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Aliases for RRM2 Gene

Aliases for RRM2 Gene

  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 2 3
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 Polypeptide 2 3
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Subunit 3 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Chain 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • RR2 3 4
  • Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Subunit M2 3
  • RR2M 3
  • R2 3

External Ids for RRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRM2 Gene

  • GC02P010047
  • GC02P010314
  • GC02P010267
  • GC02P010284
  • GC02P010213
  • GC02P010262

Summaries for RRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRM2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits for ribonucleotide reductase. This reductase catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. Synthesis of the encoded protein (M2) is regulated in a cell-cycle dependent fashion. Transcription from this gene can initiate from alternative promoters, which results in two isoforms that differ in the lengths of their N-termini. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

GeneCards Summary for RRM2 Gene

RRM2 (Ribonucleotide Reductase M2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RRM2 include pancreas adenocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer. Among its related pathways are Cell Cycle, Mitotic and Cell Cycle, Mitotic. GO annotations related to this gene include transition metal ion binding and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor. An important paralog of this gene is RRM2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM2 Gene

  • Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling

Gene Wiki entry for RRM2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RRM2 Gene

Genomics for RRM2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for RRM2 Gene

10,122,328 bp from pter
10,131,419 bp from pter
9,092 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RRM2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRM2 Gene

Proteins for RRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for RRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R9B5
    • J3KP43
    • Q5WRU7

    Protein attributes for RRM2 Gene

    389 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44878 Da
    Name=Fe cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:24875; Note=Binds 2 iron ions per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a large and a small subunit
    • Two distinct regulatory sites have been defined: the specificity site, which controls substrate specificity, and the activity site which regulates overall catalytic activity. A substrate-binding catalytic site, located on M1, is formed only in the presence of the second subunit M2
    • Sequence=DA477511; Type=Frameshift; Positions=87; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRM2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RRM2 Gene


neXtProt entry for RRM2 Gene

Proteomics data for RRM2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RRM2 Gene

  • Phosphorylation on Ser-20 relieves the inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling
  • Ubiquitination at Lys23, Lys61, Lys206, Lys217, and Lys311
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RRM2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains for RRM2 Gene

Protein Domains for RRM2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RRM2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P31350
  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase small chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRM2: view

No data available for Gene Families for RRM2 Gene

Function for RRM2 Gene

Molecular function for RRM2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase M2 polypeptide,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: 2-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = ribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for RRM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004748 ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor NAS 1627826
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22632967
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRM2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RRM2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for RRM2 Gene

Localization for RRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RRM2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM2: view

Pathways for RRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRM2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P31350-RIR2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Genetic information processing; DNA replication

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000083 regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006260 DNA replication IEA --
GO:0009186 deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM2: view

Compounds for RRM2 Gene

(9) HMDB Compounds for RRM2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • CDP
  • 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate

(2) Drugbank Compounds for RRM2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • 2-CdA
4291-63-8 target inhibitor
Gallium nitrate
13494-90-1 target inhibitor

(14) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RRM2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone 83.8 1
gemcitabine 76.2 21
deoxycytidine 72 4
mimosine 62.4 1
hydroxyurea 59.6 7

(2) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for RRM2 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
cladribine CA
cytarabine CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRM2: view

Transcripts for RRM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RRM2 Gene

Ribonucleotide reductase M2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RRM2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10
SP1: - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: - -

Relevant External Links for RRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (4.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RRM2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRM2 Gene Hs.226390

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RRM2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RRM2 Gene

