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SDHA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC05P000208

Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A, Flavoprotein...


(Previous symbol: SDH2)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A, Flavoprotein (Fp)1 2     SDH12 5
SDH21 2 3     FP2
SDHF2 3 5     Succinate Dehydrogenase [Ubiquinone] Flavoprotein Subunit, Mitochondrial2
Flavoprotein Subunit Of Complex II2 3     Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex Flavoprotein Subunit2
CMD1GG2 5     EC 1.3.5.13
PGL52 5     Fp3

External Ids:    HGNC: 106801   Entrez Gene: 63892   Ensembl: ENSG000000735787   OMIM: 6008575   UniProtKB: P310403   

Export aliases for SDHA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05P000259 GC05P000271


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for SDHA Gene:
This gene encodes a major catalytic subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a complex of the mitochondrial
respiratory chain. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial
inner membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a form of mitochondrial respiratory chain
deficiency known as Leigh Syndrome. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 3q29. (provided by RefSeq, Jul
2008)

GeneCards Summary for SDHA Gene:
SDHA (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with SDHA include leigh syndrome with leukodystrophy, and paragangliomas 5. GO annotations related to this gene include succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
Function: Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the
mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone
(coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor

Gene Wiki entry for SDHA Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000005.10  NT_006576.17  NC_018916.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the SDHA gene promoter:
         GATA-3   p53   Brachyury   ATF-2   FOXD3   CUTL1   Ik-3   Evi-1   HOXA5   CBF(2)   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidSDHA promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for SDHA

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat SDHA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5p15   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5p15.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5p15

SDHA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
SDHA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05P000208:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
218,356 bp from pter      End:
256,815 bp from pter
Size:
38,460 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 664 amino acids; 72692 Da
Cofactor: FAD
Subunit: Component of complex II composed of four subunits: the flavoprotein (FP) SDHA, iron-sulfur protein (IP)
SDHB, and a cytochrome b560 composed of SDHC and SDHD. Interacts with SDHAF2/SDH5; interaction is required for
FAD attachment. Interacts with TRAP1
Miscellaneous: The complex, present in mitochondria, can be degraded to form EC 1.3.99.1, which no longer reacts
with ubiquinone
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA37886.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Differs extensively from that shown;
Secondary accessions: A8K5J6 Q16395 Q9UMY5

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for SDHA: NX_P31040

Explore proteomics data for SDHA at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylation at Tyr-215 is important for efficient electron transfer in complex II and the prevention of ROS
    generation1
  • Deacetylated by SIRT3 (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys92, Lys179, Lys335, Lys608
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See SDHA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004159.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000264932   ENSP00000426514   ENSP00000427703   ENSP00000425077   ENSP00000422404  
     ENSP00000421911  
    Reactome Protein details: P31040

    SDHA Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    SDHA Assay Products:

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    comII: Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex / Complex II

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR027477 Succ_DH/fumarate_Rdtase_cat
     IPR015939 Fum_Rdtase/Succ_DH_flav-like_C
     IPR003952 FRD_SDH_FAD_BS
     IPR011281 Succ_DH_flav_su_fwd
     IPR003953 FAD_bind_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P31040

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P31040

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003952 Fumarate reductase/succinate dehydrogenase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
    Similarity: Belongs to the FAD-dependent oxidoreductase 2 family. FRD/SDH subfamily


    SDHA for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
    Function: Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the
    mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone
    (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor
    Catalytic activity: Succinate + ubiquinone = fumarate + ubiquinol

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for SDHA:
    succinate dehydrogenase,flavoprotein,inner mitochondrial membrane,component,70kDa,of complex II of mitochondrial
    respiratory chain,oxidative phosphorylation,(OXPHOS),also catalyzing the seventh step of the citric acid cycle

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.3.5.11

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000104contributes to succinate dehydrogenase activity IMP7550341
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI15961414
    GO:0008177succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity IEA--
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    GO:0016627oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors ----
         
    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for SDHA:
     Decreased Salmonella enterica  

         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Sdha (no phenotypes)

