Set Analyses:
Advanced Search

Advanced Search

 
Search By
Section (entire)
for


 



SCARB1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 62
GCID: GC12M125262

Scavenger Receptor Class B, Member 1

(Previous names: CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor)-like...)
(Previous symbol: CD36L1)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Aliases
Scavenger Receptor Class B, Member 11 2     CD36 And LIMPII Analogous 12 3
CD36L11 2 3 5     HDLQTL62 5
CLA12 3 5     Scavenger Receptor Class B Member 12
CD36 Antigen (Collagen Type I Receptor, Thrombospondin Receptor)-Like 11 2     Scavenger Receptor Class B Type III2
CLA-12 3     CD36 Antigen3
SR-BI2 3     CD36 Antigen-Like 13
SRB12 3     Collagen Type I Receptor, Thrombospondin Receptor-Like 13

External Ids:    HGNC: 16641   Entrez Gene: 9492   Ensembl: ENSG000000730607   OMIM: 6010405   UniProtKB: Q8WTV03   

Export aliases for SCARB1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12M123982 GC12M125008 GC12M123615 GC12M123787 GC12M122224


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Entrez Gene summary for SCARB1 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma membrane receptor for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). The
encoded protein mediates cholesterol transfer to and from HDL. In addition, this protein is a receptor for
hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this
gene.(provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011)

GeneCards Summary for SCARB1 Gene:
SCARB1 (scavenger receptor class B, member 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with SCARB1 include platelet glycoprotein iv deficiency, and neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and 1-phosphatidylinositol binding. An important paralog of this gene is SCARB2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SCRB1_HUMAN, Q8WTV0
Function: Receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins,
phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells. Probable receptor for HDL, located in particular region of the plasma
membrane, called caveolae. Facilitates the flux of free and esterified cholesterol between the cell surface and
extracellular donors and acceptors, such as HDL and to a lesser extent, apoB-containing lipoproteins and modified
lipoproteins. Probably involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, via its phosphatidylserine binding
activity. Receptor for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Binding between SCARB1 and E2 was found to be
independent of the genotype of the viral isolate. Plays an important role in the uptake of HDL cholesteryl ester
(By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for SCARB1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the SCARB1 gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   CREB   PPAR-gamma1   SREBP-1a   deltaCREB   PPAR-gamma2   c-Jun   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 4): SCARB1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for SCARB1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat SCARB1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q24.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q24.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q24.32

SCARB1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
SCARB1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M125262:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
125,261,402 bp from pter      End:
125,367,214 bp from pter
Size:
105,813 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SCRB1_HUMAN, Q8WTV0 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Scavenger receptor class B member 1  
Size: 552 amino acids; 60878 Da
Subunit: Plays a critical role in HCV attachment and/or cell entry by interacting with HCV E1/E2 glycoproteins
heterodimer. The C-terminal region binds to PDZK1 (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q14016 Q52LZ5 Q6KFX4
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  Q8WTV0-1   Q8WTV0-2   Q8WTV0-3   Q8WTV0-4   (May be due to a competing donor splice site. No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for SCARB1: NX_Q8WTV0

Explore proteomics data for SCARB1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • N-glycosylated1
  • The six cysteines of the extracellular domain are all involved in intramolecular disulfide bonds (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys484
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn102, Asn108, Asn173, Asn212, Asn227, Asn255, Asn310, Asn330, Asn383
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See SCARB1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001076428.1  NP_005496.4  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000343795   ENSP00000414979   ENSP00000261693   ENSP00000442862   ENSP00000444851  
     ENSP00000443454   ENSP00000365984   ENSP00000443286   ENSP00000446107  

    SCARB1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for SCARB1 (SR-BI)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for SCARB1
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for SCARB1
    OriGene MassSpec for SCARB1
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for SCARB1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for SCARB1
    Novus Biologicals SCARB1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals SCARB1 Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for SCARB1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for SCARB1
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for SCARB1

