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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

SDHA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC05P000208

Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A, Flavoprotein...


(Previous symbol: SDH2)
Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A, Flavoprotein (Fp)1 2     SDH12 5
SDH21 2 3     FP2
SDHF2 3 5     PGL52
Flavoprotein Subunit Of Complex II2 3     Succinate Dehydrogenase [Ubiquinone] Flavoprotein Subunit, Mitochondrial2
EC 1.3.5.13 8     Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Flavoprotein Subunit2
CMD1GG2 5     Fp3

External Ids:    HGNC: 106801   Entrez Gene: 63892   Ensembl: ENSG000000735787   OMIM: 6008575   UniProtKB: P310403   

Export aliases for SDHA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05P000259 GC05P000271


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for SDHA Gene:
This gene encodes a major catalytic subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a complex of the mitochondrial
respiratory chain. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial
inner membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a form of mitochondrial respiratory chain
deficiency known as Leigh Syndrome. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 3q29. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2008)

GeneCards Summary for SDHA Gene: 
SDHA (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with SDHA include leigh syndrome with leukodystrophy, and sdha-related hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome, and among its related super-pathways are Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) and Electron Transport Chain. GO annotations related to this gene include succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHSA_HUMAN, P31040
Function: Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the
mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone
(coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor

Gene Wiki entry for SDHA Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000005.9  NT_006576.16  NC_018916.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the SDHA gene promoter:
         GATA-3   p53   Brachyury   ATF-2   FOXD3   CUTL1   Ik-3   Evi-1   HOXA5   CBF(2)   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidSDHA promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for SDHA

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5p15   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5p15.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5p15

SDHA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
SDHA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05P000208:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
218,356 bp from pter      End:
256,815 bp from pter
Size:
38,460 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHSA_HUMAN, P31040 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 664 amino acids; 72692 Da
Cofactor: FAD
Subunit: Component of complex II composed of four subunits: the flavoprotein (FP) SDHA, iron-sulfur protein (IP)
SDHB, and a cytochrome b560 composed of SDHC and SDHD. Interacts with SDHAF2/SDH5; interaction is required for
FAD attachment
Subcellular location: Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Matrix side
Miscellaneous: The complex, present in mitochondria, can be degraded to form EC 1.3.99.1, which no longer reacts
with ubiquinone
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA37886.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Differs extensively from that shown;
Secondary accessions: A8K5J6 Q16395 Q9UMY5

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for SDHA: NX_P31040

Explore proteomics data for SDHA at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Phosphorylation at Tyr-215 is important for efficient electron transfer in complex II and the prevention of ROS
    generation
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P31040

  • 4/26 DME Specific Peptides for SDHA (P31040) (see all 26)
     QYPVVDH  EDGSIHR  WNTDLVE  NAGEESV 

    SDHA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    SDHA Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004159.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000264932   ENSP00000426514   ENSP00000427703   ENSP00000425077   ENSP00000422404  
     ENSP00000421911  
    Reactome Protein details: P31040
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for SDHA: 
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    Novus Biologicals SDHA Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for SDHA 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA16826196
    GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane TAS--
    GO:0005749mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II TAS7550341

    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    SDHA Antibody Products: 
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    Assay Products for SDHA: 
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for SDHA


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    comII: Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex / Complex II

    5/6 InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR011281 Succ_DH_flav_su_fwd
     IPR027477 Succ_DH/fumarate_Rdtase_cat
     IPR015939 Fum_Rdtase/Succ_DH_flav-like_C
     IPR003952 FRD_SDH_FAD_BS
     IPR003953 FAD_bind_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P31040

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P31040

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003952 Fumarate reductase/succinate dehydrogenase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHSA_HUMAN, P31040
    Similarity: Belongs to the FAD-dependent oxidoreductase 2 family. FRD/SDH subfamily


    SDHA for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: DHSA_HUMAN, P31040
    Function: Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the
    mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone
    (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor
    Catalytic activity: Succinate + ubiquinone = fumarate + ubiquinol

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for SDHA:
    succinate dehydrogenase,flavoprotein,inner mitochondrial membrane,component,70kDa,of complex II of mitochondrial
    respiratory chain,oxidative phosphorylation,(OXPHOS),also catalyzing the seventh step of the citric acid cycle

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.3.5.11 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000104contributes to succinate dehydrogenase activity IMP7550341
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI15961414
    GO:0008177succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity IEA--
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    GO:0016627oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors ----
         
    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for SDHA:
     Decreased Salmonella enterica  

         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Sdha (no phenotypes)

    SDHA for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for SDHA 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for SDHA

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for SDHA 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for SDHA 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat SDHA
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate SDHA
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidSDHA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: SDHA (NM_004168)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for SDHA
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SDHA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SDHA
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of SDHA 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of SDHA 

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SDHA


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for SDHA About   (see all 7)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)0.89
    TCA cycle0.84
    TCA Cycle0.89
    Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)0.58
    2Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.0.81
    Parkinson's disease0.61
    Respiratory electron transport0.81
    Huntington's disease0.47
    Electron Transport Chain0.75
    Alzheimer's disease0.46
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.72
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)0.41
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40
    Metabolic pathways0.40
    4Pyruvate metabolism
    Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle0.49
    5Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)
    Conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle0.46

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for SDHA
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    4 BioSystems Pathways for SDHA
        TCA Cycle
    Electron Transport Chain
    TCA cycle
    Conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle


    5/6        Reactome Pathways for SDHA (see all 6)
        Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle
    Respiratory electron transport
    Metabolism
    Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.


