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SDHA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC05P000208

Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A, Flavoprotein...


(Previous symbol: SDH2)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A, Flavoprotein (Fp)1 2     SDH12 5
SDH21 2 3     FP2
SDHF2 3 5     Succinate Dehydrogenase [Ubiquinone] Flavoprotein Subunit, Mitochondrial2
Flavoprotein Subunit Of Complex II2 3     Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Flavoprotein Subunit2
CMD1GG2 5     EC 1.3.5.13
PGL52 5     Fp3

External Ids:    HGNC: 106801   Entrez Gene: 63892   Ensembl: ENSG000000735787   OMIM: 6008575   UniProtKB: P310403   

Export aliases for SDHA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05P000259 GC05P000271


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for SDHA Gene:
This gene encodes a major catalytic subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a complex of the mitochondrial
respiratory chain. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial
inner membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a form of mitochondrial respiratory chain
deficiency known as Leigh Syndrome. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 3q29. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2008)

GeneCards Summary for SDHA Gene:
SDHA (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with SDHA include leigh syndrome with leukodystrophy, and paragangliomas 5. GO annotations related to this gene include succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
Function: Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the
mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone
(coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor

Gene Wiki entry for SDHA Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000005.10  NT_006576.17  NC_018916.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the SDHA gene promoter:
         GATA-3   p53   Brachyury   ATF-2   FOXD3   CUTL1   Ik-3   Evi-1   HOXA5   CBF(2)   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidSDHA promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for SDHA

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat SDHA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5p15   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5p15.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5p15

SDHA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
SDHA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05P000208:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
218,356 bp from pter      End:
256,815 bp from pter
Size:
38,460 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 664 amino acids; 72692 Da
Cofactor: FAD
Subunit: Component of complex II composed of four subunits: the flavoprotein (FP) SDHA, iron-sulfur protein (IP)
SDHB, and a cytochrome b560 composed of SDHC and SDHD. Interacts with SDHAF2/SDH5; interaction is required for
FAD attachment. Interacts with TRAP1
Miscellaneous: The complex, present in mitochondria, can be degraded to form EC 1.3.99.1, which no longer reacts
with ubiquinone
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA37886.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Differs extensively from that shown;
Secondary accessions: A8K5J6 Q16395 Q9UMY5

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for SDHA: NX_P31040

Explore proteomics data for SDHA at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylation at Tyr-215 is important for efficient electron transfer in complex II and the prevention of ROS
    generation1
  • Deacetylated by SIRT3 (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys92, Lys179, Lys335, Lys608
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See SDHA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004159.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000264932   ENSP00000426514   ENSP00000427703   ENSP00000425077   ENSP00000422404  
     ENSP00000421911  
    Reactome Protein details: P31040

    SDHA Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for SDHA
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    SDHA Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for SDHA


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    comII: Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex / Complex II

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR027477 Succ_DH/fumarate_Rdtase_cat
     IPR015939 Fum_Rdtase/Succ_DH_flav-like_C
     IPR003952 FRD_SDH_FAD_BS
     IPR011281 Succ_DH_flav_su_fwd
     IPR003953 FAD_bind_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P31040

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P31040

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003952 Fumarate reductase/succinate dehydrogenase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
    Similarity: Belongs to the FAD-dependent oxidoreductase 2 family. FRD/SDH subfamily


    SDHA for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
    Function: Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the
    mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone
    (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor
    Catalytic activity: Succinate + ubiquinone = fumarate + ubiquinol

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for SDHA:
    succinate dehydrogenase,flavoprotein,inner mitochondrial membrane,component,70kDa,of complex II of mitochondrial
    respiratory chain,oxidative phosphorylation,(OXPHOS),also catalyzing the seventh step of the citric acid cycle

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.3.5.11

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000104contributes to succinate dehydrogenase activity IMP7550341
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI15961414
    GO:0008177succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity IEA--
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    GO:0016627oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors ----
         
    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for SDHA:
     Decreased Salmonella enterica  

         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Sdha (no phenotypes)

    SDHA for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for SDHA
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for SDHA

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for SDHA
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for SDHA

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target SDHA:
    hsa-mir-17-5p (MIRT050937), hsa-mir-106a-5p (MIRT048336), hsa-mir-760 (MIRT036723), hsa-mir-222-3p (MIRT046836)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat SDHA using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate SDHA
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidSDHA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for SDHA
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat SDHA

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: SDHA (NM_004168)
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    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SDHA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SDHA

    Cell Line
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SDHA


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    SDHA_HUMAN, P31040: Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Matrix side
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane TAS--
    GO:0005749mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II TAS7550341

    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for SDHA About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)0.55
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle0.43
    Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)0.55
    TCA Cycle0.00
    Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle0.49
    TCA cycle0.00
    2Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.0.81
    Oxidative phosphorylation0.64
    Respiratory electron transport0.81
    Parkinson's disease0.57
    Electron Transport Chain0.75
    Huntington's disease0.45
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.71
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)0.41
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    4Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimer's disease0.44
    5Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for SDHA
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    4 BioSystems Pathways for SDHA
        TCA Cycle
    Electron Transport Chain
    TCA cycle
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle


