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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

S100A9 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 63
GCID: GC01P153330

S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9

(Previous names: S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (calgranulin B), S100 calcium...)
(Previous symbols: CAGB, CFAG)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
S100 Calcium Binding Protein A91 2     L1AG2
CAGB1 2 3 5     LIAG2
CFAG1 2 3 5     MAC3872
S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A9 (Calgranulin B)1 2     MIF2
Calprotectin L1H Subunit2 3     NIF2
Leukocyte L1 Complex Heavy Chain2 3     P142
Migration Inhibitory Factor-Related Protein 142 3     Calgranulin B2
MRP-142 3     calgranulin-B2
MRP142 3     Protein S100-A92
S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 (Calgranulin B)1     Calgranulin-B3
60B8AG2     p143
CGLB2     S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A93

External Ids:    HGNC: 104991   Entrez Gene: 62802   Ensembl: ENSG000001632207   OMIM: 1238865   UniProtKB: P067023   

Export aliases for S100A9 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01P151146 GC01P149113 GC01P150105 GC01P150546 GC01P150143 GC01P151596 GC01P124693


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for S100A9 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding
motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the
regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes
include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the
inhibition of casein kinase and altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic
fibrosis. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for S100A9 Gene: 
S100A9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with S100A9 include xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, and interstitial lung disease. GO annotations related to this gene include microtubule binding and calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is S100A11.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: S10A9_HUMAN, P06702
Function: S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of
inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the
bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and
can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin
(S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include:
facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent
cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates
NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transfering arachidonic acid, an
essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to
NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and
apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of
cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a
danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern
recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER).
Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the
amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts
its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce
cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via
reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an
anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving
MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by
scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer
development and tumor spread

Gene Wiki entry for S100A9 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.10  NC_018912.2  NT_004487.19  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the S100A9 gene promoter:
         c-Fos   AML1a   CP2   AP-1   HTF   ATF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidS100A9 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for S100A9

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat S100A9


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q21.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q21

S100A9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
S100A9 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P153330:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
153,330,330 bp from pter      End:
153,333,503 bp from pter
Size:
3,174 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: S10A9_HUMAN, P06702 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Protein S100-A9  
Size: 114 amino acids; 13242 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Preferentially exists as a heterodimer or heterotetramer with S100A8 known as calprotectin
(S100A8/A9). S100A9 interacts with ATP2A2 (By similarity). S100A9 interacts with AGER, and with the heterodimeric
complex formed by TLR4 and LY96 in the presence of calcium and/or zinc ions. S100A9 binds
quinoline-3-carboxamides in the presence of calcium and/or zinc ions. S100A9 interacts with beta-APP40
(beta-amyloid protein 40) peptide of APP. Calprotectin (S100A8/9) interacts with CEACAM3 and tubulin filaments in
a calcium-dependent manner. Heterotetrameric calprotectin (S100A8/A9) interacts with ANXA6 and associates with
tubulin filaments in activated monocytes. Calprotectin (S100A8/9) interacts with NCF2/P67PHOX, RAC1, RAC2, CYBA
and CYBB
Subcellular location: Secreted. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.
Note=Predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Upon elevation of the intracellular calcium level, translocated
from the cytoplasm to the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane. Upon neutrophil activation or endothelial adhesion
of monocytes, is secreted via a microtubule-mediated, alternative pathway
Mass spectrometry: Mass=13115; Method=MALDI; Range=2-114; Source=PubMed:11851337;
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for S100A9:
1IRJ (3D)        1XK4 (3D)        4GGF (3D)    
Secondary accessions: D3DV36 Q6FGA1 Q9NYM0 Q9UCJ1

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for S100A9: NX_P06702

Explore proteomics data for S100A9 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation inhibits activation of tubulin polymerization
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P06702

  • S100A9 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    S100A9 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_002956.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000357727  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for S100A9: 
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for S100A9 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/8 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--

    S100A9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    S100A9 Antibody Products: 
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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    EFHAND: EF-hand domain containing
    S100: S100 calcium binding proteins