    SDHA for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for SDHA
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for SDHA

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for SDHA
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for SDHA

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target SDHA:
    hsa-mir-17-5p (MIRT050937), hsa-mir-106a-5p (MIRT048336), hsa-mir-760 (MIRT036723), hsa-mir-222-3p (MIRT046836)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat SDHA using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate SDHA
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidSDHA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for SDHA
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat SDHA

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for SDHA

    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: SDHA (NM_004168)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for SDHA
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SDHA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SDHA

    Cell Line
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SDHA


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    SDHA_HUMAN, P31040: Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Matrix side
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005743mitochondrial inner membrane TAS--
    GO:0005749mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II TAS7550341

    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for SDHA About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)0.55
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle0.43
    Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)0.55
    TCA Cycle0.00
    Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle0.49
    TCA cycle0.00
    2Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.0.81
    Oxidative phosphorylation0.64
    Respiratory electron transport0.81
    Parkinson's disease0.57
    Electron Transport Chain0.75
    Huntington's disease0.45
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.71
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)0.41
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    4Alzheimer's disease
    Alzheimer's disease0.44
    5Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for SDHA
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    4 BioSystems Pathways for SDHA
        TCA Cycle
    Electron Transport Chain
    TCA cycle
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle


    2 Reactome Pathways for SDHA
        Respiratory electron transport
    Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for SDHA) (see all 8):
        Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
    Oxidative phosphorylation
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
    Pathway: Carbohydrate metabolism; tricarboxylic acid cycle; fumarate from succinate (eukaryal route): step 1/1


    SDHA for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including SDHA: 

              Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Housekeeping Genes PCR Array in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for SDHA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for SDHA (P310401, 2, 3 ENSP000002649324) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 98)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CSNK2BP678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000206406P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000224398P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000224774P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000228875P678702, 3MINT-8253638 I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006099tricarboxylic acid cycle TAS7550341
    GO:0006105succinate metabolic process IDA7550341
    GO:0007399nervous system development IMP16361598
    GO:0022900electron transport chain ----
    GO:0022904respiratory electron transport chain TAS--

    SDHA for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for SDHA

    9 HMDB Compounds for SDHA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    Fumaric acid(2E)-But-2-enedioate (see all 22)110-17-8--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--
    QH2CoQH2 (see all 5)56275-39-9--
    Succinic acid1,2-Ethanedicarboxylate (see all 11)110-15-6--
    SulfideSulfide (see all 4)18496-25-8--
    Ubiquinol 8ubiquinol-8 (see all 2)56275-39-9--
    Ubiquinone Q1Coenzyme Q (see all 9)727-81-1--
    Ubiquinone Q22-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (see all 7)606-06-4--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for SDHA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Succinic acid1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid (see all 8)110-15-6target--16484232 10779596 17139284 17016423 12231007
    2-Hexyloxy-6-Hydroxymethyl-Tetrahydro-Pyran-3,4,5-Triol-- --target--10592235
    Carboxin2,3-Dihydro-5-carboxanilido-6-methyl-1,4-oxathiin (see all 6)5234-68-4target--10592235
    Thenoyltrifluoroacetone.alpha.-Thenoyltrifluoroacetone (see all 7)326-91-0target--10592235
    UBIQUINONE-1-- --target--10592235

    8 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SDHA gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    succinate 86.9 32 9467555 (3), 10199764 (2), 17376234 (2), 11404820 (1) (see all 25)
    iron-sulfur 76.4 8 11692162 (1), 8161512 (1), 10799306 (1), 9533030 (1) (see all 8)
    glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 58.7 4 17026756 (1), 19036168 (1), 17324259 (1), 18460208 (1)
    ubiquinone 42.4 1 15989954 (1)
    flavin 38.2 3 12699430 (1), 7798181 (1)
    nadh 31.5 9 8161512 (1), 15250765 (1), 9396029 (1)
    nad+ 26.7 2 15250765 (1), 9396029 (1)
    oxygen 0 2 11692162 (1), 17376234 (1)



    SDHA for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for SDHA gene: 
    NM_004168.2  