    5/8         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for SDHA) (see all 8):
        Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
    Oxidative phosphorylation
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: DHSA_HUMAN, P31040
    Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; tricarboxylic acid cycle; fumarate from succinate (eukaryal route): step 1/1


    SDHA for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for SDHA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 21)

    5/90 Interacting proteins for SDHA (P310401, 2, 3 ENSP000002649324) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 90)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CSNK2BP678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000206406P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000224398P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000224774P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000228875P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/8 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006099tricarboxylic acid cycle TAS7550341
    GO:0006105succinate metabolic process IDA7550341
    GO:0007399nervous system development IMP16361598
    GO:0022900electron transport chain ----
    GO:0022904respiratory electron transport chain TAS--

    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    SDHA for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for SDHA (DHSA)

    9 HMDB Compounds for SDHA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    Fumaric acid(2E)-But-2-enedioate (see all 22)110-17-8--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--
    QH2CoQH2 (see all 5)56275-39-9--
    Succinic acid1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate (see all 11)110-15-6--
    SulfideSulfide (see all 4)18496-25-8--
    Ubiquinol 8ubiquinol-8 (see all 2)56275-39-9--
    Ubiquinone Q1Coenzyme Q (see all 9)727-81-1--
    Ubiquinone Q22-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (see all 7)606-06-4--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for SDHA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Succinic acid1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid (see all 8)110-15-6target--16484232 10779596 17139284 17016423 12231007
    2-Hexyloxy-6-Hydroxymethyl-Tetrahydro-Pyran-3,4,5-Triol-- --target--10592235
    Carboxin2,3-Dihydro-5-carboxanilido-6-methyl-1,4-oxathiin (see all 6)5234-68-4target--10592235
    Thenoyltrifluoroacetone.alpha.-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone (see all 7)326-91-0target--10592235
    UBIQUINONE-1-- --target--10592235

    8 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SDHA gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    succinate 86.9 32 9467555 (3), 10199764 (2), 17376234 (2), 11404820 (1) (see all 25)
    iron-sulfur 76.4 8 11692162 (1), 8161512 (1), 10799306 (1), 9533030 (1) (see all 8)
    glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 58.7 4 17026756 (1), 19036168 (1), 17324259 (1), 18460208 (1)
    ubiquinone 42.4 1 15989954 (1)
    flavin 38.2 3 12699430 (1), 7798181 (1)
    nadh 31.5 9 8161512 (1), 15250765 (1), 9396029 (1)
    nad+ 26.7 2 15250765 (1), 9396029 (1)
    oxygen 0 2 11692162 (1), 17376234 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about SDHA / DHSA

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for SDHA gene: 
    NM_004168.2  

    Unigene Cluster for SDHA:

    Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp)
    Hs.440475  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_004168
    18/19 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 19):
    ENST00000264932(uc003jao.4 uc011clw.2 uc021xvu.1) ENST00000504309
    ENST00000502379 ENST00000505555(uc011clv.1) ENST00000510361 ENST00000509632
    ENST00000504824 ENST00000509420 ENST00000514027(uc003jaq.4) ENST00000514233
    ENST00000512962 ENST00000515752 ENST00000511810 ENST00000515815 ENST00000509082
    ENST00000503674 ENST00000507266 ENST00000509564

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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: SDHA (NM_004168)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SDHA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SDHA
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of SDHA 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of SDHA 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SDHA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SDHA
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      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB208991.1 AK094879.1 AK225027.1 AK291311.1 AK295937.1 AK302524.1 BC001380.2 BC004328.1 
    BC041016.1 D30648.1 L21936.1 

    24/38 DOTS entries (see all 38):

    DT.95100115  DT.97817039  DT.454057  DT.100879599  DT.120852151  DT.120852084  DT.92464244  DT.91864402 
    DT.100879621  DT.102843654  DT.120852170  DT.100879608  DT.120852132  DT.97860756  DT.120852137  DT.95100142 
    DT.120852102  DT.92464258  DT.100725649  DT.120852080  DT.120852152  DT.120852163  DT.92464266  DT.95100124 

    24/571 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 571):

    AA894593 AA532984 BF475953 D30648 CB528304 BU846083 CD672868 AL560291 
    BE734438 BM550490 AI887650 BU164744 CA434539 AI817944 BM809698 BQ070379 
    BU508582 CB153329 BG764097 AK131478 AL707070 AW003399 BE790932 BQ959961 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    SDHA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      SDHA embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TCATAACTGT
    SDHA Expression
    About this image


    SDHA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/18 selected tissues (see all 18) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 17 entries
             Thalamus
             Septum   
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             heart/atrium   
     