    2 Reactome Pathways for SDHA
        Respiratory electron transport
    Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for SDHA) (see all 8):
        Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
    Oxidative phosphorylation
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
    Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; tricarboxylic acid cycle; fumarate from succinate (eukaryal route): step 1/1


    SDHA for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including SDHA: 

              Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Housekeeping Genes PCR Array in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for SDHA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for SDHA (P310401, 2, 3 ENSP000002649324) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 98)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CSNK2BP678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000206406P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000224398P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000224774P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000228875P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006099tricarboxylic acid cycle TAS7550341
    GO:0006105succinate metabolic process IDA7550341
    GO:0007399nervous system development IMP16361598
    GO:0022900electron transport chain ----
    GO:0022904respiratory electron transport chain TAS--

    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for SDHA

    9 HMDB Compounds for SDHA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    Fumaric acid(2E)-But-2-enedioate (see all 22)110-17-8--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--
    QH2CoQH2 (see all 5)56275-39-9--
    Succinic acid1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate (see all 11)110-15-6--
    SulfideSulfide (see all 4)18496-25-8--
    Ubiquinol 8ubiquinol-8 (see all 2)56275-39-9--
    Ubiquinone Q1Coenzyme Q (see all 9)727-81-1--
    Ubiquinone Q22-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (see all 7)606-06-4--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for SDHA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Succinic acid1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid (see all 8)110-15-6target--16484232 10779596 17139284 17016423 12231007
    2-Hexyloxy-6-Hydroxymethyl-Tetrahydro-Pyran-3,4,5-Triol-- --target--10592235
    Carboxin2,3-Dihydro-5-carboxanilido-6-methyl-1,4-oxathiin (see all 6)5234-68-4target--10592235
    Thenoyltrifluoroacetone.alpha.-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone (see all 7)326-91-0target--10592235
    UBIQUINONE-1-- --target--10592235

    8 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SDHA gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    succinate 86.9 32 9467555 (3), 10199764 (2), 17376234 (2), 11404820 (1) (see all 25)
    iron-sulfur 76.4 8 11692162 (1), 8161512 (1), 10799306 (1), 9533030 (1) (see all 8)
    glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 58.7 4 17026756 (1), 19036168 (1), 17324259 (1), 18460208 (1)
    ubiquinone 42.4 1 15989954 (1)
    flavin 38.2 3 12699430 (1), 7798181 (1)
    nadh 31.5 9 8161512 (1), 15250765 (1), 9396029 (1)
    nad+ 26.7 2 15250765 (1), 9396029 (1)
    oxygen 0 2 11692162 (1), 17376234 (1)



    SDHA for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for SDHA gene: 
    NM_004168.2  

    Unigene Cluster for SDHA:

    Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp)
    Hs.440475  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_004168
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 19):
    ENST00000264932(uc003jao.4 uc011clw.2 uc021xvu.1) ENST00000504309
    ENST00000502379 ENST00000505555(uc011clv.1) ENST00000510361 ENST00000509632
    ENST00000504824 ENST00000509420 ENST00000514027(uc003jaq.4) ENST00000514233
    ENST00000512962 ENST00000515752 ENST00000511810 ENST00000515815 ENST00000509082
    ENST00000503674 ENST00000507266 ENST00000509564

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    Clone
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: SDHA (NM_004168)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SDHA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SDHA
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SDHA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SDHA
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SDHA
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB208991.1 AK094879.1 AK225027.1 AK291311.1 AK295937.1 AK302524.1 BC001380.2 BC004328.1 
    BC041016.1 D30648.1 L21936.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 38):

    DT.95100115  DT.97817039  DT.454057  DT.100879599  DT.120852151  DT.120852084  DT.92464244  DT.91864402 
    DT.100879621  DT.102843654  DT.120852170  DT.100879608  DT.120852132  DT.97860756  DT.120852137  DT.95100142 
    DT.120852102  DT.92464258  DT.100725649  DT.120852080  DT.120852152  DT.120852163  DT.92464266  DT.95100124 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 571):

    BG335484 CB528304 AL560291 AL559630 M78107 CB529921 AA532984 BF475953 
    CA429873 CR624138 AW003399 AU279614 F06126 BQ050641 AA340287 BU173959 
    BU542449 BU846083 AA738428 BQ672437 BE734438 BU152637 CR592508 AI307149 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    SDHA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TCATAACTGT
    SDHA Expression
    About this image


    SDHA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 16) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Midbrain tegmentum
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
             Oviduct
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             Thymus
    SDHA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    SDHA Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.440475
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including SDHA: 
              Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Housekeeping Genes PCR Array in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SDHA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SDHA
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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SDHA