    Unigene Cluster for SDHA:

    Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp)
    Hs.440475  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_004168
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 19):
    ENST00000264932(uc003jao.4 uc011clw.2 uc021xvu.1) ENST00000504309
    ENST00000502379 ENST00000505555(uc011clv.1) ENST00000510361 ENST00000509632
    ENST00000504824 ENST00000509420 ENST00000514027(uc003jaq.4) ENST00000514233
    ENST00000512962 ENST00000515752 ENST00000511810 ENST00000515815 ENST00000509082
    ENST00000503674 ENST00000507266 ENST00000509564
    miRNA
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    Clone
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: SDHA (NM_004168)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SDHA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SDHA
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SDHA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SDHA
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SDHA
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB208991.1 AK094879.1 AK225027.1 AK291311.1 AK295937.1 AK302524.1 BC001380.2 BC004328.1 
    BC041016.1 D30648.1 L21936.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 38):

    DT.95100115  DT.97817039  DT.454057  DT.100879599  DT.120852151  DT.120852084  DT.92464244  DT.91864402 
    DT.100879621  DT.102843654  DT.120852170  DT.100879608  DT.120852132  DT.97860756  DT.120852137  DT.95100142 
    DT.120852102  DT.92464258  DT.100725649  DT.120852080  DT.120852152  DT.120852163  DT.92464266  DT.95100124 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 571):

    BG335484 CB528304 AL560291 AL559630 M78107 CB529921 AA532984 BF475953 
    CA429873 CR624138 AW003399 AU279614 F06126 BQ050641 AA340287 BU173959 
    BU542449 BU846083 AA738428 BQ672437 BE734438 BU152637 CR592508 AI307149 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    SDHA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TCATAACTGT
    SDHA Expression
    About this image


    SDHA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 16) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Midbrain tegmentum
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
             Oviduct
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             Thymus
    SDHA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    SDHA Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.440475
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including SDHA: 
              Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Housekeeping Genes PCR Array in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SDHA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SDHA
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SDHA
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SDHA
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SDHA

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for SDHA gene from Selected species (see all 29)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Sdha1 , 5 succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein more1, 5 86.65(n)1
    94.88(a)1
      13 (40.15 cM)5
    669451  NM_023281.11  NP_075770.11 
     743222545 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves SDHA1 succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein more 77.96(n)
    89.16(a)
      395758  NM_001277398.1  NP_001264327.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia SDHA6
    succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavop...
    88(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    6(56572378-56594714)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC685182 hypothetical protein MGC68518 77.65(n)    BC060446.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc560512 similar to succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit more 77.01(n)   393884  BC045885.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Scs-fp3
    SdhA1
    tricarboxylic acid cycle succinate-CoA
    ligase more3
    Succinate dehydrogenase A1
    73(a)
    (best of 2)3
    68.13(n)1
    74.66(a)1
      2 56D33
    372281  NM_166344.21  NP_725882.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C03G5.13
    sdha-11
    succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein
    subunit3
    sdha-11
    72(a)
    (best of 2)3
    64.52(n)1
    73.39(a)1
      X(8578453-8581258)3
    1811081  NM_077045.51  NP_509446.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes SDH1(YKL148C)4
    SDH11
    Flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh1p, more4
    SDH11
    61.93(n)1
    66.67(a)1
      11(171129-169207)4
    8537091, 4  NP_012774.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons SDH1-11 SDH1-1 64.04(n)
    70.81(a)
      836809  NM_126074.2  NP_201477.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.225812 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 73.38(n)    AK099460.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for SDHA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for SDHA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for SDHA gene

    SDHA for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    4 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for SDHA
    PGOHUM00000250273 PGOHUM00000250275 PGOHUM00000250313 PGOHUM00000251283