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018247 EF_Hand_1_Ca_BS
     IPR011992 EF-hand-like_dom
     IPR002048 EF_hand_dom
     IPR013787 S100_Ca-bd_sub
     IPR001751 S100/CaBP-9k_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P06702

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P06702

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001751 Calcium-binding protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: S10A9_HUMAN, P06702
    Similarity: Belongs to the S-100 family
    Similarity: Contains 2 EF-hand domains


    S100A9 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: S10A9_HUMAN, P06702
    Function: S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of
    inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the
    bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and
    can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin
    (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include:
    facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent
    cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates
    NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transfering arachidonic acid, an
    essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to
    NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and
    apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of
    cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a
    danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern
    recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER).
    Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the
    amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts
    its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce
    cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via
    reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an
    anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving
    MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by
    scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer
    development and tumor spread

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for S100A9:
    S100 calcium binding protein A9,calgranulin B,epidermal differentiation complex expressed in monocytes and
    granulocytes

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/9 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004871signal transducer activity TAS3313057
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding TAS--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI17620599
    GO:0008017microtubule binding TAS--
    GO:0008270zinc ion binding TAS--
         
    S100A9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for S100a9):
     cellular  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  mortality/aging 

    S100A9 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out S100a9tm1Nck for S100A9

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for S100A9 
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target S100A9:
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat S100A9
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for S100A9


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section




    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for S100A9

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 21)

    5/52 Interacting proteins for S100A9 (P067021, 3 ENSP000003577274) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 52)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    S100A8P051091, 3, ENSP000003577214EBI-1055001,EBI-355281 I2D: score=9 STRING: ENSP00000357721
    ARRB1P494071, 3EBI-1055001,EBI-743313 I2D: score=1 
    ARRB2P321211, 3EBI-1055001,EBI-714559 I2D: score=1 
    NUAK1O602853, ENSP000002614024I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000261402
    PPP2R1AP301533, ENSP000003248044I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000324804
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/25 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 25):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001816cytokine production TAS--
    GO:0002523leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response IDA12626582
    GO:0002544chronic inflammatory response IEA--
    GO:0006914autophagy IDA19935772
    GO:0006919activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA19935772

    S100A9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    S100A9 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Compounds for S100A9 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    AS 101 Immunomodulator; inhibits IL-10 synthesis and potentiates IL-1alpha, IL-2 and TNF-alpha release [106566-58-9]
    PirfenidoneAntifibrotic agent; regulates cytokine levels in vivo[53179-13-8]
    GIT 27Immunomodulator; reduces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines[6501-72-0]
    4-IPPInhibitor of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF); suicide substrate[41270-96-6]
    ThalidomideTNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor[50-35-1]

    1 HMDB Compound for S100A9    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--

    10/29 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for S100A9 gene (see all 29)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    scca1 67.6 4 16035113 (2), 16273201 (1), 17638865 (1)
    triethylene glycol dimethacrylate 44 3 14647409 (1), 12874078 (1)
    monosodium urate 37.4 2 12905486 (2)
    calcium 30.6 54 10536818 (3), 8053890 (2), 8558004 (2), 8499645 (2) (see all 26)
    calcitriol 30.1 4 10212853 (2), 8440321 (2)
    retinoic acid 20.9 3 2201551 (2), 1733233 (1)
    arachidonic acid 19.2 8 12553726 (2), 8898915 (1), 17135363 (1), 17429438 (1) (see all 6)
    1,25 dihydroxy vitamin d3 19.1 3 10212853 (1), 2292594 (1), 8499645 (1)
    zinc 19.1 6 12167632 (1), 18755861 (1), 12874078 (1), 8645219 (1)
    orthophosphate 16.8 1 15905572 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about S100A9 / S10A9

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
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    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for S100A9 gene: 
    NM_002965.3  

    Unigene Cluster for S100A9:

    S100 calcium binding protein A9
    Hs.112405  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BQ927179
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000368738(uc001fbq.3)
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF086362.1 AK311882.1 BC047681.2 CR542207.1 CR542224.1 M26311.1 X06233.1 