    SCARB1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of SCARB1
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    OriGene Antibodies for SCARB1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for SCARB1
    Novus Biologicals SCARB1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for SCARB1 (Q14108, Q8WTV0)
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for SCARB1
    ThermoFisher Antibody for SCARB1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for SCARB1

    SCARB1 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for SCARB1
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for SCARB1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for SCARB1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for SCARB1


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR005428 CD36_antigen
     IPR002159 CD36

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8WTV0

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8WTV0

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002159 Adhesion molecule CD36 family signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SCRB1_HUMAN, Q8WTV0
    Similarity: Belongs to the CD36 family


    SCARB1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SCRB1_HUMAN, Q8WTV0
    Function: Receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins,
    phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells. Probable receptor for HDL, located in particular region of the plasma
    membrane, called caveolae. Facilitates the flux of free and esterified cholesterol between the cell surface and
    extracellular donors and acceptors, such as HDL and to a lesser extent, apoB-containing lipoproteins and modified
    lipoproteins. Probably involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, via its phosphatidylserine binding
    activity. Receptor for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Binding between SCARB1 and E2 was found to be
    independent of the genotype of the viral isolate. Plays an important role in the uptake of HDL cholesteryl ester
    (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001530lipopolysaccharide binding IDA12651854
    GO:0001786phosphatidylserine binding ISS--
    GO:0001875lipopolysaccharide receptor activity IDA12651854
    GO:0005215transporter activity TAS9211901
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI12356718
         
    SCARB1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         9 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 9 alleles(MGI details for Scarb1):
     cardiovascular system  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  reproductive system 

    SCARB1 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for SCARB1: Scarb1tm1Dhu Scarb1tm1Kri Scarb1tm1.1Thh

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for SCARB1
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for SCARB1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for SCARB1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for SCARB1

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target SCARB1:
    hsa-mir-223-3p (MIRT035551), hsa-mir-877-3p (MIRT037037), hsa-mir-96-5p (MIRT035550), hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT040078), hsa-mir-185-5p (MIRT035549), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049705), hsa-mir-324-5p (MIRT043218)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat SCARB1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate SCARB1 (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-4288 hsa-miR-632 hsa-miR-223 hsa-miR-183* hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-761 hsa-miR-3659
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidSCARB1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for SCARB1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat SCARB1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for SCARB1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for SCARB1 (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for SCARB1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): SCARB1 (NM_001082959)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for SCARB1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SCARB1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SCARB1

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for SCARB1
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for SCARB1 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SCARB1


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    SCRB1_HUMAN, Q8WTV0: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Membrane, caveola; Multi-pass membrane protein.
    Note=Predominantly localized to cholesterol and sphingomyelin-enriched domains within the plasma membrane, called
    caveolae
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    extracellular3
    cytoskeleton2
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    lysosome2
    mitochondrion2
    nucleus2
    peroxisome2
    cytosol1
    endosome1
    golgi apparatus1
    vacuole1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005765lysosomal membrane IDA17897319
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane IEA--
    GO:0005901caveola TAS12651854

    SCARB1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    SuperPaths for SCARB1 About   (see all 14)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Statin Pathway
    Statin Pathway0.73
    Statin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics0.73
    2Lipoprotein metabolism
    Lipoprotein metabolism0.59
    HDL-mediated lipid transport0.00
    Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport0.59
    3Folate Metabolism
    Folate Metabolism0.54
    Vitamin B12 Metabolism0.54
    4Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors
    Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors0.53
    Scavenging by Class B Receptors0.00
    5Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    Selected BioSystems Pathways for SCARB1 (see all 6)
        Vitamin A and carotenoid metabolism
    Statin Pathway
    SREBP signalling
    Folate Metabolism
    Selenium Pathway


    1 PharmGKB Pathway for SCARB1
        Statin Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for SCARB1) (see all 6):
        Phagosome
    Ovarian steroidogenesis
    Fat digestion and absorption
    Bile secretion
    Vitamin digestion and absorption


    SCARB1 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for SCARB1
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for SCARB1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 9)