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for SDHA (see all 1415)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0659754
    Paragangliomas 5 (PGL5)4--see VAR_0659752 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0024494
    Leigh syndrome (LS)4--see VAR_0024492 R W mis40--------
    VAR_0168784
    Leigh syndrome (LS)4--see VAR_0168782 A V mis40--------
    VAR_0168794
    Mitochondrial complex II deficiency (MT-C2D)4--see VAR_0168792 G E mis40--------
    rs10615171,2
    Cpathogenic1206570(+) CAGACA/C/GTGTCG 2 M L mis1 ese31NA 2
    rs98092191,2
    C,Fpathogenic1239313(+) TTGACC/TGGGGT 2 R W mis12Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 4
    rs1431935241,2
    --204487(+) TCACTC/GGATCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1913590981,2
    --204488(+) CACTCA/GATCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1831798261,2
    --204493(+) GATCTA/GCCCAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs49569981,2
    C--204546(+) CGCCCA/TGCCCA 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for SDHA (218356 - 256815 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for SDHA (see all 12):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv523382CNV Loss19592680
    nsv881455CNV Loss21882294
    dgv5878n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv880815CNV Loss21882294
    nsv10645CNV Loss18304495
    nsv428458CNV Loss18775914
    esv2752083CNV Gain17911159
    nsv518607CNV Gain19592680
    nsv10644CNV Gain+Loss18304495
    essv22552CNV CNV17122850

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): SDHA
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): SDHA

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing SDHA
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for SDHA

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 600857   
    OMIM disorders: 256000  252011  613642  614165  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SDHA_HUMAN, P31040
  • Mitochondrial complex II deficiency (MT-C2D) [MIM:252011]: A disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory
    chain with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Clinical features include psychomotor regression in infants,
    poor growth with lack of speech development, severe spastic quadriplegia, dystonia, progressive
    leukoencephalopathy, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, cardiomyopathy. Some patients manifest Leigh syndrome
    or Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Leigh syndrome (LS) [MIM:256000]: An early-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by
    the presence of focal, bilateral lesions in one or more areas of the central nervous system including the
    brainstem, thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and spinal cord. Clinical features depend on which areas of the
    central nervous system are involved and include subacute onset of psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, ataxia,
    weakness, vision loss, eye movement abnormalities, seizures, and dysphagia. Note=The disease is caused by
    mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Cardiomyopathy, dilated 1GG (CMD1GG) [MIM:613642]: A disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and
    impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of
    premature death. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Paragangliomas 5 (PGL5) [MIM:614165]: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue
    of a paraganglion. Paragangliomas can develop at various body sites, including the head, neck, thorax and
    abdomen. Most commonly, they are located in the head and neck region, specifically at the carotid bifurcation,
    the jugular foramen, the vagal nerve, and in the middle ear. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting
    the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for SDHA (see all 58):    
    About MalaCards
    leigh syndrome with leukodystrophy    paragangliomas 5    sdha-related hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome    mitochondrial respiratory chain complex ii deficiency, sdha-related
    cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1gg    complex partial epilepsy    mitochondrial complex ii deficiency    cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1w
    hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndromes    seminal vesicle tumor    paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma    leigh disease
    acute myocarditis    gastrointestinal stromal tumor    paraganglioma    neural crest tumor
    carney triad    quadriplegia    spastic quadriplegia    chondroma

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for SDHA:
    Paraganglioma     Leigh disease     Seminal vesicle tumor     Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    SDHA for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SDHA gene (see all 11)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy 90.1 1 11952037 (1)
    paraganglioma 75.2 3 11404820 (1), 11692162 (1), 16288654 (1)
    leigh syndrome 72.6 4 12794685 (1), 16288654 (1), 16361598 (1)
    hyperthyroidism 67.7 5 9467555 (2), 10199764 (1), 18568642 (1), 11952037 (1)
    hashimotos thyroiditis 61.5 1 11952037 (1)
    pheochromocytoma 56.1 1 16288654 (1)
    eye diseases 51.8 1 17042681 (1)
    autoimmunity 49.3 2 12568121 (1), 15164997 (1)
    neurodegenerative diseases 27.9 1 15795514 (1)
    tumors 8.9 1 17551252 (1)

