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SKA3 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC13M021728

Spindle And Kinetochore Associated Complex Subunit 3

(Previous name: chromosome 13 open reading frame 3)
(Previous symbol: C13orf3)
  See SKA3-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Spindle And Kinetochore Associated Complex Subunit 31 2
C13orf31 2 3
RAMA12 3
Chromosome 13 Open Reading Frame 31
Spindle And Kinetochore-Associated Protein 32

External Ids:    HGNC: 202621   Entrez Gene: 2211502   Ensembl: ENSG000001654807   UniProtKB: Q8IX903   

Export aliases for SKA3 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC13M020626 GC13M002529


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for SKA3 Gene:
This gene encodes a component of the spindle and kinetochore-associated protein complex that regulates microtubule
attachment to the kinetochores during mitosis. The encoded protein localizes to the outer kinetechore and may be
required for normal chromosome segregation and cell division. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript
variants. (provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009)

GeneCards Summary for SKA3 Gene:
SKA3 (spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 3) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with SKA3 include acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SKA3_HUMAN, Q8IX90
Function: Component of the SKA1 complex, a microtubule-binding subcomplex of the outer kinetochore that is
essential for proper chromosome segregation. The SKA1 complex is a direct component of the
kinetochore-microtubule interface and directly associates with microtubules as oligomeric assemblies. The complex
facilitates the processive movement of microspheres along a microtubule in a depolymerization-coupled manner. In
the complex, it mediates the microtubule-stimulated oligomerization




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000013.10  NT_024524.15  NC_018924.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for SKA3
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for SKA3

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat SKA3


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 13q12.11   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  13q12.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 13q11

SKA3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
SKA3 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 13         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC13M021728:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
21,727,734 bp from pter      End:
21,750,741 bp from pter
Size:
23,008 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SKA3_HUMAN, Q8IX90 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 3  
Size: 412 amino acids; 46359 Da
Subunit: Component of the SKA1 complex, composed of SKA1, SKA2 and SKA3. The core SKA1 complex is composed of 2
SKA1-SKA2 heterodimers, each heterodimer interacting with a molecule of the SKA3 homodimer. The core SKA1 complex
associates with microtubules and forms oligomeric assemblies. Interacts directly with SKA1
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAH13418.1; Type=Erroneous translation; Note=Wrong choice of frame;
Sequence=BAG37379.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended; Sequence=BAG37379.1;
Type=Frameshift; Positions=29; Sequence=CAH69950.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Sequence=EAX08294.1;
Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for SKA3:
4AJ5 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A2A330 A2A331 B2RBY2 Q5VZV5 Q86WR2 Q8NBG1 Q96D22
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  Q8IX90-1   Q8IX90-2   Q8IX90-3   (May be produced at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for SKA3: NX_Q8IX90

Explore proteomics data for SKA3 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn316
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See SKA3 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001159489.1  NP_659498.4  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000382896   ENSP00000298260   ENSP00000319417   ENSP00000443543   ENSP00000441632  

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8IX90

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SKA3_HUMAN, Q8IX90
    Similarity: Belongs to the SKA3 family


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SKA3_HUMAN, Q8IX90
    Function: Component of the SKA1 complex, a microtubule-binding subcomplex of the outer kinetochore that is
    essential for proper chromosome segregation. The SKA1 complex is a direct component of the
    kinetochore-microtubule interface and directly associates with microtubules as oligomeric assemblies. The complex
    facilitates the processive movement of microspheres along a microtubule in a depolymerization-coupled manner. In
    the complex, it mediates the microtubule-stimulated oligomerization

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI19289083
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with SKA3           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         5 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for SKA3:
     Abundance of large cells with   Cell cycle / mitosis defect  Decreased Hepatitis C virus re  Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 
     Increased number of cells in m 

    Animal Models:
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target SKA3:
    hsa-let-7a-5p (MIRT052469), hsa-mir-193b-3p (MIRT041438)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    SKA3_HUMAN, Q8IX90: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Chromosome, centromere, kinetochore. Note=Localizes to the
    outer kinetochore and spindle microtubules during mitosis in a NDC80 complex-dependent manner
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    cytosol2
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2
    golgi apparatus1
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000940condensed chromosome outer kinetochore IDA19289083
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--
    GO:0005876spindle microtubule IDA19289083

    Find genes that share ontologies with SKA3           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for SKA3
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for SKA3

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for SKA3 (Q8IX902, 3 ENSP000003194174) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 52)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SKA1Q96BD82, 3, ENSP000002851164MINT-7277243 MINT-7277267 MINT-7277189 MINT-7277201 MINT-7277219 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000285116
    SKA2Q8WVK72, ENSP000003334334MINT-7277243 MINT-7277189 MINT-7277201 MINT-7277219 STRING: ENSP00000333433
    PPP2R2BQ000053, ENSP000003365914I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000336591
    PPP2R2DQ66LE63I2D: score=1 
    BIRC5ENSP000003016334STRING: ENSP00000301633
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007059chromosome segregation IMP19289083
    GO:0007067mitosis IMP19289083
    GO:0031110regulation of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization IDA19289083

    Find genes that share ontologies with SKA3           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for SKA3



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for SKA3 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001166017.1  NM_145061.5  