     Spinal Cord (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Dorsal Horn   
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Telencephalon
     
     Nose (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             sensory organ/nose   

    See SDHA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for SDHA

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.440475
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including SDHA: 
              Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Housekeeping Genes PCR Array in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SDHA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SDHA
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SDHA
    QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SDHA

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for SDHA gene from 10/26 species (see all 26)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Sdha1 , 5 succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein more1, 5 86.65(n)1
    94.88(a)1
      13 (40.15 cM)5
    669451  NM_023281.11  NP_075770.11 
     743222545 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves SDHA1 succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein more 77.96(n)
    89.16(a)
      395758  XM_419054.3  XP_419054.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia SDHA6
    Uncharacterized protein
    88(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    6(56572378-56594714)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC685182 hypothetical protein MGC68518 77.65(n)    BC060446.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc560512 similar to succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit more 77.01(n)   393884  BC045885.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Scs-fp3
    SdhA1
    tricarboxylic acid cycle succinate-CoA
    ligase more3
    Succinate dehydrogenase A1
    73(a)
    (best of 2)3
    68.13(n)1
    74.66(a)1
      2 56D33
    372281  NM_166344.21  NP_725882.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C03G5.13
    sdha-11
    succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein
    subunit3
    Protein SDHA-11
    72(a)
    (best of 2)3
    64.52(n)1
    73.39(a)1
      X(8578453-8581258)3
    1811081  NM_077045.41  NP_509446.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes SDH1(YKL148C)4
    YJL045W1
    Flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh1p, more4
    hypothetical protein1
    61.79(n)1
    68.4(a)1
      11(171129-169207)4
    8534051  NP_012490.11  8537094 
     NP_012774.14 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons SDH1-11 succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit more 64.04(n)
    70.81(a)
      836809  NM_126074.2  NP_201477.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.225812 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 73.38(n)    AK099460.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for SDHA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for SDHA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for SDHA gene

    SDHA for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    4 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for SDHA
    PGOHUM00000250273 PGOHUM00000250275 PGOHUM00000250313 PGOHUM00000251283


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    1131/1415 SNPs in SDHA are shown (see all 1415)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0659754
    Paragangliomas 5 (PGL5)4--see VAR_0659752 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0024494
    Leigh syndrome (LS)4--see VAR_0024492 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0168784
    Leigh syndrome (LS)4--see VAR_0168782 A V mis40--------
    VAR_0168794
    Mitochondrial complex II deficiency (MT-C2D)4--see VAR_0168792 G E mis40--------
    rs10615171,2
    Cpathogenic1206570(+) CAGACA/C/GTGTCG 2 M L mis1 ese31NA 2
    rs98092191,2
    C,Fpathogenic1239313(+) TTGACC/TGGGGT 2 R W mis12Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 4
    rs1431935241,2
    --204487(+) TCACTC/GGATCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1913590981,2
    --204488(+) CACTCA/GATCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1831798261,2
    --204493(+) GATCTA/GCCCAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs49569981,2
    C--204546(+) CGCCCA/TGCCCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs560544521,2
    C--204839(-) TTGGGA/GCCTGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs29620351,2
    C--204918(+) AACACG/TAATTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1878554401,2
    --205278(+) AGGTGA/GAGGTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs2010231351,2
    --205284(+) GGTTG-/CCAGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs623465221,2
    C,F--205298(+) CGAGGC/TCGCGC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs1505177691,2
    --205317(+) TCCAGC/TCTGGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1923389611,2
    --205333(+) AACGAA/GACTCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs751387661,2
    C,F--205347(+) CCCCCC/AAAAAA 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.13WA NA 242
    rs1128795151,2
    C--205371(+) AAAGG-/AAAAAA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1832512201,2
    --205435(+) AAAACA/GGACAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1394558631,2
    --205531(+) TTTGTA/TTGTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1164807001,2
    C,F--205722(+) TCGATA/GAAAGT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.03NA 120
    rs284160841,2
    C,F,H--205739(+) ACACCG/AGACAC 1 -- us2k114Minor allele frequency- A:0.11NS EA WA NA 2076
    rs737307671,2
    C,F--205744(+) GGACAT/CTTTCA 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA 4
    rs3741329901,2
    C--205899(+) TCCTCA/GGGTGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs737307681,2
    C--205925(+) ATTACG/AGAGTT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs37567181,2
    C,F,A,H--205929(-) AGAGAA/GCTCTG 1 -- us2k17Minor allele frequency- G:0.40EA NS NA WA 1606
    rs21152731,2
    C,F,A,H--206020(-) GAAACT/CTCGTG 1 -- us2k112Minor allele frequency- C:0.05EA NS NA 1602
    rs37567171,2
    C,F--206070(-) TGGAGG/TTCACA 1 -- us2k16Minor allele frequency- T:0.09NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs28649631,2
    C--206087(-) GTAATC/TGTGTG 1 -- us2k114Minor allele frequency- T:0.49MN EA NA WA CSA 1627
    rs37567151,2
    C,F--206135(-) CTCCGA/GCCTCT 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- G:0.35WA NA CSA 244
    rs1479280261,2
    --206182(+) GCCCCA/CCTCCG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1145331641,2
    F--206325(+) CGCGGG/AACCTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.06WA 118
    rs23037411,2
    C,A--206455(-) GCCGGA/GGTCGA 1 -- ut51 ese36Minor allele frequency- G:0.19EU NA WA EA 538
    rs32145611,2
    C--206480(-) GGGGG-/GATACC 1 -- ut51 trp30--------
    rs358052621,2
    F--206486(+) CCCCC-/CTCCCC 1 -- ut512Minor allele frequency- C:0.12EU 178
    rs1879643061,2
    C--206586(+) CCGGGA/GCCTGT 2 D G mis10--------
    rs23037401,2
    C,F--206697(-) GGGGAC/TCGTCC 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.33EA NA 1500
    rs18640901,2
    C,F--206909(-) GGCCCG/AGACCA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.02EA 180
    rs1504300971,2
    C--206928(+) TGGGA-/CCCCGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs100549021,2
    C,F,A--207121(+) GGTGAG/AACCGC 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- A:0.23NA WA EA 360
    rs100610041,2
    C,F,A--207237(+) TCTGTC/GCATGT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA CSA EA 364
    rs768678671,2
    F--207380(+) CTGACC/TGGGCG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.04CSA WA 119
    rs1510538261,2
    --207420(+) GCTGAA/GTGCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100674821,2
    C,F,A--207427(+) GCCTCT/GAGGGC 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- G:0.13WA NA CSA 128
    rs1920523161,2
    --207472(+) TATACG/TTCCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1409474681,2
    --207506(+) GAATGC/TGCCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1844603311,2
    --207522(+) ATTGCA/GTCTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1483979001,2
    --207545(+) CTAGGA/GTTTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1461469611,2
    C--207605(+) AACTT-/ACCC  
            