    Genatlas disease: SDHA
    lactate acidosis,Leigh syndrome presenting as a leukodystrophy

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): SDHA
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: SDHA (3 documents)

    Export disorders for SDHA gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for SDHA gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 121) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with SDHA)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase): cDNA cloning of the flavoprotein (Fp) subunit of liver mitochondria. (PubMed id 7798181)1, 2, 3, 9 Hirawake H.... Kita K. (J. Biochem. 1994)
    2. Homozygous Gly555Glu mutation in the nuclear-encoded 70 kDa flavoprotein gene causes instability of the respiratory chain complex II. (PubMed id 12794685)1, 2, 9 Van Coster R.... Lissens W. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2003)
    3. Compound heterozygous mutations in the flavoprotein gene of the respiratory chain complex II in a patient with Leigh syndrome. (PubMed id 10746566)1, 2, 9 Parfait B.... Rustin P. (Hum. Genet. 2000)
    4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in succinate dehydrogenase subunits and citrate synthase genes: association results for impaired spermatogenesis. (PubMed id 17298551)1, 4, 9 Bonache S....Larriba S. (Int. J. Androl. 2007)
    5. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    6. Familial neonatal isolated cardiomyopathy caused by a mutation in the flavoprotein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 20551992)1, 2 Levitas A.... Parvari R. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    7. SDH5, a gene required for flavination of succinate dehydrogenase, is mutated in paraganglioma. (PubMed id 19628817)1, 2 Hao H.-X.... Rutter J. (Science 2009)
    8. Polymorphisms in mitochondrial genes and prostate cancer risk. (PubMed id 19064571)1, 4 Wang L....Thibodeau S.N. (amp 2008)
    9. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    10. Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes. (PubMed id 15242332)1, 2 Aboulaich N.... Vener A.V. (Biochem. J. 2004)
    11. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    12. Mutation of a nuclear succinate dehydrogenase gene results in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. (PubMed id 7550341)1, 2 Bourgeron T.... Roetig A. (Nat. Genet. 1995)
    13. The cDNA sequence of the flavoprotein subunit of human heart succinate dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 8142412)1, 2 Morris A.A.M....Birch-MacHin M.A. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1994)
    14. Sequence variation in human succinate dehydrogenase genes: evidence for long-term balancing selection on SDHA. (PubMed id 17376234)1, 9 Baysal B.E....Ferrell R.E. (BMC Biol. 2007)
    15. Leigh syndrome caused by mutations in the flavoprotein (Fp) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA). (PubMed id 16361598)1, 9 HorvA!th R....Jaksch M. (J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 2006)
    16. Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in human. (PubMed id 16143825)1, 9 BriA"re J.J....Rustin P. (Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2005)
    17. Frataxin interacts functionally with mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins. (PubMed id 15961414)1, 9 Gonzalez-Cabo P....Palau F. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2005)
    18. Cytopathies involving mitochondrial complex II. (PubMed id 12231007)7, 9 Ackrell B.A. (Mol. Aspects Med. 2002)
    19. Respiratory chain complex II as general sensor for apoptosis. (PubMed id 23000077)1 Grimm S. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2013)
    20. Mitochondrial complex II and genomic imprinting in inheritance of paraganglioma tumors. (PubMed id 23291190)1 Baysal B.E. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2013)
    21. Familial SDHA mutation associated with pituitary adenoma and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. (PubMed id 23633203)1 Dwight T....Clifton-Bligh R.J. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2013)
    22. Identification of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient bladder paragangliomas. (PubMed id 23797725)1 Mason E.F....Barletta J.A. (Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2013)
    23. Loss of expression of SDHA predicts SDHA mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (PubMed id 22955521)1 Wagner A.J....Hornick J.L. (Mod. Pathol. 2013)
    24. The role of complex II in disease. (PubMed id 23174333)1 Hoekstra A.S. and Bayley J.P. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2013)