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for SDHA gene from Selected species (see all 29)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Sdha1 , 5 succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein more1, 5 86.65(n)1
    94.88(a)1
      13 (40.15 cM)5
    669451  NM_023281.11  NP_075770.11 
     743222545 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves SDHA1 succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein more 77.96(n)
    89.16(a)
      395758  NM_001277398.1  NP_001264327.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia SDHA6
    succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavop...
    88(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    6(56572378-56594714)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC685182 hypothetical protein MGC68518 77.65(n)    BC060446.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc560512 similar to succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit more 77.01(n)   393884  BC045885.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Scs-fp3
    SdhA1
    tricarboxylic acid cycle succinate-CoA
    ligase more3
    Succinate dehydrogenase A1
    73(a)
    (best of 2)3
    68.13(n)1
    74.66(a)1
      2 56D33
    372281  NM_166344.21  NP_725882.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C03G5.13
    sdha-11
    succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein
    subunit3
    sdha-11
    72(a)
    (best of 2)3
    64.52(n)1
    73.39(a)1
      X(8578453-8581258)3
    1811081  NM_077045.51  NP_509446.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes SDH1(YKL148C)4
    SDH11
    Flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh1p, more4
    SDH11
    61.93(n)1
    66.67(a)1
      11(171129-169207)4
    8537091, 4  NP_012774.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons SDH1-11 SDH1-1 64.04(n)
    70.81(a)
      836809  NM_126074.2  NP_201477.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.225812 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 73.38(n)    AK099460.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for SDHA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for SDHA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

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    Paralogs for SDHA gene

    SDHA for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    4 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for SDHA
    PGOHUM00000250273 PGOHUM00000250275 PGOHUM00000250313 PGOHUM00000251283


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for SDHA (see all 1415)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0659754
    Paragangliomas 5 (PGL5)4--see VAR_0659752 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0024494
    Leigh syndrome (LS)4--see VAR_0024492 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0168784
    Leigh syndrome (LS)4--see VAR_0168782 A V mis40--------
    VAR_0168794
    Mitochondrial complex II deficiency (MT-C2D)4--see VAR_0168792 G E mis40--------
    rs10615171,2
    Cpathogenic1206570(+) CAGACA/C/GTGTCG 2 M L mis1 ese31NA 2
    rs98092191,2
    C,Fpathogenic1239313(+) TTGACC/TGGGGT 2 R W mis12Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 4
    rs1431935241,2
    --204487(+) TCACTC/GGATCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1913590981,2
    --204488(+) CACTCA/GATCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1831798261,2
    --204493(+) GATCTA/GCCCAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs49569981,2
    C--204546(+) CGCCCA/TGCCCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs560544521,2
    C--204839(-) TTGGGA/GCCTGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs29620351,2
    C--204918(+) AACACG/TAATTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1878554401,2
    --205278(+) AGGTGA/GAGGTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs2010231351,2
    --205284(+) GGTTG-/CCAGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs623465221,2
    C,F--205298(+) CGAGGC/TCGCGC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs1505177691,2
    --205317(+) TCCAGC/TCTGGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1923389611,2
    --205333(+) AACGAA/GACTCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs751387661,2
    C,F--205347(+) CCCCCC/AAAAAA 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.13WA NA 242
    rs1128795151,2
    C--205371(+) AAAGG-/AAAAAA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1832512201,2
    --205435(+) AAAACA/GGACAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1394558631,2
    --205531(+) TTTGTA/TTGTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1164807001,2
    C,F--205722(+) TCGATA/GAAAGT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.03NA 120
    rs284160841,2
    C,F,H--205739(+) ACACCG/AGACAC 1 -- us2k114Minor allele frequency- A:0.11NS EA WA NA 2076
    rs737307671,2
    C,F--205744(+) GGACAT/CTTTCA 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA 4
    rs3741329901,2
    C--205899(+) TCCTCA/GGGTGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs737307681,2
    C--205925(+) ATTACG/AGAGTT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs37567181,2
    C,F,A,H--205929(-) AGAGAA/GCTCTG 1 -- us2k17Minor allele frequency- G:0.40EA NS NA WA 1606
    rs21152731,2
    C,F,A,H--206020(-) GAAACT/CTCGTG 1 -- us2k112Minor allele frequency- C:0.05EA NS NA 1602
    rs37567171,2
    C,F--206070(-) TGGAGG/TTCACA 1 -- us2k16Minor allele frequency- T:0.09NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs28649631,2
    C--206087(-) GTAATC/TGTGTG 1 -- us2k114Minor allele frequency- T:0.49MN EA NA WA CSA 1627
    rs37567151,2
    C,F--206135(-) CTCCGA/GCCTCT 1 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- G:0.35WA NA CSA 244
    rs1479280261,2
    --206182(+) GCCCCA/CCTCCG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1145331641,2
    F--206325(+) CGCGGG/AACCTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.06WA 118
    rs23037411,2
    C,A--206455(-) GCCGGA/GGTCGA 1 -- ut51 ese36Minor allele frequency- G:0.19EU NA WA EA 538
    rs32145611,2
    C--206480(-) GGGGG-/GATACC 1 -- ut51 trp30--------
    rs358052621,2
    F--206486(+) CCCCC-/CTCCCC 1 -- ut512Minor allele frequency- C:0.12EU 178
    rs1879643061,2
    C--206586(+) CCGGGA/GCCTGT 2 D G mis10--------
    rs23037401,2
    C,F--206697(-) GGGGAC/TCGTCC 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.33EA NA 1500
    rs18640901,2
    C,F--206909(-) GGCCCG/AGACCA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.02EA 180
    rs1504300971,2
    C--206928(+) TGGGA-/CCCCGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs100549021,2
    C,F,A--207121(+) GGTGAG/AACCGC 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- A:0.23NA WA EA 360
    rs100610041,2
    C,F,A--207237(+) TCTGTC/GCATGT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA CSA EA 364
    rs768678671,2
    F--207380(+) CTGACC/TGGGCG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.04CSA WA 119
    rs1510538261,2
    --207420(+) GCTGAA/GTGCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100674821,2
    C,F,A--207427(+) GCCTCT/GAGGGC 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- G:0.13WA NA CSA 128
    rs1920523161,2
    --207472(+) TATACG/TTCCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1409474681,2
    --207506(+) GAATGC/TGCCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1844603311,2
    --207522(+) ATTGCA/GTCTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1483979001,2
    --207545(+) CTAGGA/GTTTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1461469611,2
    C--207605(+) AACTT-/ACCC  
            