Orthologs for RRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRM2 35
  • 96.44 (n)
  • 94.88 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRM2 35
  • 91.43 (n)
  • 94.86 (a)
RRM2 36
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRM2 35
  • 91.52 (n)
  • 96.14 (a)
RRM2 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rrm2 35
  • 88.17 (n)
  • 91.52 (a)
Rrm2 16
Rrm2 36
  • 91 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 91 (a)
-- 36
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRM2 36
  • 89 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100359539 35
  • 86.89 (n)
  • 90.23 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRM2 35
  • 79.67 (n)
  • 88.63 (a)
RRM2 36
  • 89 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRM2 36
  • 84 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia rrm2-prov 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rrm2.2 35
  • 77.75 (n)
  • 84.42 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.12256 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100330864 35
  • 74.78 (n)
  • 84.46 (a)
rrm2 35
rrm2 36
  • 84 (a)
rrm2 36
  • 84 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006818 35
  • 70.62 (n)
  • 82.81 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RnrS 35
  • 70.52 (n)
  • 81.56 (a)
RnrS 36
  • 68 (a)
RnrS 37
  • 81 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F19G12.2 36
  • 10 (a)
F54H12.2 36
  • 6 (a)
F58F9.1 36
  • 13 (a)
K09F6.5 36
  • 5 (a)
rnr-2 35
  • 64.9 (n)
  • 70.09 (a)
rnr-2 36
  • 60 (a)
Y57G11C.21 36
  • 9 (a)
F19G12.2 37
  • 59 (a)
rnr-2 37
  • 70 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAL136C 35
  • 67.18 (n)
  • 71.74 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RNR2 35
  • 64.39 (n)
  • 69.57 (a)
RNR2 36
  • 57 (a)
RNR2 38
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F15103g 35
  • 64.18 (n)
  • 71.74 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TSO2 35
  • 62.04 (n)
  • 70.37 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.2712 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.5996 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.9043 35
Os06g0127900 35
  • 62.48 (n)
  • 65.87 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07887 35
  • 65.96 (n)
  • 69.6 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes suc22 35
  • 64.69 (n)
  • 71.03 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4812 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2425 36
  • 70 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RRM2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RRM2 Gene

Gene Tree for RRM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for RRM2 (if available)

Paralogs for RRM2 Gene

Paralogs for RRM2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for RRM2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins: Pseudogenes for RRM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRM2: view

Variants for RRM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs15516 -- 10,129,354(+) CAACA(G/T)AGAAT reference, stop-gained
rs1130609 -- 10,122,793(+) GCGCC(G/T)CCACT utr-variant-5-prime, missense, reference
rs1138727 -- 10,130,802(+) ttttt(G/T)ttttt utr-variant-3-prime
rs1138728 -- 10,130,804(+) ttttt(A/T)ttttt utr-variant-3-prime
rs1138729 -- 10,131,069(+) TGTTT(A/G)TTGTT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv873633 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for RRM2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM2 Gene

Disorders for RRM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (2) Diseases for RRM2 Gene including...

Search for RRM2 Gene in MalaCards »

(11) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RRM2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hydatidiform mole 52 1
choriocarcinoma 50.5 1
pancreatic cancer 48.7 1
colon cancer 28.9 2
tumors 25.2 20

Relevant External Links for RRM2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RRM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM2 Gene

Publications for RRM2 Gene

  1. Characterization of the human ribonucleotide reductase M2 subunit gene; genomic structure and promoter analyses. (PMID: 11978970) Zhou B. … Yen Y. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 2001) 3 4 23
  2. RRM2 induces NF-kappaB-dependent MMP-9 activation and enhances cellular invasiveness. (PMID: 17222798) Duxbury M.S. … Whang E.E. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007) 3 23
  3. Mammalian p53R2 protein forms an active ribonucleotide reductase in vitro with the R1 protein, which is expressed both in resting cells in response to DNA damage and in proliferating cells. (PMID: 11517226) Guittet O. … Thelander L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 23
  4. Quantitative phosphoproteome profiling of Wnt3a-mediated signaling network: indicating the involvement of ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase M2 subunit phosphorylation at residue serine 20 in canonical Wnt signal transduction. (PMID: 17693683) Tang L.-Y. … Zeng R. (Mol. Cell. Proteomics 2007) 4 23
  5. Evaluation of mRNA by Q-RTPCR and protein expression by AQUA of the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2) in human tumors. (PMID: 18941749) Kolesar J. … Wilding G. (Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 2009) 3 23

Products for RRM2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for RRM2

Sources for RRM2 Gene

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