    Selected Interacting proteins for SCARB1 (Q8WTV03 ENSP000002616934) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 17)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    APOEP026493, ENSP000002524864I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000252486
    APOA1P026473, ENSP000002368504I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000236850
    PDZK1Q5T2W13, ENSP000003421434I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000342143
    PEX5P505423, ENSP000004074014I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000407401
    PRMT2P553453, ENSP000003479064I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000347906
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 34):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001935endothelial cell proliferation IEA--
    GO:0006702androgen biosynthetic process IEA--
    GO:0006707cholesterol catabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006869lipid transport ----
    GO:0006898receptor-mediated endocytosis IDA9211901

    SCARB1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for SCARB1 (SCRB1)

    Selected HMDB Compounds for SCARB1 (see all 155)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CE(10:0)Decanoic acid cholesteryl ester (see all 18)1183-04-6--
    CE(12:0)cholest-5-en-3beta-yl dodecanoate (see all 19)1908-11-8--
    CE(14:0)14:0 Cholesterol ester (see all 24)1989-52-2--
    CE(14:1(9Z))CE(14:1/0:0) (see all 22)----
    CE(16:0)Cholest-5-ene-3-beta-yl palmitate (see all 23)601-34-3--
    CE(16:1(9Z))(Z)-Cholesterol 9-hexadecenoate (see all 33)16711-66-3--
    CE(18:0)cholesterol 1-octadecanoate (see all 14)----
    CE(18:1(11Z))cholesterol 1-(11Z-octadecenoate) (see all 25)----
    CE(18:1(9Z))3beta-Hydroxy-5-cholestene 3-oleate (see all 35)303-43-5--
    CE(18:2(9Z,12Z))cholesterol 1-linoleoic acid (see all 25)604-33-1--

    1 DrugBank Compound for SCARB1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Phosphatidylserine3-O-sn-Phosphatidyl-L-serine (see all 3)8002-43-5target--15541376 16371234 15791597 14594995 16530182

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SCARB1 gene (see all 58)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cholesterol 83.5 510 10625497 (7), 14617739 (7), 16185081 (7), 17105723 (6) (see all 99)
    cholesterol ester 70.2 29 15064092 (6), 10337864 (2), 19179658 (2), 18270459 (1) (see all 8)
    lipid 64.8 127 11564739 (4), 20085651 (4), 10625497 (3), 12235173 (3) (see all 69)
    sterol 58.3 27 14967816 (7), 11893773 (5), 15486308 (2), 16162942 (1) (see all 11)
    phospholipid 55.6 29 9488688 (4), 14594995 (2), 10938082 (2), 12671027 (2) (see all 18)
    probucol 53.6 13 16151015 (5), 20075420 (1), 16410457 (1), 10638221 (1) (see all 5)
    mcla 51.5 1 14973113 (1)
    fenofibrate 50 16 15837786 (5), 16530456 (1), 12453904 (1), 17533223 (1)
    lutein 46.3 9 15554873 (3), 15771974 (1), 18641187 (1)
    phosphatidylcholine 43.4 8 7541795 (1), 10880355 (1), 10764676 (1), 11564739 (1) (see all 6)

    1 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotation for SCARB1 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    fenofibrateCA  



    SCARB1 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    REFSEQ mRNAs for SCARB1 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001082959.1  NM_005505.4  

    14 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000339570(uc001ugn.4) ENST00000415380(uc001ugo.4) ENST00000261693(uc001ugm.4 uc010tbd.2)
    ENST00000545305 ENST00000538291(uc001ugp.3) ENST00000546215 ENST00000535005
    ENST00000544327 ENST00000545493 ENST00000541661 ENST00000539320 ENST00000376788
    ENST00000540495 ENST00000541205
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat SCARB1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate SCARB1 (see all 17):
    hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-4288 hsa-miR-632 hsa-miR-223 hsa-miR-183* hsa-miR-125b hsa-miR-761 hsa-miR-3659
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidSCARB1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for SCARB1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for SCARB1 (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for SCARB1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): SCARB1 (NM_001082959)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for SCARB1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SCARB1
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SCARB1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SCARB1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SCARB1

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 54):