    ACCCA
    1 -- int10--------
    rs68598481,2
    C,F,A--207648(+) GCAGAA/GTAAAA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.26WA NA CSA EA 364
    rs68598531,2
    C,F--207660(+) TCTCAA/GTAGGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 2
    rs1418397081,2
    C--207731(+) TTGAAA/GTACTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1455026901,2
    C--207801(+) AGAAAA/GCGTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1929018431,2
    --207983(+) GTGCCC/TTTGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1380048411,2
    C--208006(+) GGTGCC/TCGGTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1494934431,2
    --208058(+) TCAGAC/TGGGAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1847704361,2
    --208224(+) CGAAGA/GAACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1892879811,2
    --208256(+) AAAAAG/TAAAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs2019954051,2
    C--208329(+) AGTCC-/AGAGAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1439619971,2
    --208511(+) GAAAAC/TCAAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs562320881,2
    C,F--208516(+) CCAAGG/AAACTT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1411525281,2
    --208524(+) CTTCAA/GTAGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1808894441,2
    --208614(+) GATTTA/CTTTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs727113211,2
    C,F--208628(+) GAATGG/TATTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120
    rs727113221,2
    C--208635(+) TTGTTC/TTGAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs727113231,2
    C,F--208680(+) GCCATT/AATAGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NA 120
    rs623465241,2
    --208684(+) TTATAG/TTAGTA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
    rs562993251,2
    C,F--208693(+) TAAACC/TTTTGC 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs623465261,2
    C,F--208713(+) TGGGAT/CAATTG 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs560430301,2
    C--209016(+) TAACCA/GTGTGT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA CSA NA EA 364
    rs1845961481,2
    --209218(+) GAGACA/GGGGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs575603391,2
    C,F--209375(+) AAAATT/ACTAGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.36WA 120
    rs583784721,2
    C,F--209376(+) AAATTC/ATAGTG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.37WA 120
    rs1892345861,2
    --209533(+) TTATCA/GGTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1819896871,2
    --209570(+) AGTTCA/GCTTAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1410641171,2
    --209578(+) TAAACC/TACCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100670211,2
    C,F--209589(+) GCTTCC/TGCTTC 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA EA 364
    rs1500057141,2
    --209590(+) CTTCCC/GCTTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs777689361,2
    C,F--209695(+) AGGTGC/TGTTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.10EA 120
    rs1869266371,2
    --209706(+) ATTAGA/TTGAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs560226471,2
    C--209858(+) TTCTT-/AGAGGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1441847881,2
    C--209859(+) TCTTG-/AAGGAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1917753291,2
    --210012(+) TTTAGA/GTTGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs93129771,2
    C,F,A--210015(+) AGATTG/CAGAGG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.24NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs93129781,2
    C,F--210029(+) AGTGTC/GCTTTT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.10NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs1811031891,2
    --210055(+) GTGATA/CATTTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1863850501,2
    --210088(+) TGCCCA/CTTTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1897175111,2
    C--210118(+) TGGTGA/GGGGGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1157653191,2
    C,F--210120(+) GTGGGG/AGGTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.01WA 118
    rs93129791,2
    C,F--210156(+) CTAGAA/CAGAAC 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.09NA WA CSA EA 364
    rs1823779051,2
    --210173(+) ACATTC/GAGTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1869091281,2
    --210177(+) TGAGTG/TATCTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1909823341,2
    --210198(+) CTTACA/GTTTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs93129801,2
    C,F,A--210222(+) TCTTAC/TTGGTG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 364
    rs1400988351,2