    Unigene Cluster for SKA3:

    Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 3
    Hs.88523  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_145061
    7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000400018 ENST00000298260 ENST00000314759(uc001unt.3 uc001unu.3 uc001unv.3)
    ENST00000462482 ENST00000465471 ENST00000536239 ENST00000475251
    miRNA
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SKA3
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF361358.1 AK090584.1 AK307976.1 AK314864.1 BC048988.1 

    6 DOTS entries:

    DT.441004  DT.95163667  DT.40228666  DT.100784802  DT.120784170  DT.116749 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 90):

    AA587984 AI292347 CR625062 NM_145061 BX394655 BP870584 BQ691614 CR603666 
    BX370568 BU165957 AI371153 AI291972 BX383352 CB143796 BQ961423 AW238816 
    BC013418 BI460315 BM785093 AA278865 AI652293 BF316732 BX334000 BM742972 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    4 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SKA3    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c
    SP1:                    -                                                               
    SP2:                    -                                         -                     
    SP3:                    -     -     -     -     -     -     -                           
    SP4:                                                                                    


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for SKA3

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    SKA3 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ATAGTGCTTT
    SKA3 Expression
    About this image


    SKA3 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)
             Telencephalon
    SKA3 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    SKA3 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.88523
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for SKA3 gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ska31 , 5 RIKEN cDNA F630043A04 gene5
    spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit more1
    76.01(n)1
    64.02(a)1
      14 (30.51 cM)5
    2191141  NM_198605.31  NP_941007.11 
     578065615 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves SKA31 spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit more 55.01(n)
    42.82(a)
      418948  XM_004938805.1  XP_004938862.1 
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia ska31 spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit more 50.57(n)
    39.25(a)
      100144945  NM_001126517.1  NP_001119989.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ska36
    spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit...
    20(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    9(22293165-22298967) ENSDARG00000069917


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for SKA3 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for SKA3 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for SKA3 (see all 486)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 13 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs105454861,2
    C--2690365(+) AAACA-/T/TT  
            
    ttttt
    2 -- int11NA 2
    rs20163191,2
    C,F,A--21727250(-) gattcG/Agttac 2 -- ds50016Minor allele frequency- A:0.41NA WA EA 364
    rs1132404081,2
    C,F--21727286(+) TTCTCT/ATAATA 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1464405581,2
    C--21727370(+) TGTAA-/GACGT 
            
    GACGT
    2 -- ds50010--------
    rs716680081,2
    C--21727371(+) GTAAG-/ACGT  
     G
    /GACGT
    ACGTG
    2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1387718971,2
    --21727448(+) CATTAA/GACCTC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1413783561,2
    --21727502(+) AGCGTA/GAGAAC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs9132061,2
    C,F,A,H--21727567(-) gaaggC/Tgtagt 2 -- ds500118Minor allele frequency- T:0.12NS EA NA WA CSA 799
    rs341057511,2
    C--21727638(+) CTCAGC/GTGTTT 2 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4
    rs1507681881,2
    C--21727713(+) AACATC/TGACTT 2 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for SKA3 (21727734 - 21750741 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for SKA3 (see all 24):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1249925CNV Deletion17803354
    esv2747086CNV Deletion23290073
    esv1007120CNV Deletion20482838
    esv1003302CNV Deletion20482838
    dgv243e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2175517CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2747099CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2747075CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv241e201CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv244e201CNV Deletion23290073

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing SKA3
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    1 disease for SKA3:    
    About MalaCards
    acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for SKA3:
    Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

    Find genes that share disorders with SKA3           About GenesLikeMe


    Export disorders for SKA3 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for SKA3 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 29):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with SKA3)
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    1. Stable kinetochore-microtubule interactions depend on the Ska complex and its new component Ska3/C13Orf3. (PubMed id 19360002)1, 2, 3 Gaitanos T.N....Nigg E.A. (EMBO J. 2009)
    2. The human kinetochore Ska1 complex facilitates microtubule depolymerization-coupled motility. (PubMed id 19289083)1, 2, 3 Welburn J.P.I.... Cheeseman I.M. (Dev. Cell 2009)
    3. Comparative profiling identifies C13orf3 as a component of the Ska complex required for mammalian cell division. (PubMed id 19387489)1, 3 Theis M....Buchholz F. (EMBO J. 2009)
    4. Ska3 is required for spindle checkpoint silencing and the maintenance of chromosome cohesion in mitosis. (PubMed id 19646878)1, 3 Daum J.R....Gorbsky G.J. (Curr. Biol. 2009)
    5. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13. (PubMed id 15057823)1, 2 Dunham A.... Ross M.T. (Nature 2004)
    6. Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. (PubMed id 15144186)1, 2 Brill L.M....Peters E.C. (Anal. Chem. 2004)
    7. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    8. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    9. Interlaboratory reproducibility of large-scale human protein-complex analysis by standardized AP-MS. (PubMed id 23455922)1 Varjosalo M....Superti-Furga G. (Nat. Methods 2013)
    10. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 221150 HGNC: 20262 AceView: C13orf3 Ensembl:ENSG00000165480 euGenes: HUgn221150
    ECgene: SKA3 H-InvDB: SKA3

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for SKA3 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for SKA3 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving SKA3

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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