    BC034322 AI366481 BC022087 CR596041 CR603816 BP350733 AA368381 BM553238 
    AV704612 AI636316 BE855887 BF793109 CR616190 BG741048 AI094896 BQ670423 
    AW006991 CA394938 AW050932 CR624045 AI801108 BM700065 AI191963 BG760684 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SCARB1 (see all 8)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c · 14d ^ 15a · 15b · 15c ^ 16
    SP1:                    -     -     -                                                                                   -     -     -     -               
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                      
    SP3:                    -     -     -                                                                                                                     
    SP4:                                                                                                                    -     -     -     -     -         
    SP5:                                -                                                                                                                     


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for SCARB1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    SCARB1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CAGGACGGGC
    SCARB1 Expression
    About this image


    SCARB1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and monocytes (Ixmyelocel-T)
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and monocytes (Ixmyelocel-T)
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
    SCARB1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    SCARB1 Protein Expression

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SCRB1_HUMAN, Q8WTV0
    Tissue specificity: Widely expressed

        Custom PCR Arrays for SCARB1
    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SCARB1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SCARB1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SCARB1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for SCARB1 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Scarb11 , 5 scavenger receptor class B, member 11, 5 80.29(n)1
    79.57(a)1
      5 (64.11 cM)5
    207781  NM_016741.21  NP_058021.11 
     1252770875 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves SCARB11 scavenger receptor class B, member 1 68.4(n)
    62(a)
      416814  XM_004945525.1  XP_004945582.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia SCARB16
    scavenger receptor class B, member 1
    55(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    LGb(1342765-1373321)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia scarb11 scavenger receptor class B, member 1 62.42(n)
    56.88(a)
      100490714  XM_004910541.1  XP_004910598.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii scarb12 scavenger receptor class B, member 1 76.83(n)   387260  BC044516.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta crq1 croquemort 46.81(n)
    31.58(a)
      33219  NM_001272895.1  NP_001259824.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea scav-36
    scav-56
    (see all 4)
    Protein SCAV-5 (scav-5) mRNA, complete cds
    (see all 4)
    23(a)
    20(a)
    (see all 4)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    (see all 4)
    III(12453588-12456850) WBGene00013039
    X(9858365-9861735) WBGene00011076


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for SCARB1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for SCARB1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Paralogs for SCARB1 gene
    SCARB22  CD362  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for SCARB1 using alignment to 7 protein entries:     SCRB1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    SCARB2    CD36

    SCARB1 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for SCARB1
    PGOHUM00000241458


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    SCRB1_HUMAN, Q8WTV0: Genetic variations in SCARB1 define the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level quantitative
    trait locus 6 (HDLCQ16) [MIM:610762]


    Selected SNPs for SCARB1 (see all 2248)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs352975181,2
    C--122270271(+) ATCTC-/A/AA  
            
    AAAAA
    2 -- int11NA 2
    rs1928168821,2
    --122296447(+) ATAGGC/TCGGGC 2 -- int10--------
    rs108467591,2
    A--122305593(+) AAAAGA/GAAAAA 2 -- int1 trp30--------
    rs112964721,2
    C--122305594(+) AAAAG-/AAAAAA 2 -- int1 trp32Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA CSA 4
    rs1138768111,2
    C--122307931(+) TGGTGCACA/-  
            
    CACAC
    2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs58015761,2
    C--122308087(+) ACTCA-/ACAGCA 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs113002301,2
    C,F--122308747(+) GGGTTC/-CCAGG 2 -- int12Minor allele frequency- -:0.50NA 4
    rs106926141,2
    C--122309273(+) ACGTTCA/-CACAC 2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs362262801,2
    C,F--122310701(+) CCCCCC/ACCACG 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.04NA 120
    rs1831951431,2
    --125077019(+) CAATCA/GGAGAA 2 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for SCARB1 (125261402 - 125367214 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for SCARB1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2746550CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2665124CNV Deletion23128226
    esv1953401CNV Deletion18987734
    nsv899595CNV Loss21882294
    nsv52719CNV Loss16902084