    C--210223(+) CTTACC/TGGTGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs2020526321,2
    C--210271(+) GAACA-/TTTTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1835481311,2
    --210355(+) TATTTA/GTTCTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1500284171,2
    --210487(+) GCAAGA/TATTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs2003579041,2
    C--210503(+) ACTTG-/AAGACA 1 -- int10--------
    rs68819201,2
    C,F,A--210510(+) GACATT/CCCTCA 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- C:0.33NA WA CSA 244
    rs1884652271,2
    --210550(+) TAAAGC/GTTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1158135751,2
    F--210569(+) CTTTTT/CTTTTT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03NA 120
    rs1452478171,2
    --210586(+) AGACGA/TTGTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1929184491,2
    --210587(+) GACGTC/TGTCTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs68820861,2
    C,F--210593(+) gtctcT/Gctctg 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- G:0.32NA WA 244
    rs1847343151,2
    --210633(+) CTAGGC/TTCACT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1491533931,2
    --210710(+) GTGCCC/TGCCAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1880645081,2
    --210715(+) CGCCAC/TGACGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1432578411,2
    C--210755(+) TGCCAC/TGTTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1917940791,2
    --210839(+) ATGAGC/TCACCG 1 -- int10--------
    rs570371611,2
    C,F--210872(+) TTGATG/AATATT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1835769681,2
    --210897(+) GTGGTC/GTTCTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs2013549401,2
    --210963(+) TATGG-/TACAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs560309431,2
    C,F--211031(+) TAAAGT/GTTTCT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1883122151,2
    --211034(+) AGTTTC/TCTAAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs600812371,2
    C,F--211113(+) GGCAGG/AGGAGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1380974181,2
    --211123(+) AGTGTA/GCATCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs68780611,2
    C,F,A--211171(+) CCTCTA/GGGCTG 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs68780871,2
    C,F,A,H--211216(+) ATTCAA/GTGTTG 1 -- int122Minor allele frequency- G:0.26NS EA NA WA CSA 2186
    rs68702281,2
    C,F,A--211313(+) CATTAC/TTTGCA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- T:0.33NA WA CSA 245
    rs1173579361,2
    F--211330(+) CACATA/GCAGTA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.03EA 120
    rs1150034611,2
    F--211332(+) CATACA/GGTAAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.01WA 118
    rs1501281811,2
    --211346(+) ATATAC/TACGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1818652181,2
    --211463(+) TCCTGC/GTTTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs68825841,2
    C,F,A--211510(+) GGCTCA/CGTCCT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.34WA NA CSA 250
    rs68745721,2
    C,F,A,H--211514(+) CAGTCT/CTTCCT 1 -- int111Minor allele frequency- C:0.40NA WA CSA EA 374
    rs1384670001,2
    C--211549(+) TAAGTA/GGAGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1424416431,2
    C,F--211723(+) GAACCC/TGAGGT 2 R * stg11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4552
    rs10615181,2,,4
    F--211729(+) GAGGTT/GTTCAC 2 /V /F mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.10MN 184
    rs346356771,2,,4
    C,F--211745(+) TGTTGA/TTGGGA 2 D V mis16Minor allele frequency- T:0.04EU NA 6172
    rs10615191,2
    H--211746(+) GTTGAT/AGGGAA 2 /E /D mis16Minor allele frequency- A:0.00MN NS EA NA 592
    rs10615201,2
    H--211753(+) GGAACA/GAGAGG 2 K E mis1 ese36Minor allele frequency- G:0.00MN NS EA NA 592
    rs1407366461,2
    C--211765(+) CATCTG/ACTAAA 2 /T /A mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4552
    rs1445998701,2
    C,F--211768(+) CTGCTA/GAAGTT 2 K E mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4552
    rs802070111,2
    C,F--211778(+) TTCAGA/GTTCCG 2 D G mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.01NA 4552
    rs1900863401,2
    --211830(+) CTTAGG/TGGGTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1817900981,2
    --211905(+) CCAATA/GCATGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs32138391,2
    C,F--211906(-) AGCATG/ACATTG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- A:0.04EA NA WA CSA 1489
    rs32138381,2
    C,F,A--211989(-) CATAAC/GAGATA 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- G:0.24WA NA EA 362
    rs1459692121,2
    C--212009(+) ACTAG-/ATTTAA
            