    25. Pathway Analysis of ChIP-Seq-Based NRF1 Target Genes Suggests a Logical Hypothesis of their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases. (PubMed id 24250222)1 Satoh J....Yamamoto Y. (Gene Regul Syst Bio 2013)
    26. Skeletal muscle MnSOD, mitochondrial complex II, and SIRT3 enzyme activities are decreased in maternal obesity during human pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus. (PubMed id 23956348)1 Boyle K.E....Friedman J.E. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2013)
    27. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and frequent mutational inactivation of SDHA in wild-type SDHB-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (PubMed id 23109135)1 Belinsky M.G....Mehren M.v. (amp 2013)
    28. Immunohistochemical loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA) in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) signals SDHA germline mutation. (PubMed id 23282968)1 Miettinen M....Meltzer P. (Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2013)
    29. Emerging concepts in the flavinylation of succinate dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 23380393)1 Kim H.J. and Winge D.R. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2013)
    30. Loss of SDHA expression identifies SDHA mutations in succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (PubMed id 23060355)1 Dwight T....Gill A.J. (Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 2013)
    31. The mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1 promotes neoplastic growth by inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase. (PubMed id 23747254)2 Sciacovelli M.... Rasola A. (Cell Metab. 2013)
    32. SDHA mutations in adult and pediatric wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (PubMed id 23174939)1 Oudijk L....Dinjens W.N. (Mod. Pathol. 2013)
    33. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    34. Proteomic analysis of I+4I^1 integrin adhesion complexes reveals I+-subunit-dependent protein recruitment. (PubMed id 22623428)1 Byron A....Humphries M.J. (Proteomics 2012)
    35. The proteomic analysis of endogenous FAT10 substrates identifies p62/SQSTM1 as a substrate of FAT10ylation. (PubMed id 22797925)1 Aichem A....Groettrup M. (J. Cell. Sci. 2012)
    36. Global landscape of HIV-human protein complexes. (PubMed id 22190034)1 JAoger S....Krogan N.J. (Nature 2012)
    37. Inhibition of I+-KG-dependent histone and DNA demethylases by fumarate and succinate that are accumulated in mutations of FH and SDH tumor suppressors. (PubMed id 22677546)1 Xiao M....Guan K.L. (amp 2012)
    38. Methods for quantification of in vivo changes in protein ubiquitination following proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibition. (PubMed id 22505724)1 Udeshi N.D....Carr S.A. (amp 2012)
    39. Mitochondrial c-Src regulates cell survival through phosphorylation of respiratory chain components. (PubMed id 22823520)2 Ogura M.... Homma Y. (Biochem. J. 2012)
    40. SDHA loss of function mutations in a subset of young adult wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (PubMed id 22974104)1 Italiano A....Antonescu C.R. (BMC Cancer 2012)
    41. Recessive germline SDHA and SDHB mutations causing leukodystrophy and isolated mitochondrial complex II deficiency. (PubMed id 22972948)1 Alston C.L....Taylor R.W. (J. Med. Genet. 2012)
    42. Proteomic analysis identifies dysfunction in cellular transport, energy, and protein metabolism in different brain regions of atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration. (PubMed id 22360420)1 Martins-de-Souza D....Bahn S. (J. Proteome Res. 2012)
    43. Functional proteomics establishes the interaction of SIRT7 with chromatin remodeling complexes and expands its role in regulation of RNA polymerase I transcription. (PubMed id 22586326)1 Tsai Y.C.... Cristea I.M. (Mol. Cell. Proteomics 2012)
    44. Proteomic identification of common SCF ubiquitin ligase FBXO6-interacting glycoproteins in three kinds of cells. (PubMed id 22268729)1 Liu B....Wang L.S. (J. Proteome Res. 2012)
    45. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    46. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    47. A directed protein interaction network for investigating intracellular signal transduction. (PubMed id 21900206)1 Vinayagam A....Wanker E.E. (Sci Signal 2011)
    48. SDHA loss-of-function mutations in KIT-PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors identified by massively parallel sequencing. (PubMed id 21505157)1 Pantaleo M.A....Biasco G. (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2011)
    49. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)
