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Aliases for SDHD Gene

Aliases for SDHD Gene

  • Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit D, Integral Membrane Protein 2 3
  • Succinate-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Cytochrome B Small Subunit 3 4
  • Succinate-Ubiquinone Reductase Membrane Anchor Subunit 3 4
  • CII-4 3 4
  • CybS 3 4
  • CWS3 3 6
  • PGL1 3 6
  • QPs3 3 4
  • SDH4 3 4
  • Succinate Dehydrogenase [Ubiquinone] Cytochrome B Small Subunit, Mitochondrial 3
  • Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Subunit D 4
  • CBT1 3
  • PGL 3

External Ids for SDHD Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SDHD Gene

  • PGL
  • PGL1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SDHD Gene

  • GC11P114310
  • GC11P113469
  • GC11P111991
  • GC11P111495
  • GC11P111462
  • GC11P107881

Summaries for SDHD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SDHD Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of complex II of the respiratory chain, which is responsible for the oxidation of succinate. The encoded protein is one of two integral membrane proteins anchoring the complex to the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with the formation of tumors, including hereditary paraganglioma. Transmission of disease occurs almost exclusively through the paternal allele, suggesting that this locus may be maternally imprinted. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, and 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

GeneCards Summary for SDHD Gene

SDHD (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit D, Integral Membrane Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SDHD include paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma and carcinoid tumors, intestinal. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and ubiquinone binding. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000255292.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SDHD Gene

  • Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).

Gene Wiki entry for SDHD Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SDHD Gene

Genomics for SDHD Gene

Genomic Location for SDHD Gene

112,086,773 bp from pter
112,120,013 bp from pter
33,241 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SDHD Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for SDHD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SDHD Gene

Proteins for SDHD Gene

  • Protein details for SDHD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6ND90
    • B3KQQ8
    • E9PIC0
    • E9PIG3
    • E9PQI9
    • Q53XW5
    • Q6IRW2

    Protein attributes for SDHD Gene

    159 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17043 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of complex II composed of four subunits: the flavoprotein (FP) SDHA, iron-sulfur protein (IP) SDHB, and a cytochrome b560 composed of SDHC and SDHD

    Alternative splice isoforms for SDHD Gene


neXtProt entry for SDHD Gene

Proteomics data for SDHD Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for SDHD Gene

No Post-translational modifications

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SDHD Gene

Domains for SDHD Gene

Gene Families for SDHD Gene

  • comII :Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex / Complex II

Protein Domains for SDHD Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SDHD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • O14521
  • Belongs to the CybS family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SDHD: view

Function for SDHD Gene

Molecular function for SDHD Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: succinate dehydrogenase,cyb S subunit,liver,inner mitochondrial membrane,component 4 of complex II of mitochondrial respiratory chain (CII-4),oxidative phosphorylation,(OXPHOS),also catalyzing the seventh step of the citric acid cycle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000104 succinate dehydrogenase activity IDA 9533030
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity TAS 9533030
GO:0020037 heme binding ISS --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
GO:0048039 ubiquinone binding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SDHD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SDHD: view

Animal Models for SDHD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SDHD:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for SDHD Gene

Localization for SDHD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SDHD Gene

Mitochondrion inner membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SDHD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SDHD gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion TAS 2302193
GO:0005740 mitochondrial envelope TAS 9533030
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005749 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II, succinate dehydrogenase complex (ubiquinone) ISS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SDHD: view

Pathways for SDHD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SDHD: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot O14521-DHSD_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; tricarboxylic acid cycle

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SDHD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle TAS --
GO:0022904 respiratory electron transport chain TAS --
GO:0044237 cellular metabolic process TAS --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
GO:0050433 regulation of catecholamine secretion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SDHD: view

Compounds for SDHD Gene

(9) HMDB Compounds for SDHD Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide
Fumaric acid
  • (2E)-But-2-enedioate
  • (protoporphyrinato)iron
  • Armco iron
  • CoQH2

(4) Drugbank Compounds for SDHD Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
70-30-4 target inhibitor
Succinic acid
  • 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid
110-15-6 target

(7) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SDHD Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
succinate 92.2 75
mibg 67.4 1
fumarate 60.2 3
catecholamine 51.5 1
ubiquinone 51 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SDHD: view

Transcripts for SDHD Gene

Unigene Clusters for SDHD Gene

Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SDHD Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SDHD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SDHD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SDHD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for SDHD Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SDHD Gene Hs.744039

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with SDHD: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SDHD Gene