    ATTTA
    1 -- int10--------
    rs32173271,2
    C--212014(-) TGATC-/TAAATT
            
    TAAAT
    1 -- int10--------
    rs1864120591,2
    --212029(+) AAGTAA/TAGCAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1901660891,2
    --212030(+) AGTAAA/GGCAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs68883781,2
    C,F,A,H--212057(+) AACAGT/CGTCTG 1 -- int119Minor allele frequency- C:0.25NS EA WA NA CSA 2344
    rs1473649461,2
    --212237(+) AGAAGA/TTGTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs65550491,2
    C,F,A--212295(+) GGCATT/AAGCAT 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- A:0.25WA CSA 8
    rs65550501,2
    C,F,A--212306(+) AGGCAT/CGGCCC 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.22WA CSA 9
    rs65550511,2
    C,F,A--212310(+) ACGGCT/CCTGAA 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.22WA CSA 9
    rs65550521,2
    C,F,A--212367(+) CATTCG/ATAGAA 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- A:0.24WA NA CSA EA 369
    rs359476141,2
    C,F--212496(+) TGTCAA/GGCTCT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.12EU 178
    rs77323891,2
    C,F,A,H--212517(+) CAAGAT/GTCTTC 1 -- int116Minor allele frequency- G:0.19NA EU NS EA WA CSA 1577
    rs1429268071,2
    C--212586(+) CTCAGC/TATCCA 2 H Y mis10--------
    rs2011383241,2
    --212657(+) GCATTC/TGGCCT 2 F syn10--------
    rs2000051361,2
    --212662(+) TGGCCC/TTTCTG 2 P L mis10--------
    rs11394241,2
    C,F--212732(+) GCAGCA/GCAGGT 2 A syn16Minor allele frequency- G:0.24NA CSA EA EU 5866
    rs1115330781,2
    C,F--212755(+) CCCCAC/TTGTGC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.19EU 767
    rs2019532571,2
    C--212783(+) CCCGCA/GCAGCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs77057211,2
    C,F,A--212791(+) GCCTCG/TCACTT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.16EU WA NA CSA 189
    rs1813909871,2
    --212921(+) AGGGCA/GGGAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs616894901,2
    C,F--213003(+) CCACCT/CACCCC 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1436707961,2
    --213052(+) GAGGAA/GGAATC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1467980381,2
    --213109(+) GTGCTG/TCTGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1852852091,2
    --213174(+) CTGGGG/TTACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1898484661,2
    --213178(+) GGTACA/GGGGGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1838833411,2
    --213223(+) GGAAGC/TACTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1405289131,2
    --213278(+) AATAAA/GATTAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs68856931,2
    C,F,A,H--213366(+) CTGCTC/ACAGTC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA WA 4
    rs1888319551,2
    --213392(+) TCCCTC/GTGTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1465190141,2
    C--213404(+) CACCAC/TGCAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1917141641,2
    --213405(+) ACCACA/GCAGAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs348155601,2
    C--213427(+) GCTAAG/-GGATG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs1833342241,2
    --213478(+) CTGTCA/GGGTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1887910581,2
    --213481(+) TCGGGC/TCTCGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1916433861,2
    --213484(+) GGTCTC/GGCTGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1841511311,2
    --213524(+) GTCACC/TGTGTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1864727471,2
    --213526(+) CACTGC/TGTGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1913186151,2
    C--213592(+) TTGGCA/GCTCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1855559411,2
    C,F--213614(+) GTAAGG/TAGTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01EU 1081
    rs1904773161,2
    C--213728(+) GACCAA/GGATGC 2 Q syn10--------
    rs2014538891,2
    --213761(+) GCCCCC/TGCCGC 2 P syn10--------
    rs2005654891,2
    --213785(+) ATGGGC/TGGGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1932834681,2
    C,F--213796(+) GCTCTG/CGGTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.01EU 1307
    rs354643691,2
    C,F--213808(+) CTCGTG/AGTCTG 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- A:0.03EU WA 1819
    rs1491012591,2
    C--213838(+) CTGGAA/GAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs125200591,2
    C,H--213867(+) ATGTGG/CCAGCC 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- C:0.33NA WA EA 368
    rs1150373351,2
    --213872(+) GCAGCC/TAAAAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs614928271,2
    C--213873(+) CAGCCA/GAAAGA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.25NA CSA WA EA 363
    rs563425381,2
    C,F--213895(+) CAAAGT/CTCACA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.35WA NA CSA 247
    rs1851139451,2
    --213972(+) GTTGAC/TATTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs594525111,2
    C,F--214040(+) AGCTGC/TGAATA 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- T:0.28WA NA CSA EA 370
    rs1892434891,2
    C--214069(+) GTTAAA/GGTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1812787591,2
    --214156(+) CGTGCA/GTTTGG 2 A syn10--------
    rs617333441,2
    C,F--214189(+) AAGGGC/TGGGCA 2 G syn13Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NS NA EU 5949
    rs1482460731,2
    C--214190(+) AGGGCA/GGGCAG 2 R G mis10--------
    rs1996180591,2
    --214198(+) CAGGCC/TCATCG 2 A syn10--------
    rs1398814151,2
    F--214203(+) CCATCG/AGTGCT 2 /Q /R mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4552
    rs2019674131,2
    C--214240(+) TCGCTA/GTTGCA 2 L syn11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00EU 1323
    rs65550551,2
    C,F,A,H--214259(+) ATGGAA/CGGGTA 2 R syn123Minor allele frequency- C:0.26EU NS EA WA NA CSA 8319
    rs65550561,2
