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RRM2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC02P010262

Ribonucleotide Reductase M2

(Previous name: ribonucleotide reductase M2 polypeptide)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Ribonucleotide Reductase M21 2     EC 1.17.4.13 8
Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 Polypeptide1 2     R22
Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Chain2 3     RR2M2
Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Subunit2 3     Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Subunit M22
RR22 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 104521   Entrez Gene: 62412   Ensembl: ENSG000001718487   OMIM: 1803905   UniProtKB: P313503   

Export aliases for RRM2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02P010047 GC02P010314 GC02P010267 GC02P010284 GC02P010213 GC02P010179


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for RRM2 Gene:
This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits for ribonucleotide reductase. This reductase catalyzes the
formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. Synthesis of the encoded protein (M2) is regulated in a
cell-cycle dependent fashion. Transcription from this gene can initiate from alternative promoters, which results
in two isoforms that differ in the lengths of their N-termini. Related pseudogenes have been identified on
chromosomes 1 and X. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009)

GeneCards Summary for RRM2 Gene:
RRM2 (ribonucleotide reductase M2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with RRM2 include enterocele, and pontiac fever. GO annotations related to this gene include transition metal ion binding and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is RRM2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RIR2_HUMAN, P31350
Function: Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides
from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling

Gene Wiki entry for RRM2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.12  NC_018913.2  NT_005334.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the RRM2 gene promoter:
         CREB   AP-2alpha isoform 3   Sp1   AP-1   deltaCREB   AP-2alpha isoform 4   AP-2alpha isoform 2   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidRRM2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for RRM2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat RRM2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2p25-p24   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2p25.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2p25-p24

RRM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
RRM2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P010262:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
10,262,455 bp from pter      End:
10,271,546 bp from pter
Size:
9,092 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RIR2_HUMAN, P31350 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2  
Size: 389 amino acids; 44878 Da
Cofactor: Binds 2 iron ions per subunit (By similarity)
Subunit: Heterodimer of a large and a small subunit
Miscellaneous: Two distinct regulatory sites have been defined: the specificity site, which controls substrate
specificity, and the activity site which regulates overall catalytic activity. A substrate-binding catalytic
site, located on M1, is formed only in the presence of the second subunit M2
Sequence caution: Sequence=DA477511; Type=Frameshift; Positions=87;
5 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for RRM2:
2UW2 (3D)        3OLJ (3D)        3VPM (3D)        3VPN (3D)        3VPO (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2R9B5 J3KP43 Q5WRU7
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P31350-1   P31350-2   (No experimental confirmation available. Ref.3 (DA477511) sequence is in conflict in positions: 28:R->H, 59:S->A)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for RRM2: NX_P31350

Explore proteomics data for RRM2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylation on Ser-20 relieves the inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys23, Lys61, Lys206, Lys217, Lys311
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for RRM2 (P31350) (see all 25)
     HVLAFFA  EYQRMGV  FYGFQIA  LFNAIET 


    See RRM2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001025.1  NP_001159403.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000353770   ENSP00000302955   ENSP00000419177  
    Reactome Protein details: P31350

    RRM2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals RRM2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals RRM2 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for RRM2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for RRM2

    RRM2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of RRM2
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    Abcam antibodies for RRM2
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    ThermoFisher Antibody for RRM2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for RRM2

    RRM2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for RRM2
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for RRM2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for RRM2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR012348 RNR-rel
     IPR000358 RNR_small
     IPR009078 Ferritin-like_SF

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P31350

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P31350

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000358 Ribonucleotide reductase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RIR2_HUMAN, P31350
    Similarity: Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase small chain family


    RRM2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: RIR2_HUMAN, P31350
    Function: Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides
    from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling
    Catalytic activity: 2'-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = ribonucleoside
    diphosphate + thioredoxin

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for RRM2:
    ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase M2 polypeptide,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 1.17.4.11 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004748ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor NAS1627826
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0016491oxidoreductase activity ----
    GO:0046872metal ion binding IEA--
         
    RRM2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         8 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for RRM2:
     Cell division defect  Decreased cell number, increas  Decreased number of cells in m  Increased HPV18 LCR reporter a 
     Increased cell number in S  Increased cell size  Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory  S arrest 

         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Rrm2 (no phenotypes)