    ACCCA
    1 -- int10--------
    rs68598481,2
    C,F,A--207648(+) GCAGAA/GTAAAA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.26WA NA CSA EA 364
    rs68598531,2
    C,F--207660(+) TCTCAA/GTAGGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 2
    rs1418397081,2
    C--207731(+) TTGAAA/GTACTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1455026901,2
    C--207801(+) AGAAAA/GCGTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1929018431,2
    --207983(+) GTGCCC/TTTGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1380048411,2
    C--208006(+) GGTGCC/TCGGTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1494934431,2
    --208058(+) TCAGAC/TGGGAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1847704361,2
    --208224(+) CGAAGA/GAACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1892879811,2
    --208256(+) AAAAAG/TAAAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs2019954051,2
    C--208329(+) AGTCC-/AGAGAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1439619971,2
    --208511(+) GAAAAC/TCAAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs562320881,2
    C,F--208516(+) CCAAGG/AAACTT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1411525281,2
    --208524(+) CTTCAA/GTAGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1808894441,2
    --208614(+) GATTTA/CTTTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs727113211,2
    C,F--208628(+) GAATGG/TATTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120
    rs727113221,2
    C--208635(+) TTGTTC/TTGAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs727113231,2
    C,F--208680(+) GCCATT/AATAGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NA 120
    rs623465241,2
    --208684(+) TTATAG/TTAGTA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs562993251,2
    C,F--208693(+) TAAACC/TTTTGC 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs623465261,2
    C,F--208713(+) TGGGAT/CAATTG 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs560430301,2
    C--209016(+) TAACCA/GTGTGT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA CSA NA EA 364
    rs1845961481,2
    --209218(+) GAGACA/GGGGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs575603391,2
    C,F--209375(+) AAAATT/ACTAGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.36WA 120
    rs583784721,2
    C,F--209376(+) AAATTC/ATAGTG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.37WA 120
    rs1892345861,2
    --209533(+) TTATCA/GGTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1819896871,2
    --209570(+) AGTTCA/GCTTAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1410641171,2
    --209578(+) TAAACC/TACCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100670211,2
    C,F--209589(+) GCTTCC/TGCTTC 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA EA 364
    rs1500057141,2
    --209590(+) CTTCCC/GCTTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs777689361,2
    C,F--209695(+) AGGTGC/TGTTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.10EA 120
    rs1869266371,2
    --209706(+) ATTAGA/TTGAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs560226471,2
    C--209858(+) TTCTT-/AGAGGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1441847881,2
    C--209859(+) TCTTG-/AAGGAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1917753291,2
    --210012(+) TTTAGA/GTTGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs93129771,2
    C,F,A--210015(+) AGATTG/CAGAGG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.24NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs93129781,2
    C,F--210029(+) AGTGTC/GCTTTT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.10NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs1811031891,2
    --210055(+) GTGATA/CATTTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1863850501,2
    --210088(+) TGCCCA/CTTTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1897175111,2
    C--210118(+) TGGTGA/GGGGGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1157653191,2
    C,F--210120(+) GTGGGG/AGGTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.01WA 118
    rs93129791,2
    C,F--210156(+) CTAGAA/CAGAAC 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.09NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs1823779051,2
    --210173(+) ACATTC/GAGTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1869091281,2
    --210177(+) TGAGTG/TATCTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1909823341,2
    --210198(+) CTTACA/GTTTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs93129801,2
    C,F,A--210222(+) TCTTAC/TTGGTG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 364
    rs1400988351,2