Orthologs for SDHD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for SDHD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SDHD 35
  • 99.58 (n)
  • 98.74 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SDHD 35
  • 86.97 (n)
  • 87.18 (a)
  • 86 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SDHD 35
  • 88.26 (n)
  • 86.16 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sdhd 35
  • 83.02 (n)
  • 82.39 (a)
Sdhd 16
Sdhd 36
  • 82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 69 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sdhd 35
  • 83.23 (n)
  • 81.13 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SDHD 35
  • 63.75 (n)
  • 66.42 (a)
  • 61 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia sdhd 35
  • 64.91 (n)
  • 69.08 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sdhda 36
  • 53 (a)
sdhdb 35
  • 60.82 (n)
  • 61.04 (a)
sdhdb 36
  • 60 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10219 36
  • 27 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea sdhd-1 36
  • 32 (a)
Species with no ortholog for SDHD:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SDHD Gene

Gene Tree for SDHD (if available)
Gene Tree for SDHD (if available)

Paralogs for SDHD Gene

Paralogs for SDHD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SDHD: view

Variants for SDHD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SDHD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs530937 -- 112,094,037(-) ctttc(A/G)ccCCA intron-variant
rs557519 -- 112,095,927(-) GATCA(C/T)GCCAC downstream-variant-500B
rs592626 -- 112,093,136(+) ATCTC(A/G)GCTTA intron-variant, reference, missense
rs693441 Benign 112,095,583(-) TCTAC(A/G)GGGAA utr-variant-3-prime, nc-transcript-variant
rs1299335 -- 112,092,057(+) agtga(A/G)actct intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SDHD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2745077 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for SDHD Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SDHD Gene

Disorders for SDHD Gene

(5) OMIM Diseases for SDHD Gene (602690)


  • Paragangliomas 1 (PGL1) [MIM:168000]: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion. PGL1 is a rare autosomal dominant disorder which is characterized by the development of mostly benign, highly vascular, slowly growing tumors in the head and neck. In the head and neck region, the carotid body is the largest of all paraganglia and is also the most common site of the tumors. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10657297, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11343322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11391796, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11391798, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15328326}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Pheochromocytoma (PCC) [MIM:171300]: A catecholamine-producing tumor of chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, is hypertension, which may be persistent or intermittent. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11156372, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12000816, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15328326}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Intestinal carcinoid tumor (ICT) [MIM:114900]: A yellow, well-differentiated, circumscribed tumor that arises from enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine or, less frequently, in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12007193}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma (PGGSS) [MIM:606864]: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors may be sporadic or inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, alone or as a component of a syndrome associated with other tumors, such as in the context of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Patients have both gastrointestinal stromal tumors and paragangliomas. Susceptibility to the tumors was inherited in an apparently autosomal dominant manner, with incomplete penetrance. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17804857}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Cowden syndrome 3 (CWS3) [MIM:615106]: A form of Cowden syndrome, a hamartomatous polyposis syndrome with age-related penetrance. Cowden syndrome is characterized by hamartomatous lesions affecting derivatives of ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal layers, macrocephaly, facial trichilemmomas (benign tumors of the hair follicle infundibulum), acral keratoses, papillomatous papules, and elevated risk for development of several types of malignancy, particularly breast carcinoma in women and thyroid carcinoma in both men and women. Colon cancer and renal cell carcinoma have also been reported. Hamartomas can be found in virtually every organ, but most commonly in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, breast and thyroid. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18678321}. Note=The disease may be caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(5) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for SDHD Gene

(28) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SDHD Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
paraganglioma 97.5 167
pheochromocytoma 93.1 136
von hippel-lindau disease 86.1 10
carotid body tumor 85.5 7
multiple endocrine neoplasia 85.1 10

Relevant External Links for SDHD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SDHD: view

Publications for SDHD Gene

  1. Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. (PMID: 12000816) Neumann H.P.H. … Eng C. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2002) 3 4 23 48
  2. Distinct clinical features of paraganglioma syndromes associated with SDHB and SDHD gene mutations. (PMID: 15328326) Neumann H.P.H. … Eng C. (JAMA 2004) 3 4 23 48
  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in succinate dehydrogenase subunits and citrate synthase genes: association results for impaired spermatogenesis. (PMID: 17298551) Bonache S. … Larriba S. (Int. J. Androl. 2007) 3 23 48
  4. Malignant head and neck paragangliomas in SDHB mutation carriers. (PMID: 17599579) Boedeker C.C. … Ridder G.J. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007) 3 23 48
  5. Candidate gene mutation analysis in bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma. (PMID: 17639058) Korpershoek E. … de Krijger R.R. (Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2007) 3 23 48

Products for SDHD Gene

Sources for SDHD Gene

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