    RRM2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for RRM2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for RRM2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for RRM2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for RRM2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target RRM2:
    hsa-mir-100-5p (MIRT048497), hsa-mir-342-3p (MIRT043700), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT020622), hsa-mir-30c-5p (MIRT047887), hsa-mir-186-5p (MIRT045271), hsa-mir-24-3p (MIRT030469), hsa-mir-26a-5p (MIRT050154), hsa-mir-30a-5p (MIRT028473), hsa-mir-484 (MIRT041980), hsa-let-7a-5p (MIRT052385), hsa-mir-193b-3p (MIRT016281), hsa-let-7g-5p (MIRT046565), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT005050), hsa-mir-34a-5p (MIRT025270), hsa-mir-425-5p (MIRT039342)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat RRM2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate RRM2 (see all 32):
    hsa-miR-623 hsa-miR-4328 hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-539 hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-202 hsa-let-7c
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidRRM2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for RRM2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat RRM2

    Gene Editing
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    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for RRM2

    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for RRM2 (see all 10)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for RRM2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): RRM2 (NM_001034)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for RRM2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat RRM2

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for RRM2 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for RRM2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RIR2_HUMAN, P31350: Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol4
    nucleus4
    peroxisome2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    extracellular1
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    RRM2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for RRM2 About   (see all 14)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Purine metabolism (KEGG)
    Purine metabolism0.38
    ATP ITP metabolism0.31
    Pyrimidine metabolism0.38
    2Pyrimidine metabolism
    Fluoropyrimidine Activity0.69
    Fluoropyrimidine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.69
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    4superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis
    superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis0.52
    pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides biosynthesis from CTP0.00
    guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis0.52
    adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis0.00
    pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis0.00
    5E2F mediated regulation of DNA replication
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases0.81
    E2F mediated regulation of DNA replication0.30
    G1/S Transition0.81
    G1/S-Specific Transcription0.00

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for RRM2
        ATP/ITP metabolism

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for RRM2 (see all 12)
        Fluoropyrimidine Activity
    purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis
    Nucleotide Metabolism
    guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis
    purine nucleotide salvage

    3 Reactome Pathways for RRM2
        Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates
    E2F mediated regulation of DNA replication
    G1/S-Specific Transcription

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for RRM2
        Fluoropyrimidine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Gemcitabine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    5 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for RRM2):
        Purine metabolism
    Pyrimidine metabolism
    Glutathione metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    p53 signaling pathway

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RIR2_HUMAN, P31350
    Pathway: Genetic information processing; DNA replication


    RRM2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for RRM2
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for RRM2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for RRM2 (P313501, 3 ENSP000003029554) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 293)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    HIST1H4AP628053I2D: score=1 
    HIST1H4BP628053I2D: score=1 
    HIST1H4CP628053I2D: score=1 
    HIST1H4DP628053I2D: score=1 
    HIST1H4EP628053I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000082G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000083regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0006260DNA replication IEA--
    GO:0009186deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate metabolic process IEA--

    RRM2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for RRM2 (RIR2)

    9 HMDB Compounds for RRM2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    CDPCDP (see all 3)63-38-7--
    Guanosine diphosphate5'-GDP (see all 10)146-91-8--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--
    Uridine 5'-diphosphate5'-UDP (see all 9)58-98-0--
    WaterDihydrogen oxide (see all 2)7732-18-5--
    dADP2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-diphosphate (see all 3)2793-06-8--
    dCDP2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate (see all 13)800-73-7--

    2 DrugBank Compounds for RRM2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Cladribine2-CdA (see all 5)4291-63-8targetinhibitor19576186 19715446 16316309 17852710 9923554
    Gallium nitrate-- 13494-90-1targetinhibitor1335254 15651176 12776257

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RRM2 gene (see all 14)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone 83.8 1 15096505 (1)
    gemcitabine 76.2 30 11489836 (3), 18414411 (3), 19002265 (3), 17224927 (2) (see all 12)
    deoxycytidine 72 4 16585222 (1), 17224927 (1), 19531250 (1), 12938148 (1)
    mimosine 62.4 1 15855174 (1)
    hydroxyurea 59.6 13 9918651 (3), 12482398 (1), 16886595 (1), 15096505 (1) (see all 5)
    thymidylate 39.2 2 18097604 (1)
    nucleoside 32.3 3 16585222 (1), 17224927 (1), 19531250 (1)
    thymidine 19.6 3 15733390 (1), 12969430 (1), 15361213 (1)
    ornithine 18.4 1 8622876 (1)
    doxorubicin 16.5 1 15096505 (1)