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): SCARB1
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing SCARB1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for SCARB1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    OMIM gene information: 601040   
    OMIM disorders: 610762  
    Selected diseases for SCARB1 (see all 51):    
    About MalaCards
    platelet glycoprotein iv deficiency    neutrophil-specific granule deficiency    hepatitis c    hepatitis c virus
    hyperalphalipoproteinemia    cholelithiasis    aortic atherosclerosis    coronary stenosis
    cellulitis    addison's disease    alagille syndrome    cardiovascular disease risk factor
    familial hypercholesterolemia    leydig cell tumor    hepatitis    atherosclerosis
    adrenocortical carcinoma    rett syndrome    glycogen storage disease    coronary heart disease

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for SCARB1:
    Atherosclerosis     Malaria     Diabetes mellitus

    SCARB1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SCARB1 gene (see all 30)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cetp deficiency 70.5 1 15064092 (1)
    atherosclerosis 70.4 49 17272756 (5), 16122381 (4), 16133421 (3), 20137092 (3) (see all 29)
    hyperalphalipoproteinemia 69.1 1 19158204 (1)
    hepatitis c 45.3 9 19828610 (1), 15998599 (1), 19087225 (1), 19094442 (1) (see all 8)
    atherosclerotic plaque 44.2 8 16122381 (2), 15970294 (1), 20137092 (1), 12615688 (1) (see all 7)
    leydig cell tumor 35.4 1 9253328 (1)
    cardiovascular diseases 26.3 4 19837407 (1), 20064494 (1), 19718657 (1)
    dyslipidemia 26.2 2 17700364 (1), 16501936 (1)
    coronary artery disease 25.8 7 11861414 (1), 12227853 (1), 17618962 (1), 16542392 (1) (see all 6)
    carcinoma adrenocortical 24.7 3 12668173 (1), 10215860 (1), 9253328 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): SCARB1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: SCARB1 (57 documents)

    Export disorders for SCARB1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    PubMed articles for SCARB1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 534):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with SCARB1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification, primary structure and distribution of CLA-1, a novel member of the CD36/LIMPII gene family. (PubMed id 7689561)1, 2, 3, 9 Calvo D. and Vega M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1993)
    2. Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids. (PubMed id 20686565)1, 2, 4 Teslovich T.M....Kathiresan S. (Nature 2010)
    3. Polymorphisms at the SRBI locus are associated with lipoprotein levels in subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. (PubMed id 12519372)1, 2, 4 Tai E.S.... Carmena R. (Clin. Genet. 2003)
    4. Scavenger receptor class B type I protein as an independent predictor of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in subjects with hyperalphalipoproteinemia. (PubMed id 19158204)1, 4, 9 West M....Rodriguez A. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009)
    5. Modification of the effects of estrogen therapy on HDL cholesterol levels by polymorphisms of the HDL-C receptor, SR-BI: the Rancho Bernardo Study. (PubMed id 15910850)1, 4, 9 Richard E....McCarthy J.J. (Atherosclerosis 2005)
    6. Influence of SCARB1 polymorphisms on serum lipids of hypercholesterolemic individuals treated with atorvastatin. (PubMed id 20064494)1, 4, 9 Cerda A....Hirata R.D. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 2010)
    7. Polymorphisms of the scavenger receptor class B member 1 are associated with insulin resistance with evidence of gene by sex interaction. (PubMed id 19276229)1, 4, 9 McCarthy J.J....Glynne R. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009)
    8. Scavenger receptor class B type I polymorphisms and peripheral arterial disease. (PubMed id 17618962)1, 4, 9 Ritsch A....Patsch J.R. (Metab. Clin. Exp. 2007)
    9. Genetic variation at the scavenger receptor class B type I gene locus determines plasma lipoprotein concentrations and particle size and interacts with type 2 diabetes: the framingham study. (PubMed id 12788901)1, 4, 9 Osgood D....Ordovas J.M. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2003)
    10. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. (PubMed id 19489872)1, 4, 9 Lamon-Fava S....Herrington D.M. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Entrez Gene: 949 HGNC: 1664 AceView: SCARB1 Ensembl:ENSG00000073060 euGenes: HUgn949
    ECgene: SCARB1 Kegg: 949 H-InvDB: SCARB1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for SCARB1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Patent Information for SCARB1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving SCARB1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

     EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of SCARB1
     Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
     Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
     Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
     
     EMD Millipore genomic analysis products

      
     Browse Antibodies   Browse Cell Culture Products  
     Browse ELISAs   Browse Flow Cytometry Kits  
     Browse Primer Pairs   Browse Enzyme Activity Assays/Reagents  
     Browse ELISpot/FluoroSpot Kits/Development Modules   Browse TFB/Immunoprecipitation Assays  
     Browse Apoptosis Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway (UPP) Assay Kits/Reagents  
     Browse DNA Damage/Repair Kits/Reagents   Browse Luminex Assays  
     Browse Cell Selection/Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Secondary Antibodies/Controls/Staining Reagents  
     Recombinant/Natural Proteins for SCARB1 (SR-BI)   Browse Stem Cell Products  
     Browse cDNA Clones   Browse Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays  
     OriGene Antibodies for SCARB1   OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for SCARB1  
     OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for SCARB1   OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for SCARB1  
     OriGene MassSpec something-or-other for SCARB1   OriGene clones in human, mouse for SCARB1  
     OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for SCARB1   OriGene Purified Protein for SCARB1  
     OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for SCARB1   OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling  
     OriGene Custom Antibody Services for SCARB1   OriGene Custom Protein Services for SCARB1  

     
     
     Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat SCARB1 using miScript Target Protectors SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing SCARB1
     DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat SCARB1 Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
     QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat SCARB1 QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat SCARB1
     Custom PCR Arrays for SCARB1 Search Chromatin IP Primers for SCARB1
     Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat SCARB1  GeneGlobe Interaction Network for SCARB1
     Regulatory tfbs in SCARB1 promoter
     GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for SCARB1 GenScript cDNA clones with any tag delivered in your preferred vector for SCARB1
     GenScript Custom Assay Services for SCARB1 GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for SCARB1
     CloneReady with Over 120,000 Genes  Gene Synthesis: Any Gene in Any Vector
     Vector-based siRNA and miRNA, Ready for Transfection Gene Mutant Library, Variants up to 10^11
     Plasmid Preparation Custom Peptide Services
     Search for Antibodies & Assays

     Search Tocris compounds for SCARB1 (SCRB1)
     Proteins for SCARB1
     Cell Lysates for SCARB1
     cDNA Clones for SCARB1
     4000+ Proteins
     Search Sino Biological for antibodies, proteins & pathways
     Protein Production Services
     Transfection Reagents
     Protein A/G/L resins
     Isotyping reagents
     Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies

     Novus Tissue Slides
     SCARB1 antibodies
     SCARB1 proteins
     SCARB1 lysates
     Antibodies for SCARB1
     See all of Abcam's Antibodies, Kits and Proteins for SCARB1
     Custom Antibody / Protein Production Service
     Bulk Purchasing
     Advantages of Rabbit Monoclonal antibodies
     Abcam protocols and scientific support
     Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
     Proteins for SCARB1
     Antibodies for SCARB1
     ELISAs for SCARB1
     CLIAs for SCARB1



     Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for SCARB1
     Gene Synthesis
     Protein Engineering
     Variant Library Synthesis
     Codon Optimization
     Protein Production and Purification
     Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for SCARB1
     SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for SCARB1
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for SCARB1
     ThermoFisher Antibody for SCARB1
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat SCARB1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for SCARB1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for SCARB1
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for SCARB1
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
     Browse compounds at ApexBio
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014

    View Random Gene

    Category
    (GIFtS: )
    GIFtS Group
    The GeneCards human gene database gene index: 1 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


    Developed at the Crown Human Genome Center, Department of Molecular Genetics, the Weizmann Institute of Science

    Hot genes      Disease genes      SCARB1 gene at Home site.
    Version: 3.12.142 28 July 2014
    hostname: 356977-web1.xennexinc.com index build: 126 solr: 1.4