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Aliases for S100A9 Gene

Aliases for S100A9 Gene

  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 2 3
  • CFAG 3 4 6
  • CAGB 3 4 6
  • S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A9 (Calgranulin B) 2 3
  • Migration Inhibitory Factor-Related Protein 14 3 4
  • Leukocyte L1 Complex Heavy Chain 3 4
  • Calprotectin L1H Subunit 3 4
  • Calgranulin-B 3 4
  • MRP-14 3 4
  • MRP14 3 4
  • P14 3 4
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 (Calgranulin B) 2
  • S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A9 4
  • Protein S100-A9 3
  • Calgranulin B 3
  • 60B8AG 3
  • MAC387 3
  • L1Ag 3
  • CGLB 3
  • LIAG 3
  • MIF 3
  • NIF 3

External Ids for S100A9 Gene

Previous Symbols for S100A9 Gene

  • CAGB
  • CFAG

Summaries for S100A9 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for S100A9 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. This antimicrobial protein exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for S100A9 Gene

S100A9 (S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with S100A9 include cystic fibrosis and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Among its related pathways are Spinal Cord Injury and Adipogenesis. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and microtubule binding. An important paralog of this gene is S100A6.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for S100A9 Gene

  • S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. Has transnitrosylase activity; in oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox))-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH on Cys-247 proposed to transfer the NO moiety from NOS2/iNOS to GAPDH via its own S-nitrosylated Cys-3. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to also direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif.

Gene Wiki entry for S100A9 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for S100A9 Gene

Genomics for S100A9 Gene

Genomic Location for S100A9 Gene

Start:
153,357,854 bp from pter
End:
153,361,027 bp from pter
Size:
3,174 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for S100A9 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for S100A9 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for S100A9 Gene

Regulatory Elements for S100A9 Gene

Proteins for S100A9 Gene

  • Protein details for S100A9 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P06702-S10A9_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protein S100-A9
    Protein Accession:
    P06702
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DV36
    • Q6FGA1
    • Q9NYM0
    • Q9UCJ1

    Protein attributes for S100A9 Gene

    Size:
    114 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13242 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Preferentially exists as a heterodimer or heterotetramer with S100A8 known as calprotectin (S100A8/A9). S100A9 interacts with ATP2A2 (By similarity). S100A9 interacts with AGER, and with the heterodimeric complex formed by TLR4 and LY96 in the presence of calcium and/or zinc ions. S100A9 binds quinoline-3-carboxamides in the presence of calcium and/or zinc ions. S100A9 interacts with beta-APP40 (beta-amyloid protein 40) peptide of APP. Calprotectin (S100A8/9) interacts with CEACAM3 and tubulin filaments in a calcium-dependent manner. Heterotetrameric calprotectin (S100A8/A9) interacts with ANXA6 and associates with tubulin filaments in activated monocytes. Calprotectin (S100A8/9) interacts with NCF2/P67PHOX, RAC1, RAC2, CYBA and CYBB. Calprotectin (S100A8/9) interacts with NOS2 to form the iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex; induced by LDL(ox) (PubMed:25417112).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for S100A9 Gene

neXtProt entry for S100A9 Gene

Proteomics data for S100A9 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for S100A9 Gene

  • Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation inhibits activation of tubulin polymerization.
  • S-nitrosylation of Cys-3 is implicated in LDL(ox)-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH at Cys-247 through a transnitrosylase mechanism involving a iNOS-S100A8/9 complex (PubMed:25417112).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for S100A9 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for S100A9 Gene

Domains for S100A9 Gene

Gene Families for S100A9 Gene

HGNC:
  • EFHAND :EF-hand domain containing
  • S100 :S100 calcium binding proteins

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

S10A9_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Contains 2 EF-hand domains.:
    • P06702
Family:
  • Belongs to the S-100 family.:
    • P06702
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with S100A9: view

Function for S100A9 Gene

Molecular function for S100A9 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: S100 calcium binding protein A9,calgranulin B,epidermal differentiation complex expressed in monocytes and granulocytes
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. Has transnitrosylase activity; in oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox))-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH on Cys-247 proposed to transfer the NO moiety from NOS2/iNOS to GAPDH via its own S-nitrosylated Cys-3. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to also direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for S100A9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity TAS 3313057
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding TAS 22489132
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17620599
GO:0008017 microtubule binding TAS 22489132
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding TAS 22489132
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with S100A9: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with S100A9: view

Animal Models for S100A9 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for S100A9:

miRNA for S100A9 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target S100A9

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for S100A9 Gene

Localization for S100A9 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for S100A9 Gene

Secreted. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Upon elevation of the intracellular calcium level, translocated from the cytoplasm to the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane. Upon neutrophil activation or endothelial adhesion of monocytes, is secreted via a microtubule-mediated, alternative pathway.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for S100A9 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for S100A9 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 4
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for S100A9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS 22489132
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 16502470
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS 22489132
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton TAS 22489132
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with S100A9: view