    6 DOTS entries:

    DT.215083  DT.91908747  DT.95259360  DT.92432962  DT.95240936  DT.95259359 

    24/244 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 244):

    BI060872 AJ714038 AJ705888 BQ422337 AJ711884 H49366 BM809752 AJ346834 
    BM681155 BQ072542 AJ706063 CR542224 BI060805 BI060732 BQ774304 BQ954538 
    AJ705839 BM704578 BI060803 BM712918 AA586747 BQ933527 BX644886 BU688869 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    2 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for S100A9    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b
    SP1:        -               
    SP2:                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for S100A9

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    S100A9 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      S100A9 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GTGGCCACGG
    S100A9 Expression
    About this image


    S100A9 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/27 selected tissues (see all 27) fully expand
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 16 entries
             Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hematopoietic Bone Marrow
             Fetal Liver CD36+ Cells   
             bone marrow   
     
     Epithelium
             Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (HBEpiC)   
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (HBEpiC)   
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Bone Marrow
             skeleton/cranium   
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Human EpiDermal Keratinocytes (HEK)   

    See S100A9 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for S100A9

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.112405

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: S10A9_HUMAN, P06702
    Tissue specificity: Calprotectin (S100A8/9) is predominantly expressed in myeloid cells. Except for inflammatory
    conditions, the expression is restricted to a specific stage of myeloid differentiation since both proteins are
    expressed in circulating neutrophils and monocytes but are absent in normal tissue macrophages and lymphocytes.
    Under chronic inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis and malignant disorders, also expressed in the
    epidermis. Found in high concentrations at local sites of inflammation or in the serum of patients with
    inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, giant
    cell arteritis, cystic fibrosis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and progressive systemic
    sclerosis. Involved in the formation and deposition of amyloids in the aging prostate known as corpora amylacea
    inclusions. Strongly up-regulated in many tumors, including gastric, esophageal, colon, pancreatic, bladder,
    ovarian, thyroid, breast and skin cancers

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for S100A9 gene from 2/8 species (see all 8)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia S100a91 , 5 S100 calcium binding protein A9 (calgranulin B)1, 5 71.7(n)1
    60.38(a)1
      3 (39.91 cM)5
    202021  NM_009114.21  NP_033140.11 
     906926325 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves S100A91 S100 calcium binding protein A9 57.91(n)
    45.45(a)
      426356  XM_424012.3  XP_424012.3 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for S100A9 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for S100A9 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for S100A9 gene
    S100A112  S100A62  S100A12  S100A122  S100B2  S100A42  S100A32  S100A102  
    S100Z2  S100P2  S100A22  S100A52  
    18 SIMAP similar genes for S100A9 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     S10A9_HUMAN:
    HRNR    S100B    S100P    S100A12    S100A13    S100Z
    S100A2    S100A1    FLG2    FLG    S100A4    S100A10
    S100A11    S100G    S100A5    RPTN    S100A8    S100A6

    S100A9 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/153 SNPs in S100A9 are shown (see all 153)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0130084
    ----see VAR_0130082 H R mis40--------
    rs29161971,2
    C,F,A,H--153328335(-) ATGAAT/CGGTGC 1 -- us2k130Minor allele frequency- C:0.12EA NA NS WA CSA 2568
    rs29161961,2
    C,F,H--153328347(-) GCCTAT/CGAATG 1 -- us2k126Minor allele frequency- C:0.14NS NA EA WA CSA 1030
    rs571714901,2
    C,F--153328374(+) CACTCT/ATTTAT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1140739281,2
    C,F--153328448(+) AAAACG/ATAATT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.05NA 120
    rs1167324041,2
    C,F--153328474(+) AAGATT/GATGTC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.03WA 118
    rs66919341,2
    C,F,A,H--153328571(+) GTTGCA/GTAAAT 1 -- us2k1 tfbs319Minor allele frequency- G:0.14NS EA NA WA CSA 2337
    rs727087371,2
    C,F--153328625(+) TCTTCC/GCAACT 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- G:0.13NA EA 240
    rs1423551951,2
    --153328644(+) ATTGTC/TGCAAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1837039241,2
    --153328760(+) CCACTA/GCTCCA 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for S100A9 (153330330 - 153333503 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for S100A9:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv7184OTHER Inversion18451855