    C,F,A--214321(+) GACAGT/CGGGGA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.09WA NA CSA EA 248
    rs65550571,2
    C,F,A,H--214363(+) GATTAC/TGTAAA 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NS EA NA WA CSA 296
    rs1857297481,2
    --214379(+) ACAGAC/GAACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1379828341,2
    C--214389(+) GCAGCA/GTGGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1434218111,2
    --214396(+) GGGGCA/GCATGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1881392871,2
    --214413(+) TGTGGA/GTGTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs65550581,2
    C,F,A,H--214475(+) CTTGCA/GTCTAT 1 -- int122Minor allele frequency- G:0.26NS EA NA WA 2636
    rs65550591,2
    C,F,H--214552(+) CAAGAA/GCAGAG 1 -- int123Minor allele frequency- G:0.40NS EA NA WA CSA 2348
    rs1471287171,2
    --214648(+) TGAGAA/CCAGCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1383482231,2
    --214682(+) CTCTAC/TAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1809457841,2
    --214698(+) AAAATC/TAGCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1861936711,2
    --214797(+) GCCATA/GTTCGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1919091171,2
    --214828(+) GCAACA/GGGAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs100430021,2
    C,F,H--214852(+) aaagaG/Aaaaga 1 -- int1 trp39Minor allele frequency- A:0.24NS EA WA CSA NA 730
    rs1842100051,2
    --214872(+) GTGCGA/GTGGCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1858516171,2
    --215060(+) ATGGCA/GTGAAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1905143171,2
    C--215247(+) TGAGAC/TGGAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1823937561,2
    --215255(+) AGTCTC/TACTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1870756801,2
    C--215373(+) GCGCAC/TGCCAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1926217171,2
    --215433(+) TGCCCA/GGGCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1443518071,2
    --215446(+) CCCGAA/GCTCCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1487667461,2
    --215460(+) CTCAGA/GCAGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs623476751,2
    C,F--215483(+) CCTCCG/CAAAGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.50NA CSA 4
    rs623476761,2
    C,F--215498(+) GGATTG/ACAGGC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.50NA CSA 4
    rs623476771,2
    C,F--215552(+) TTAACA/GCTGAA 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- G:0.35WA NA CSA 246
    rs623476781,2
    C,F--215595(+) ATCAGA/GGTCAA 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- G:0.13NA WA CSA 126
    rs1396161001,2
    C--215632(+) ACGGT-/AATTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1395725371,2
    C--215684(+) CATGGA/GGACGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs730314821,2
    C,F--215693(+) GGATCG/ATTAAT 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- A:0.34WA CSA NA 242
    rs2017806661,2
    C--215730(+) TTCTC-/TGTGGCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs737307721,2
    C--215779(+) GCTCCG/ATCTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00WA 2
    rs1510347551,2
    C--215822(+) GCTTAC/TAAGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs737307731,2
    C--215823(+) CTTACG/AAGAGC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00WA 2
    rs1121632771,2
    C--215835(+) ACTTGC/TGCTGG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1824949601,2
    --215837(+) TTGTGC/TTGGCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1880099341,2
    --215900(+) GGTGCC/TGGAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1930890311,2
    C--215926(+) CGTCCA/GCTTTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1138466181,2
    C,F--215969(+) GTGGCT/AGGTGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1888997331,2
    --215979(+) TAGCTA/GAAGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1922071441,2
    --215980(+) AGCTGA/CAGAGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1124203131,2
    C,F--215990(+) CTGAAC/TGTTTT 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- T:0.33WA CSA 6
    rs1123144341,2
    C,F--215998(+) TTTGAT/CTTATT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA CSA 4
    rs1413539961,2
    --216067(+) GTCTGC/TGGACC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1134385481,2
    C,F--216092(+) GACTCT/CGAGTG 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- C:0.33WA CSA 6
    rs623476791,2
    C,F--216116(+) CCACCA/GGACAG 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- G:0.33WA CSA 6
    rs1885826921,2
    --216139(+) CTTCGC/GGTTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs74455091,2
    C,F--216170(+) ACCAAA/CATAGG 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.04WA CSA NA 126
    rs1815308461,2
    --216209(+) CCTGCC/GTTGTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs771460431,2
    C--216215(+) TTGTCG/TGTACT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1859121661,2
    --216224(+) CTGCTC/TGGCGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs21628701,2
    C,F--216228(-) TTCCAC/TGCCGA 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.22WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1896426201,2
    --216258(+) GTGTCA/GCTGAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1819267581,2
    --216306(+) GGATCA/CAGTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs37649821,2
    C,F,A,H--216320(-) GTGAAT/CAGGTG 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.08EA NS CSA 1902
    rs38350681,2
    C--216378(-) AAAAA-/AGGGCA 1 -- int1 trp31Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs21152721,2
    C,F,A,H--216461(-) TCCCCA/GTTCTC 2 N syn113Minor allele frequency- G:0.22EA NS NA EU WA CSA 7451
    rs1445138911,2
    C,F--216481(+) TGTCAT/CCGCAC 2 /T /I mis12Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs1466536931,2