    C--210223(+) CTTACC/TGGTGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs2020526321,2
    C--210271(+) GAACA-/TTTTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1835481311,2
    --210355(+) TATTTA/GTTCTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1500284171,2
    --210487(+) GCAAGA/TATTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs2003579041,2
    C--210503(+) ACTTG-/AAGACA 1 -- int10--------
    rs68819201,2
    C,F,A--210510(+) GACATT/CCCTCA 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- C:0.33NA WA CSA 244
    rs1884652271,2
    --210550(+) TAAAGC/GTTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1158135751,2
    F--210569(+) CTTTTT/CTTTTT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03NA 120
    rs1452478171,2
    --210586(+) AGACGA/TTGTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1929184491,2
    --210587(+) GACGTC/TGTCTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs68820861,2
    C,F--210593(+) gtctcT/Gctctg 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- G:0.32NA WA 244
    rs1847343151,2
    --210633(+) CTAGGC/TTCACT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1491533931,2
    --210710(+) GTGCCC/TGCCAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1880645081,2
    --210715(+) CGCCAC/TGACGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1432578411,2
    C--210755(+) TGCCAC/TGTTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1917940791,2
    --210839(+) ATGAGC/TCACCG 1 -- int10--------
    rs570371611,2
    C,F--210872(+) TTGATG/AATATT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1835769681,2
    --210897(+) GTGGTC/GTTCTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs2013549401,2
    --210963(+) TATGG-/TACAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs560309431,2
    C,F--211031(+) TAAAGT/GTTTCT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1883122151,2
    --211034(+) AGTTTC/TCTAAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs600812371,2
    C,F--211113(+) GGCAGG/AGGAGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1380974181,2
    --211123(+) AGTGTA/GCATCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs68780611,2
    C,F,A--211171(+) CCTCTA/GGGCTG 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs68780871,2
    C,F,A,H--211216(+) ATTCAA/GTGTTG 1 -- int122Minor allele frequency- G:0.26NS EA NA WA CSA 2186
    rs68702281,2
    C,F,A--211313(+) CATTAC/TTTGCA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- T:0.33NA WA CSA 245
    rs1173579361,2
    F--211330(+) CACATA/GCAGTA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.03EA 120
    rs1150034611,2
    F--211332(+) CATACA/GGTAAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.01WA 118
    rs1501281811,2
    --211346(+) ATATAC/TACGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1818652181,2
    --211463(+) TCCTGC/GTTTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs68825841,2
    C,F,A--211510(+) GGCTCA/CGTCCT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.34WA NA CSA 250
    rs68745721,2
    C,F,A,H--211514(+) CAGTCT/CTTCCT 1 -- int111Minor allele frequency- C:0.40NA WA CSA EA 374
    rs1384670001,2
    C--211549(+) TAAGTA/GGAGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1424416431,2
    C,F--211723(+) GAACCC/TGAGGT 2 R * stg11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4552
    rs10615181,2,4
    F--211729(+) GAGGTT/GTTCAC 2 /V /F mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.10MN 184
    rs346356771,2,4
    C,F--211745(+) TGTTGA/TTGGGA 2 D V mis16Minor allele frequency- T:0.04EU NA 6172
    rs10615191,2
    H--211746(+) GTTGAT/AGGGAA 2 /E /D mis16Minor allele frequency- A:0.00MN NS EA NA 592
    rs10615201,2
    H--211753(+) GGAACA/GAGAGG 2 K E mis1 ese36Minor allele frequency- G:0.00MN NS EA NA 592
    rs1407366461,2
    C--211765(+) CATCTG/ACTAAA 2 /T /A mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4552
    rs1445998701,2
    C,F--211768(+) CTGCTA/GAAGTT 2 K E mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4552
    rs802070111,2
    C,F--211778(+) TTCAGA/GTTCCG 2 D G mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.01NA 4552
    rs1900863401,2
    --211830(+) CTTAGG/TGGGTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1817900981,2
    --211905(+) CCAATA/GCATGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs32138391,2
    C,F--211906(-) AGCATG/ACATTG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- A:0.04EA NA WA CSA 1489
    rs32138381,2
    C,F,A--211989(-) CATAAC/GAGATA 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA EA 362
    rs1459692121,2
    C--212009(+) ACTAG-/ATTTAA
            