    50. Global identification of modular cullin-RING ligase substrates. (PubMed id 21963094)1 Emanuele M.J....Elledge S.J. (Cell 2011)
    51. Ubiquitin ligase substrate identification through quantitative proteomics at both the protein and peptide levels. (PubMed id 21987572)1 Lee K.A....Doedens J.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2011)
    52. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    53. A functional peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, ICT1, has been recruited into the human mitochondrial ribosome. (PubMed id 20186120)1 Richter R....Chrzanowska-Lightowlers Z.M. (EMBO J. 2010)
    54. SDHA is a tumor suppressor gene causing paraganglioma. (PubMed id 20484225)2 Burnichon N.... Gimenez-Roqueplo A.P. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2010)
    55. Calcium signalling-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetics regulation in respiratory chain Complex II deficiency. (PubMed id 20489732)1 Mbaya E....Chami M. (Cell Death Differ. 2010)
    56. Patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy fail to compensate impaired oxidative phosphorylation. (PubMed id 19836344)1 Korsten A....Sluiter W. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2010)
    57. Mitochondrial respiratory chain in the colonic mucosal of patients with ulcerative colitis. (PubMed id 20440543)1 Sifroni K.G....Streck E.L. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2010)
    58. Dynamics of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase network revealed by systematic quantitative proteomics. (PubMed id 21145461)1 Bennett E.J....Harper J.W. (Cell 2010)
    59. Proteomic analysis of integrin-associated complexes identifies RCC2 as a dual regulator of Rac1 and Arf6. (PubMed id 19738201)1 Humphries J.D....Humphries M.J. (Sci Signal 2009)
    60. LC-MS/MS as an alternative for SDS-PAGE in blue native analysis of protein complexes. (PubMed id 19688755)1 Wessels H.J....Farhoud M.H. (Proteomics 2009)
    61. Regulation of succinate-ubiquinone reductase and fumarate reductase activities in human complex II by phosphorylation of its flavoprotein subunit. (PubMed id 19644226)1 Tomitsuka E....Esumi H. (Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci. 2009)
    62. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. (PubMed id 19608861)2 Choudhary C.... Mann M. (Science 2009)
    63. Quantitative analysis of global ubiquitination in HeLa cells by mass spectrometry. (PubMed id 18781797)1 Meierhofer D.... Kaiser P. (J. Proteome Res. 2008)
    64. Coupling mitochondrial respiratory chain to cell death: an essential role of mitochondrial complex I in the interferon-beta and retinoic acid-induced cancer cell death. (PubMed id 16826196)1 Huang G....Cao X. (Cell Death Differ. 2007)
    65. Functional specialization of beta-arrestin interactions revealed by proteomic analysis. (PubMed id 17620599)1 Xiao K....Lefkowitz R.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007)
    66. Fumarate reductase and succinate oxidase activity of Escherichia coli complex II homologs are perturbed differently by mutation of the flavin binding domain. (PubMed id 16484232)7 Maklashina E....Cecchini G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    67. Housekeeping genes for phylogenetic analysis of eutherian relationships. (PubMed id 16751257)1 Kullberg M.... Janke A. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 2006)
    68. How many drug targets are there? (PubMed id 17139284)7 Overington J.P....Hopkins A.L. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    69. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PubMed id 17016423)7 Imming P....Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    70. Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes. (PubMed id 16344560)1 Kimura K.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2006)
    71. Large-scale analysis of the human ubiquitin-related proteome. (PubMed id 16196087)1 Matsumoto M....Nakayama K.I. (Proteomics 2005)
    72. A role for mitochondrial enzymes in inherited neoplasia and beyond. (PubMed id 12612654)1 Eng C....Aaltonen L.A. (Nat. Rev. Cancer 2003)
    73. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    74. Decreased SLIM1 expression and increased gelsolin expression in failing human hearts measured by high-density oligonucleotide arrays. (PubMed id 11120693)1 Yang J....Bond M. (Circulation 2000)
    75. Succinate dehydrogenase in Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria: molecular characterization of the SDHA and SDHB genes for the catalytic subunits, the flavoprotein (Fp) and iron-sulfur (Ip) subunits. (PubMed id 10779596)7 Takeo S....Kita K. (Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 2000)