    RRM2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for RRM2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001034.3  NM_001165931.1  

    Unigene Cluster for RRM2:

    Ribonucleotide reductase M2
    Hs.226390  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001165931
    10 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000360566 ENST00000459969 ENST00000304567(uc021vdr.1) ENST00000498343
    ENST00000461327 ENST00000491447 ENST00000474701 ENST00000487591 ENST00000462343
    ENST00000485717
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate RRM2 (see all 32):
    hsa-miR-623 hsa-miR-4328 hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-539 hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-202 hsa-let-7c
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidRRM2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat RRM2
    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for RRM2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): RRM2 (NM_001034)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for RRM2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat RRM2
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for RRM2
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for RRM2
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat RRM2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat RRM2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat RRM2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK092671.1 AK123010.1 AK313719.1 BC001886.1 BC028932.1 BC030154.1 S40301.1 X59618.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 28):

    DT.416468  DT.100792382  DT.100792378  DT.121027876  DT.100792377  DT.87016152  DT.121027884  DT.121027872 
    DT.100792386  DT.101959644  DT.121027823  DT.100685815  DT.100792380  DT.100792383  DT.95179245  DT.95267226 
    DT.91970822  DT.100723131  DT.121027825  DT.121027889  DT.121027891  DT.95141596  DT.95267228  DT.95267229 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 609):

    AI065118 BC028932 BQ677861 BQ646138 BP367765 BU542336 CR608076 BU185073 
    BM794489 AA779414 CR620509 BM760239 BE561047 CR602054 BE397292 CR625489 
    BC001886 BQ644828 BQ776157 BQ683965 AA714766 AI492879 BM480168 BM711362 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRM2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10
    SP1:                          -           -           -                                       
    SP2:                                      -           -                                       
    SP3:                          -           -                                                   
    SP4:                          -                                                               
    SP5:                          -           -                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for RRM2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    RRM2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      RRM2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TAATTTTTAA
    RRM2 Expression
    About this image


    RRM2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 13) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Lateral Ventricle
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Presumptive Podocytes Podocyte Layer
             Metanephros
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Membranous Facial Bones
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Presumptive Podocytes Podocyte Layer
    RRM2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    RRM2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.226390
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for RRM2 gene from Selected species (see all 29)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Rrm21 , 5 ribonucleotide reductase M21, 5 88.17(n)1
    91.52(a)1
      12 (8.50 cM)5
    201351  NM_009104.21  NP_033130.11 
     247082415 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves RRM21 ribonucleotide reductase M2 79.67(n)
    88.63(a)
      421936  XM_004935754.1  XP_004935811.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia RRM26
    ribonucleotide reductase M2
    84(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(148001345-148019236)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia rrm2-prov2 ribonucleotide reductase M2 82.33(n)    BC047975.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii rrm22 ribonucleotide reductase protein r2 class I 81.34(n)   30733  U57965.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta RnrS1 , 3 DNA replication
    ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase3
    Ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase small subunit1
    81(a)3
    70.52(n)1
    81.56(a)1
      48D53
    362801  NM_080372.31  NP_525111.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea rnr-21 , 3 Ribonuclease-diphosphate reductase M23
    rnr-21
    70(a)
    (best of 2)3
    64.9(n)1
    70.09(a)1
      III(4165314-4166687)3
    1755251  NM_065420.51  NP_497821.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes RNR2(YJL026W)4
    RNR21
    Ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase (RNR), small subunit; more4
    RNR21
    64.39(n)1
    69.57(a)1
      10(392404-393603)4
    8534271, 4  NP_012508.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons TSO21 TSO2 62.04(n)
    70.37(a)
      822324  NM_113620.3  NP_189342.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.90432 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 72.93(n)    NM_185476.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for RRM2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for RRM2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for RRM2 gene
    RRM2B2  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for RRM2 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     RIR2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp686M05248    RRM2B

    RRM2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    4 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for RRM2
    PGOHUM00000247199 PGOHUM00000244310 PGOHUM00000241254 PGOHUM00000241587