    ATTTA
    1 -- int10--------
    rs32173271,2
    C--212014(-) TGATC-/TAAATT
            
    TAAAT
    1 -- int10--------
    rs1864120591,2
    --212029(+) AAGTAA/TAGCAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1901660891,2
    --212030(+) AGTAAA/GGCAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs68883781,2
    C,F,A,H--212057(+) AACAGT/CGTCTG 1 -- int119Minor allele frequency- C:0.25NS EA WA NA CSA 2344
    rs1473649461,2
    --212237(+) AGAAGA/TTGTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs65550491,2
    C,F,A--212295(+) GGCATT/AAGCAT 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- A:0.25WA CSA 8
    rs65550501,2
    C,F,A--212306(+) AGGCAT/CGGCCC 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.22WA CSA 9
    rs65550511,2
    C,F,A--212310(+) ACGGCT/CCTGAA 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.22WA CSA 9
    rs65550521,2
    C,F,A--212367(+) CATTCG/ATAGAA 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- A:0.24WA NA CSA EA 369
    rs359476141,2
    C,F--212496(+) TGTCAA/GGCTCT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.12EU 178
    rs77323891,2
    C,F,A,H--212517(+) CAAGAT/GTCTTC 1 -- int116Minor allele frequency- G:0.19NA EU NS EA WA CSA 1577
    rs1429268071,2
    C--212586(+) CTCAGC/TATCCA 2 H Y mis10--------
    rs2011383241,2
    --212657(+) GCATTC/TGGCCT 2 F syn10--------
    rs2000051361,2
    --212662(+) TGGCCC/TTTCTG 2 P L mis10--------
    rs11394241,2
    C,F--212732(+) GCAGCA/GCAGGT 2 A syn16Minor allele frequency- G:0.24NA CSA EA EU 5866
    rs1115330781,2
    C,F--212755(+) CCCCAC/TTGTGC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.19EU 767
    rs2019532571,2
    C--212783(+) CCCGCA/GCAGCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs77057211,2
    C,F,A--212791(+) GCCTCG/TCACTT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.16EU WA NA CSA 189
    rs1813909871,2
    --212921(+) AGGGCA/GGGAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs616894901,2
    C,F--213003(+) CCACCT/CACCCC 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1436707961,2
    --213052(+) GAGGAA/GGAATC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1467980381,2
    --213109(+) GTGCTG/TCTGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1852852091,2
    --213174(+) CTGGGG/TTACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1898484661,2
    --213178(+) GGTACA/GGGGGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1838833411,2
    --213223(+) GGAAGC/TACTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1405289131,2
    --213278(+) AATAAA/GATTAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs68856931,2
    C,F,A,H--213366(+) CTGCTC/ACAGTC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA WA 4
    rs1888319551,2
    --213392(+) TCCCTC/GTGTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1465190141,2
    C--213404(+) CACCAC/TGCAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1917141641,2
    --213405(+) ACCACA/GCAGAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs348155601,2
    C--213427(+) GCTAAG/-GGATG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs1833342241,2
    --213478(+) CTGTCA/GGGTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1887910581,2
    --213481(+) TCGGGC/TCTCGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1916433861,2
    --213484(+) GGTCTC/GGCTGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1841511311,2
    --213524(+) GTCACC/TGTGTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1864727471,2
    --213526(+) CACTGC/TGTGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1913186151,2
    C--213592(+) TTGGCA/GCTCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1855559411,2
    C,F--213614(+) GTAAGG/TAGTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01EU 1081
    rs1904773161,2
    C--213728(+) GACCAA/GGATGC 2 Q syn10--------
    rs2014538891,2
    --213761(+) GCCCCC/TGCCGC 2 P syn10--------
    rs2005654891,2
    --213785(+) ATGGGC/TGGGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1932834681,2
    C,F--213796(+) GCTCTG/CGGTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.01EU 1307
    rs354643691,2
    C,F--213808(+) CTCGTG/AGTCTG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- A:0.03EU WA 1819
    rs1491012591,2
    C--213838(+) CTGGAA/GAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs125200591,2
    C,H--213867(+) ATGTGG/CCAGCC 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- C:0.33NA WA EA 368
    rs1150373351,2
    --213872(+) GCAGCC/TAAAAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs614928271,2
    C--213873(+) CAGCCA/GAAAGA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.25NA CSA WA EA 363
    rs563425381,2
    C,F--213895(+) CAAAGT/CTCACA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.35WA NA CSA 247
    rs1851139451,2
    --213972(+) GTTGAC/TATTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs594525111,2
    C,F--214040(+) AGCTGC/TGAATA 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- T:0.28WA NA CSA EA 370
    rs1892434891,2
    C--214069(+) GTTAAA/GGTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1812787591,2
    --214156(+) CGTGCA/GTTTGG 2 A syn10--------
    rs617333441,2
    C,F--214189(+) AAGGGC/TGGGCA 2 G syn13Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NS NA EU 5949
    rs1482460731,2
    C--214190(+) AGGGCA/GGGCAG 2 R G mis10--------
    rs1996180591,2
    --214198(+) CAGGCC/TCATCG 2 A syn10--------
    rs1398814151,2
    F--214203(+) CCATCG/AGTGCT 2 /Q /R mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4552
    rs2019674131,2
    C--214240(+) TCGCTA/GTTGCA 2 L syn11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00EU 1323
    rs65550551,2
    C,F,A,H--214259(+) ATGGAA/CGGGTA 2 R syn123Minor allele frequency- C:0.26EU NS EA WA NA CSA 8319
    rs65550561,2
    C,F,A--214321(+) GACAGT/CGGGGA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.09WA NA CSA EA 248