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 123886    OMIM disorders: --

    20/95 diseases for S100A9 (see all 95):    About MalaCards
    xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis    interstitial lung disease    mixed connective tissue disease    cystic fibrosis
    cardiac sarcoidosis    spondylarthropathy    cholecystitis    connective tissue disease
    gout    polymyositis    systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis    bronchitis
    juvenile rheumatoid arthritis    fabry disease    appendicitis    arthropathy
    adult-onset still's disease    chronic granulomatous disease    dermatomyositis    west nile virus

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for S100A9:
    Histiocytosis     Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis     Arthritis

    S100A9 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/51 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for S100A9 gene (see all 51)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    inflammation 56.4 40 1524561 (2), 17138858 (2), 1490735 (2), 9549523 (1) (see all 30)
    psoriasis 43.7 7 16792753 (2), 11493312 (1), 12704215 (1), 15740587 (1) (see all 6)
    inflammatory bowel diseases 37.9 2 9759608 (1), 17553524 (1)
    rheumatoid arthritis 37.7 7 16613612 (1), 20100792 (1), 12794836 (1), 2292594 (1) (see all 7)
    cystic fibrosis 34.4 11 7517672 (2), 7762618 (2), 15901828 (1), 2292594 (1) (see all 7)
    spondylarthropathies 32.1 1 12794836 (1)
    arthritis juvenile rheumatoid 31 1 13130482 (1)
    dermatomyositis 26.8 2 2292594 (1), 12937135 (1)
    mixed connective tissue disease 24.7 1 2292594 (1)
    arthritis 24.4 8 19922019 (4), 15838234 (1), 18436720 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): S100A9
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: S100A9 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for S100A9 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for S100A9 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 420):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with S100A9)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A novel p53 target gene, S100A9, induces p53-dependen t cellular apoptosis and mediates the p53 apoptosis pathway. (PubMed id 19534726)1, 2, 9 Li C....Liu Z. (2009)
    2. Myeloid-related protein-14 is a p38 MAPK substrate in human neutrophils. (PubMed id 15905572)1, 2, 9 Lominadze G....McLeish K.R. (2005)
    3. Substitution of methionine 63 or 83 in S100A9 and cysteine 42 in S100A8 abrogate the antifungal activities of S100A8/A9: potential role for oxidative regulation. (PubMed id 19087201)1, 2, 9 Sroussi H.Y....Palefsky J.M. (2009)
    4. Induction of nuclear factor-kappaB responses by the S100A9 protein is Toll-like receptor-4-dependent. (PubMed id 22804476)1, 2 Riva M.... Leanderson T. (2012)
    5. Constitutive neutrophil apoptosis: regulation by cell concentration via S100 A8/9 and the MEK-ERK pathway. (PubMed id 22363402)1, 2 Atallah M....Mevorach D. (2012)
    6. S100A8 and S100A9: new insights into their roles in ma lignancy. (PubMed id 21912088)1, 2 Srikrishna G. (2012)
    7. MRP14 (S100A9) protein interacts with Alzheimer beta-a myloid peptide and induces its fibrillization. (PubMed id 22457725)1, 2 Zhang C....van der Maarel J.R. (2012)
    8. Damage-associated molecular pattern S100A9 increases bactericidal activity of human neutrophils by enhancing phagocytosis. (PubMed id 21325622)1, 2 Simard J.C....Girard D. (2011)
    9. Induction of neutrophil degranulation by S100A9 via a MAPK-dependent mechanism. (PubMed id 20103766)1, 2 Simard J.C....Tessier P.A. (2010)
    10. Prothrombin Haplotype Associated With Kidney Stone Di sease in Northeastern Thai Patients. (PubMed id 21067798)1, 4 Rungroj N....Yenchitsomanus P.T. (2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 6280 HGNC: 10499 AceView: S100A9 Ensembl:ENSG00000163220 euGenes: HUgn6280
    ECgene: S100A9 H-InvDB: S100A9

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for S100A9 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for S100A9 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for S100A9 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving S100A9

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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