    C,F--216500(+) GAGGAC/TGGGTC 2 D syn12Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs2012455361,2
    C--216559(+) ATCTCA/GTTTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1420262171,2
    --216645(+) AATAAC/TGGTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1862980581,2
    --216710(+) TCCTCA/TCCTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100426041,2
    C,F,H--216786(+) TTGCCC/ATCAGG 1 -- int112Minor allele frequency- A:0.19NA NS EA WA CSA 675
    rs1999492811,2
    --216810(+) CTCCC-/AAATTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1903665711,2
    --216837(+) GCCCAA/CAGAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs591380071,2
    C,F--217071(+) ATGTGT/CAATAA 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- C:0.39WA 122
    rs760383121,2
    C,F--217104(+) AAAAAA/GAAACC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.05NA 122
    rs287295481,2
    C,F--217124(+) ACAACC/TTACTA 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1156684101,2
    F--217288(+) CATCTC/TATCTC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120
    rs96876211,2
    C,F--217293(+) catctC/Tgctcc 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.10WA CSA NA EA 362
    rs2010672131,2
    C--217328(+) GACAAA/GAGAGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1389298841,2
    --217378(+) GCTGTC/TGGTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs96877451,2
    C,F--217408(+) tattaC/Tggaaa 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.33NA WA CSA 248
    rs1829613371,2
    --217426(+) AGGTTC/TCTCAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1859814291,2
    --217438(+) ATTCAA/TAGGAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs96881361,2
    C,F,A--217447(+) actacT/Catgtg 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- C:0.25WA NA CSA EA 366
    rs1911247001,2
    --217448(+) CTACTA/GTGTGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs730314951,2
    C,F--217566(+) ATGGAA/GACAAC 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- G:0.38WA 122
    rs96881441,2
    C,F--217642(+) gaaaaT/Cgaagg 1 -- int14Minor allele frequency- C:0.07NA CSA EA 244
    rs1834349541,2
    --217715(+) AGGCAA/CAGAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1158776791,2
    C,F--217743(+) ACTCAT/CGTGGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.02NA 120
    rs1875928011,2
    C--217819(+) AGACTA/GTGGCG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1128243441,2
    C--217856(+) TTACAG/AGGTGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1126773991,2
    C,F--217876(+) GGTCTA/GATATA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.32WA 120
    rs1129487671,2
    C,F--217880(+) TAATAT/AACAAC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.14WA 120
    rs1126042941,2
    C,F--217884(+) ATACAA/GCATGG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.13WA 120
    rs1115644421,2
    C,F--217973(+) GCATGG/ATGGTT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.47WA 120
    rs1137421711,2
    C,F--217977(+) GGTGGC/TTAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1832574591,2
    --217978(+) GTGGTC/TAGAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1138324541,2
    C,F--218005(+) GGTGGC/TTAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1135330021,2
    C,F--218034(+) GTGGCC/TAGAGT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00WA 2
    rs1844685121,2
    --218061(+) GCTGGC/TTATCG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1888175951,2
    --218064(+) GGCTAG/TCGTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1926962421,2
    --218065(+) GCTATA/CGTTAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs623476811,2
    C,F--218090(+) GTGGCC/TAGAGT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA CSA 4
    rs1848959701,2
    --218124(+) AGAGTA/TAACAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1890130201,2
    --218201(+) GGCTAG/TAGTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1463506131,2
    --218212(+) ACATTA/GTACAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1396485721,2
    C--218236(+) GTTAAC/TATTAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1809725901,2
    --218283(+) ATTTGC/TGAAGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs10419461,2,,4
    --218286(+) GCATAG/CAGGAC 2 /Q /E mis1 ese32Minor allele frequency- C:0.17MN NA 186
    rs559338471,2
    C,F--218392(+) CATCAC/TGCTGT 1 -- int17Minor allele frequency- T:0.24WA NA CSA EA 365
    rs1846019751,2
    --218393(+) ATCACA/GCTGTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1482413931,2
    C--218412(+) TATAT-/ACAGTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs350079541,2
    C--218413(+) ATATA-/ACGTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs623476831,2
    C,F--218430(+) AAATTC/TATCAA 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.35WA NA 244
    rs2014761161,2
    C--218458(+) TGGGG-/GAGAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs557507761,2
    C,F--218566(+) AGGTGT/CGCAGT 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- C:0.24WA CSA NA EA 364
    rs1892467431,2
    --218567(+) GGTGTA/GCAGTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs559514311,2
    C,F--218591(+) ATCCCA/GGCACT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- G:0.25WA CSA 4
    rs1487135691,2
    --218608(+) GGCCAA/CAGTGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1819949051,2
    --218655(+) GGCCAA/GCATGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs119585641,2
    C,H--218667(+) gaaacC/Gccatc 1 -- int10--------
    rs1512222811,2
    --218701(+) CTGGGC/TGTGGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs100690741,2
    C,F--218702(+) tgggcG/Atggtg 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA CSA 4
    rs145266996