    rs65550571,2
    C,F,A,H--214363(+) GATTAC/TGTAAA 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NS EA NA WA CSA 296
    rs1857297481,2
    --214379(+) ACAGAC/GAACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1379828341,2
    C--214389(+) GCAGCA/GTGGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1434218111,2
    --214396(+) GGGGCA/GCATGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1881392871,2
    --214413(+) TGTGGA/GTGTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs65550581,2
    C,F,A,H--214475(+) CTTGCA/GTCTAT 1 -- int122Minor allele frequency- G:0.26NS EA NA WA 2636
    rs65550591,2
    C,F,H--214552(+) CAAGAA/GCAGAG 1 -- int123Minor allele frequency- G:0.40NS EA NA WA CSA 2348
    rs1471287171,2
    --214648(+) TGAGAA/CCAGCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1383482231,2
    --214682(+) CTCTAC/TAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1809457841,2
    --214698(+) AAAATC/TAGCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1861936711,2
    --214797(+) GCCATA/GTTCGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1919091171,2
    --214828(+) GCAACA/GGGAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs100430021,2
    C,F,H--214852(+) aaagaG/Aaaaga 1 -- int1 trp39Minor allele frequency- A:0.24NS EA WA CSA NA 730
    rs1842100051,2
    --214872(+) GTGCGA/GTGGCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1858516171,2
    --215060(+) ATGGCA/GTGAAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1905143171,2
    C--215247(+) TGAGAC/TGGAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1823937561,2
    --215255(+) AGTCTC/TACTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1870756801,2
    C--215373(+) GCGCAC/TGCCAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1926217171,2
    --215433(+) TGCCCA/GGGCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1443518071,2
    --215446(+) CCCGAA/GCTCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1487667461,2
    --215460(+) CTCAGA/GCAGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs623476751,2
    C,F--215483(+) CCTCCG/CAAAGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.50NA CSA 4
    rs623476761,2
    C,F--215498(+) GGATTG/ACAGGC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA CSA 4
    rs623476771,2
    C,F--215552(+) TTAACA/GCTGAA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.35WA NA CSA 246
    rs623476781,2
    C,F--215595(+) ATCAGA/GGTCAA 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- G:0.13NA WA CSA 126
    rs1396161001,2
    C--215632(+) ACGGT-/AATTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1395725371,2
    C--215684(+) CATGGA/GGACGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs730314821,2
    C,F--215693(+) GGATCG/ATTAAT 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- A:0.34WA CSA NA 242
    rs2017806661,2
    C--215730(+) TTCTC-/TGTGGCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs737307721,2
    C--215779(+) GCTCCG/ATCTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00WA 2
    rs1510347551,2
    C--215822(+) GCTTAC/TAAGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs737307731,2
    C--215823(+) CTTACG/AAGAGC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00WA 2
    rs1121632771,2
    C--215835(+) ACTTGC/TGCTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1824949601,2
    --215837(+) TTGTGC/TTGGCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1880099341,2
    --215900(+) GGTGCC/TGGAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1930890311,2
    C--215926(+) CGTCCA/GCTTTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1138466181,2
    C,F--215969(+) GTGGCT/AGGTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1888997331,2
    --215979(+) TAGCTA/GAAGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1922071441,2
    --215980(+) AGCTGA/CAGAGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1124203131,2
    C,F--215990(+) CTGAAC/TGTTTT 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- T:0.33WA CSA 6
    rs1123144341,2
    C,F--215998(+) TTTGAT/CTTATT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA CSA 4
    rs1413539961,2
    --216067(+) GTCTGC/TGGACC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1134385481,2
    C,F--216092(+) GACTCT/CGAGTG 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- C:0.33WA CSA 6
    rs623476791,2
    C,F--216116(+) CCACCA/GGACAG 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- G:0.33WA CSA 6
    rs1885826921,2
    --216139(+) CTTCGC/GGTTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs74455091,2
    C,F--216170(+) ACCAAA/CATAGG 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.04WA CSA NA 126
    rs1815308461,2
    --216209(+) CCTGCC/GTTGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs771460431,2
    C--216215(+) TTGTCG/TGTACT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1859121661,2
    --216224(+) CTGCTC/TGGCGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs21628701,2
    C,F--216228(-) TTCCAC/TGCCGA 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.22WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1896426201,2
    --216258(+) GTGTCA/GCTGAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1819267581,2
    --216306(+) GGATCA/CAGTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs37649821,2
    C,F,A,H--216320(-) GTGAAT/CAGGTG 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.08EA NS CSA 1902
    rs38350681,2
    C--216378(-) AAAAA-/AGGGCA 1 -- int1 trp31Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs21152721,2
    C,F,A,H--216461(-) TCCCCA/GTTCTC 2 N syn113Minor allele frequency- G:0.22EA NS NA EU WA CSA 7451
    rs1445138911,2
    C,F--216481(+) TGTCAT/CCGCAC 2 /T /I mis12Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs1466536931,2
    C,F--216500(+) GAGGAC/TGGGTC 2 D syn12Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs2012455361,2
    C--216559(+) ATCTCA/GTTTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1420262171,2