Pathways for S100A9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with S100A9: view

Pathways by source for S100A9 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for S100A9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001816 cytokine production TAS 22489132
GO:0002523 leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response IDA 12626582
GO:0002544 chronic inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0002793 positive regulation of peptide secretion IEA --
GO:0006914 autophagy IDA 19935772
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with S100A9: view

Compounds for S100A9 Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for S100A9 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Calcium
  • Ca
7440-70-2

(29) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for S100A9 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
scca1 67.6 4
triethylene glycol dimethacrylate 44 2
monosodium urate 37.4 2
calcium 30.6 32
calcitriol 30.1 4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with S100A9: view

Transcripts for S100A9 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for S100A9 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(244) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for S100A9 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A9:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for S100A9 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b
SP1: -
SP2:

Relevant External Links for S100A9 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
S100A9
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
S100A9

Expression for S100A9 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for S100A9 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for S100A9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (31.8) and Esophagus - Mucosa (9.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for S100A9 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for S100A9 Gene Hs.112405

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for S100A9 Gene

P06702-S10A9_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Calprotectin (S100A8/9) is predominantly expressed in myeloid cells. Except for inflammatory conditions, the expression is restricted to a specific stage of myeloid differentiation since both proteins are expressed in circulating neutrophils and monocytes but are absent in normal tissue macrophages and lymphocytes. Under chronic inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis and malignant disorders, also expressed in the epidermis. Found in high concentrations at local sites of inflammation or in the serum of patients with inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohns disease, giant cell arteritis, cystic fibrosis, Sjogrens syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and progressive systemic sclerosis. Involved in the formation and deposition of amyloids in the aging prostate known as corpora amylacea inclusions. Strongly up-regulated in many tumors, including gastric, esophageal, colon, pancreatic, bladder, ovarian, thyroid, breast and skin cancers.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with S100A9: view

Orthologs for S100A9 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for S100A9 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia S100A9 36
  • 98.25 (n)
  • 99.12 (a)
S100A9 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia S100A9 36
  • 78.07 (n)
  • 70.18 (a)
S100A9 37
  • 51 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia S100A9 36
  • 75.81 (n)
  • 66.37 (a)
S100A9 37
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia S100a9 36
  • 71.7 (n)
  • 60.38 (a)
S100a9 16
S100a9 37
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia S100A9 37
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia S100a9 36
  • 71.7 (n)
  • 65.09 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 37
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
S100A9 36
  • 58.89 (n)
  • 48.89 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 37
  • 47 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 37
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for S100A9:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for S100A9 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for S100A9 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for S100A9 (if available)

Paralogs for S100A9 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for S100A9 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with S100A9: view

Variants for S100A9 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for S100A9 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs743565 -- 153,360,869(+) GCCAC(A/G)GCCAC utr-variant-3-prime
rs743566 -- 153,360,889(+) CATGG(G/T)GGCCA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1063933 -- 153,360,779(+) TGCAC(A/G)AGGGT missense, reference
rs2070864 -- 153,361,324(+) CAAAA(A/G)GGCAT downstream-variant-500B
rs2916193 -- 153,359,373(-) CCCAC(C/T)CAGCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for S100A9 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7184 OTHER Inversion 18451855

Relevant External Links for S100A9 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
S100A9

Disorders for S100A9 Gene

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for S100A9 Gene

(51) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for S100A9 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
inflammation 56.4 33
psoriasis 43.7 7
inflammatory bowel diseases 37.9 2
rheumatoid arthritis 37.7 7
cystic fibrosis 34.4 9

Relevant External Links for S100A9

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
S100A9
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
S100A9
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with S100A9: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for S100A9 Gene

Publications for S100A9 Gene

  1. Myeloid-related protein-14 is a p38 MAPK substrate in human neutrophils. (PMID: 15905572) Lominadze G. … McLeish K.R. (J. Immunol. 2005) 3 4 23
  2. Substitution of methionine 63 or 83 in S100A9 and cysteine 42 in S100A8 abrogate the antifungal activities of S100A8/A9: potential role for oxidative regulation. (PMID: 19087201) Sroussi H.Y. … Palefsky J.M. (FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 2009) 3 4 23
  3. A novel p53 target gene, S100A9, induces p53-dependent cellular apoptosis and mediates the p53 apoptosis pathway. (PMID: 19534726) Li C. … Liu Z. (Biochem. J. 2009) 3 4 23
  4. Calgranulin B (S100A9) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with interstitial lung diseases. (PMID: 18784990) Bargagli E. … Rottoli P. (Inflammation 2008) 3 23
  5. Amyloid formation by the pro-inflammatory S100A8/A9 proteins in the ageing prostate. (PMID: 19440546) Yanamandra K. … Morozova-Roche L.A. (PLoS ONE 2009) 3 23

Products for S100A9 Gene

Sources for S100A9 Gene

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