gene

Solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine), member 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SLC18A2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SLC18A2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
SLC18A2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
SLC18A2

Expression for SLC18A2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SLC18A2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SLC18A2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Substantia nigra (x7.0) and Brain - Hypothalamus (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SLC18A2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (46.4), Platelet (10.7), and Prostate (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for SLC18A2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SLC18A2 Gene Hs.596992

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SLC18A2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for SLC18A2 Gene

Orthologs for SLC18A2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for SLC18A2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SLC18A2 35
  • 89.3 (n)
  • 91.63 (a)
SLC18A2 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SLC18A2 35
  • 90.14 (n)
  • 92.41 (a)
SLC18A2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Slc18a2 35
  • 88.89 (n)
  • 92.59 (a)
Slc18a2 16
Slc18a2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SLC18A2 35
  • 99.74 (n)
  • 99.81 (a)
SLC18A2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Slc18a2 35
  • 88.17 (n)
  • 92.55 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SLC18A2 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SLC18A2 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SLC18A2 35
  • 79.86 (n)
  • 85.77 (a)
SLC18A2 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SLC18A2 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii slc18a2 35
  • 70.36 (n)
  • 76.63 (a)
slc18a2 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10251 37
  • 34 (a)
CG6119 37
  • 64 (a)
Vmat 35
  • 58 (n)
  • 56.5 (a)
Vmat 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004476 35
  • 59.79 (n)
  • 58.94 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea cat-1 37
  • 46 (a)
cat-1 35
  • 55.44 (n)
  • 54.43 (a)
cat-1 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 43 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for SLC18A2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SLC18A2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for SLC18A2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for SLC18A2 (if available)

Paralogs for SLC18A2 Gene

Paralogs for SLC18A2 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for SLC18A2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SLC18A2: view

Variants for SLC18A2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SLC18A2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs3523 -- 117,273,945(-) TTGGC(A/T)TTTGA intron-variant
rs363277 -- 117,274,653(+) GTGTC(C/T)TGCTT intron-variant
rs363278 -- 117,275,557(+) TGCTC(A/G)TCTAA intron-variant
rs363279 -- 117,277,114(+) TCTTA(C/T)CTTTA intron-variant
rs363280 -- 117,277,516(+) atCAT(A/G)CAATA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SLC18A2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832002 CNV Gain+Loss 17160897
nsv896038 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv7564 CNV Insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for SLC18A2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.14; 23.15% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for SLC18A2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
SLC18A2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SLC18A2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC18A2 Gene

Disorders for SLC18A2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(20) MalaCards diseases for SLC18A2 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease
parkinson disease 1
  • autosomal dominant parkinson disease 1
cocaine abuse
  • cocaine-related disorders
duodenal gastrinoma
  • duodenal g-cell gastrin producing tumor
dementia, lewy body
  • lewy body dementia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for SLC18A2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
SLC18A2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
SLC18A2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
SLC18A2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SLC18A2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SLC18A2 Gene

Publications for SLC18A2 Gene

  1. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2: role as a novel target for drug development. (PMID: 17233532) Zheng G. … Crooks P.A. (AAPS J 2006) 3 23 25 26
  2. Lack of association between polymorphic microsatellites of the VMAT2 gene and Parkinson's disease in Japan. (PMID: 15850588) Kariya S. … Ueno S. (J. Neurol. Sci. 2005) 3 23 48 67
  3. 11C-dihydrotetrabenazine PET of the pancreas in subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes and in healthy controls. (PMID: 19223416) Goland R. … Harris P.E. (J. Nucl. Med. 2009) 23 25 26
  4. New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. (PMID: 17209801) Fleckenstein A.E. … Hanson G.R. (Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2007) 23 25 26
  5. Specific derivatization of the vesicle monoamine transporter with novel carrier-free radioiodinated reserpine and tetrabenazine photoaffinity labels. (PMID: 17559790) Sievert M.K. … Ruoho A.E. (Anal. Biochem. 2007) 23 25 26

Products for SLC18A2 Gene

Sources for SLC18A2 Gene

Back to Top

Content