    --216645(+) AATAAC/TGGTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1862980581,2
    --216710(+) TCCTCA/TCCTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100426041,2
    C,F,H--216786(+) TTGCCC/ATCAGG 1 -- int112Minor allele frequency- A:0.19NA NS EA WA CSA 675
    rs1999492811,2
    --216810(+) CTCCC-/AAATTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1903665711,2
    --216837(+) GCCCAA/CAGAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs591380071,2
    C,F--217071(+) ATGTGT/CAATAA 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- C:0.39WA 122
    rs760383121,2
    C,F--217104(+) AAAAAA/GAAACC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.05NA 122
    rs287295481,2
    C,F--217124(+) ACAACC/TTACTA 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1156684101,2
    F--217288(+) CATCTC/TATCTC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120
    rs96876211,2
    C,F--217293(+) catctC/Tgctcc 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.10WA CSA NA EA 362
    rs2010672131,2
    C--217328(+) GACAAA/GAGAGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1389298841,2
    --217378(+) GCTGTC/TGGTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs96877451,2
    C,F--217408(+) tattaC/Tggaaa 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.33NA WA CSA 248
    rs1829613371,2
    --217426(+) AGGTTC/TCTCAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1859814291,2
    --217438(+) ATTCAA/TAGGAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs96881361,2
    C,F,A--217447(+) actacT/Catgtg 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1911247001,2
    --217448(+) CTACTA/GTGTGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs730314951,2
    C,F--217566(+) ATGGAA/GACAAC 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- G:0.38WA 122
    rs96881441,2
    C,F--217642(+) gaaaaT/Cgaagg 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.07NA CSA EA 244
    rs1834349541,2
    --217715(+) AGGCAA/CAGAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1158776791,2
    C,F--217743(+) ACTCAT/CGTGGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.02NA 120
    rs1875928011,2
    C--217819(+) AGACTA/GTGGCG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1128243441,2
    C--217856(+) TTACAG/AGGTGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1126773991,2
    C,F--217876(+) GGTCTA/GATATA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.32WA 120
    rs1129487671,2
    C,F--217880(+) TAATAT/AACAAC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.14WA 120
    rs1126042941,2
    C,F--217884(+) ATACAA/GCATGG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.13WA 120
    rs1115644421,2
    C,F--217973(+) GCATGG/ATGGTT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.47WA 120
    rs1137421711,2
    C,F--217977(+) GGTGGC/TTAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1832574591,2
    --217978(+) GTGGTC/TAGAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1138324541,2
    C,F--218005(+) GGTGGC/TTAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1135330021,2
    C,F--218034(+) GTGGCC/TAGAGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00WA 2
    rs1844685121,2
    --218061(+) GCTGGC/TTATCG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1888175951,2
    --218064(+) GGCTAG/TCGTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1926962421,2
    --218065(+) GCTATA/CGTTAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs623476811,2
    C,F--218090(+) GTGGCC/TAGAGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA CSA 4
    rs1848959701,2
    --218124(+) AGAGTA/TAACAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1890130201,2
    --218201(+) GGCTAG/TAGTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1463506131,2
    --218212(+) ACATTA/GTACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1396485721,2
    C--218236(+) GTTAAC/TATTAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1809725901,2
    --218283(+) ATTTGC/TGAAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs10419461,2,4
    --218286(+) GCATAG/CAGGAC 2 /Q /E mis1 ese32Minor allele frequency- C:0.17MN NA 186
    rs559338471,2
    C,F--218392(+) CATCAC/TGCTGT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 365
    rs1846019751,2
    --218393(+) ATCACA/GCTGTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1482413931,2
    C--218412(+) TATAT-/ACAGTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs350079541,2
    C--218413(+) ATATA-/ACGTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs623476831,2
    C,F--218430(+) AAATTC/TATCAA 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.35WA NA 244
    rs2014761161,2
    C--218458(+) TGGGG-/GAGAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs557507761,2
    C,F--218566(+) AGGTGT/CGCAGT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.24WA CSA NA EA 364
    rs1892467431,2
    --218567(+) GGTGTA/GCAGTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs559514311,2
    C,F--218591(+) ATCCCA/GGCACT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.25WA CSA 4
    rs1487135691,2
    --218608(+) GGCCAA/CAGTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1819949051,2
    --218655(+) GGCCAA/GCATGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs119585641,2
    C,H--218667(+) gaaacC/Gccatc 1 -- int10--------
    rs1512222811,2
    --218701(+) CTGGGC/TGTGGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100690741,2
    C,F--218702(+) tgggcG/Atggtg 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA CSA 4
    rs1452669961,2
    C--218795(+) AGATCG/TCACCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs100748921,2
    C,F,A--218803(+) ccactG/Ctactc 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA NA CSA 8
    rs1858391331,2
    --218844(+) CAAAAC/TAAATA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1133465991,2
    C--218848(+)