    76. The Protein Data Bank. (PubMed id 10592235)7 Berman H.M....Bourne P.E. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2000)
    77. Human very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase: cloning, topography, and relevance to branched-chain fatty acid metabolism. (PubMed id 10198260)1 Steinberg S.J.... Watkins P.A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999)
    78. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. (PubMed id 8125298)1 Maruyama K. and Sugano S. (Gene 1994)
    79. Mitochondrial Disorders Overview (PubMed id 20301403)1 Pagon R.A....Stephens K. (1993)
    80. Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Syndromes (PubMed id 20301382)1 Pagon R.A....Stephens K. (1993)
    81. Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndromes (PubMed id 20301715)1 Pagon R.A....Stephens K. (1993)
    82. Mitochondrial DNA-Associated Leigh Syndrome and NARP (PubMed id 20301352)1 Pagon R.A....Stephens K. (1993)
    83. Catalytic sector of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase): subunit stoichiometry and substrate-induced conformation changes. (PubMed id 8161512)9 Belogrudov G. and Hatefi Y. (Biochemistry 1994)
    84. Eye muscle antibodies and subtype of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. (PubMed id 11952037)9 Kaspar M....Wall J.R. (Thyroid 2002)
    85. The 64-kilodalton eye muscle protein is the flavoprotein subunit of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase: the corresponding serum antibodies are good markers of an immune-mediated damage to the eye muscle in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. (PubMed id 9467555)9 Kubota S....Wall J. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1998)
    86. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte sensitisation against calsequestrin and flavoprotein in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. (PubMed id 18568642)9 Nguyen B....Wall J.R. (Autoimmunity 2008)
    87. Reference genes for quantitative real time PCR in UVB irradiated keratinocytes. (PubMed id 18789713)9 Balogh A....Remenyik E. (J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. 2008)
    88. Study of serum antibodies against three eye muscle antigens and the connective tissue antigen collagen XIII in patients with Graves' disease with and without ophthalmopathy: correlation with clinical features. (PubMed id 17042681)9 Gopinath B....Wall J.R. (Thyroid 2006)
    89. The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency. (PubMed id 16288654)9 Bayley J.P....Taschner P.E. (BMC Med. Genet. 2005)
    90. Experimental model for ophthalmopathy in BALB/c and outbred (CD-1) mice genetically immunized with G2s and the thyrotropin receptor. (PubMed id 12568121)9 Yamada M....Wall J.R. (Autoimmunity 2002)
    91. Antibodies against calsequestrin and type XIII collagen are good markers for chronic upper eyelid retraction. (PubMed id 17558832)9 Gopinath B....Wall J.R. (Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm. 2007)
    92. Selection of reliable reference genes for qPCR studies on chondroprotective action. (PubMed id 17324259)9 Toegel S....Viernstein H. (BMC Mol. Biol. 2007)
    93. Eye muscle antibodies in Graves' ophthalmopathy: pathogenic or secondary epiphenomenon? (PubMed id 15164997)9 Mizokami T....Wall J.R. (J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2004)
    94. Phenotypic dichotomy in mitochondrial complex II genetic disorders. (PubMed id 11692162)9 Baysal B.E....Taschner P.E. (J. Mol. Med. 2001)
    95. Transfer of rps14 from the mitochondrion to the nucleus in maize implied integration within a gene encoding the iron-sulphur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase and expression by alternative splicing. (PubMed id 10417711)9 Figueroa P....Jordana X. (Plant J. 1999)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 6389 HGNC: 10680 AceView: SDHA Ensembl:ENSG00000073578 euGenes: HUgn6389
    ECgene: SDHA Kegg: 6389 H-InvDB: SDHA

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for SDHA Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    TCA Cycle Gene Mutation Databasehttp://chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/SDH/home.php?select_db=SDHA
    GeneReviewshttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1116/?term=SDHA[genesymbol]

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    Patent Information for SDHA gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving SDHA

    GeneCards and IP:
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