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for RRM2 (see all 260)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1885920311,2
    --10260957(+) AATTAC/TGTGGC 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1931788991,2
    --10261041(+) CGTGGC/TGCCCT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1386017761,2
    --10261140(+) TGTTAG/TATAAT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1146902911,2
    F--10261142(+) TTAGAT/AAATAG 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118
    rs116819861,2
    C,F,H--10261225(+) AAAATG/AGCGAT 2 -- us2k15Minor allele frequency- A:0.27NA WA CSA 126
    rs758580471,2
    C,F--10261308(+) GGGCAC/TTTATT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1871527981,2
    --10261355(+) AGTACG/TTTTAA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1466369301,2
    C--10261445(+) TTGTG-/AAAAAA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1915982401,2
    --10261480(+) ACAGCC/GCTGAG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs75822631,2
    C,F,H--10261486(+) CTGAGC/AGCAGC 2 -- us2k114Minor allele frequency- A:0.10NS EA NA WA 2048

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for RRM2 (10262455 - 10271546 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for RRM2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv873633CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing RRM2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for RRM2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 180390    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for RRM2 (see all 36):    About MalaCards
    enterocele    pontiac fever    hypochondriasis    placenta praevia
    gastrointestinal system disease    pancreas adenocarcinoma    placental abruption    breast disease
    choriocarcinoma    pancreatic cancer    mantle cell lymphoma    labyrinthitis
    glioblastoma multiforme    lung adenocarcinoma    nasopharyngitis    adenocarcinoma
    pancreatitis    osteosarcoma    pneumonia    neuroblastoma

    7 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for RRM2:
    Heart disease     Cancer     Hypertension     Diabetes mellitus
    Lung disease     Schizophrenia     Cerebrovascular accident

    RRM2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RRM2 gene (see all 11)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hydatidiform mole 52 1 15733390 (1)
    choriocarcinoma 50.5 1 15347470 (1)
    pancreatic cancer 48.7 1 18751396 (1)
    colon cancer 28.9 2 15096505 (1), 17311703 (1)
    tumors 25.2 24 19250552 (4), 18941749 (4), 16585222 (2), 12967138 (2) (see all 11)
    cancer 22.7 9 9502076 (1), 19250552 (1), 17222798 (1), 17311703 (1) (see all 6)
    colon carcinoma 18.2 3 9918651 (1), 15096505 (1)
    metastasis 12.9 2 11978970 (1), 17311703 (1)
    adenocarcinoma 8.12 3 17222798 (2), 15300189 (1)
    cancer lung 0 2 19002265 (2)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): RRM2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: RRM2 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for RRM2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for RRM2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 146):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with RRM2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Characterization of the human ribonucleotide reductase M2 subunit gene; genomic structure and promoter analyses. (PubMed id 11978970)1, 2, 9 Zhou B. and Yen Y. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 2001)
    2. Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection. (PubMed id 20587610)1, 4 Ucisik-Akkaya E....Dorak M.T. (Mol. Hum. Reprod. 2010)
    3. A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization. (PubMed id 16964243)1, 2 Beausoleil S.A.... Gygi S.P. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2006)
    4. Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. (PubMed id 15815621)1, 2 Hillier L.W.... Wilson R.K. (Nature 2005)
    5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    6. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    7. Sequence analysis of the large and small subunits of human ribonucleotide reductase. (PubMed id 1627826)1, 2 Pavloff N.... Mes-Masson A.-M. (DNA Seq. 1992)
    8. Overexpression of RRM2 decreases thrombspondin-1 and increases VEGF production in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: implication of RRM2 in angiogenesis. (PubMed id 19250552)1, 9 Zhang K....Yen Y. (Mol. Cancer 2009)
    9. Stable suppression of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase by R2-targeted short interference RNA sensitizes p53(-/-) HCT-116 colon cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents and ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors. (PubMed id 15096505)1, 9 Lin Z.P....Sartorelli A.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    10. Implication of checkpoint kinase-dependent up-regulation of ribonucleotide reductase R2 in DNA damage response. (PubMed id 19416980)1, 9 Zhang Y.W....Pommier Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 6241 HGNC: 10452 AceView: RRM2 Ensembl:ENSG00000171848 euGenes: HUgn6241
    ECgene: RRM2 Kegg: 6241 H-InvDB: RRM2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for RRM2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for RRM2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribonucleotide_reductase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for RRM2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving RRM2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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