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Aliases for RRM1 Gene

Aliases for RRM1 Gene

  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Catalytic Subunit M1 2 3
  • Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Subunit M1 3 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 Polypeptide 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • RR1 3 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Large Subunit 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase, R1 Subunit 3
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 5
  • RIR1 3
  • R1 3

External Ids for RRM1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRM1 Gene

  • GC11P004668
  • GC11P004381
  • GC11P004075
  • GC11P004080
  • GC11P004072
  • GC11P003849

Summaries for RRM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRM1 Gene

  • This gene encodes the large and catalytic subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme essential for the conversion of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides. A pool of available deoxyribonucleotides is important for DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle as well as multiple DNA repair processes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

GeneCards Summary for RRM1 Gene

RRM1 (Ribonucleotide Reductase Catalytic Subunit M1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RRM1 include Lung Papillary Adenocarcinoma and Adenosquamous Pancreas Carcinoma. Among its related pathways are Purine metabolism and RB in Cancer. GO annotations related to this gene include purine nucleotide binding and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene

  • Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.

Gene Wiki entry for RRM1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RRM1 Gene

Genomics for RRM1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RRM1 Gene

Enhancers for RRM1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around RRM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for RRM1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around RRM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for RRM1 Gene

4,094,561 bp from pter
4,138,881 bp from pter
44,321 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RRM1 Gene

Genes around RRM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RRM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RRM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRM1 Gene

Proteins for RRM1 Gene

  • Protein details for RRM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UNN2

    Protein attributes for RRM1 Gene

    792 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    90070 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a large and a small subunit. Heterodimer with small subunit RRM2 or RRM2B. The heterodimer with RRM2 has higher catalytic activity than the heterodimer with RRM2B. Interacts with AHCYL1 which inhibits its activity.
    • The level of the enzyme activity is closely correlated with the growth rate of a cell and appears to vary with the cell cycle.
    • Two distinct regulatory sites have been defined: the specificity site, which controls substrate specificity, and the activity site which regulates overall catalytic activity. A substrate-binding catalytic site, located on M1, is formed only in the presence of the second subunit M2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRM1 Gene

neXtProt entry for RRM1 Gene

Proteomics data for RRM1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RRM1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 24, Lys 70, Lys 92, Lys 111, Lys 128, Lys 149, Lys 158, Lys 180, Lys 243, Lys 376, Lys 414, Lys 465, Lys 471, Lys 479, Lys 643, Lys 656, Lys 681, Lys 689, Lys 693, Lys 719, Lys 729, Lys 733, and Lys 754
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for RRM1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RRM1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 ATP-cone domain.
  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase large chain family.
  • Contains 1 ATP-cone domain.
  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase large chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRM1: view

No data available for Gene Families for RRM1 Gene

Function for RRM1 Gene

Molecular function for RRM1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase M1 polypeptide,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway,putative metastasis suppressor (see TSG11D)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = ribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Under complex allosteric control mediated by deoxynucleoside triphosphates and ATP binding to separate specificity and activation sites on the M1 subunit. The type of nucleotide bound at the specificity site determines substrate preference. It seems probable that ATP makes the enzyme reduce CDP and UDP, dGTP favors ADP reduction and dTTP favors GDP reduction. Stimulated by ATP and inhibited by dATP binding to the activity site, the dATP inhibition is mediated by AHCYL1 which stabilizes dATP in the site.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for RRM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRM1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RRM1 Gene

Localization for RRM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RRM1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view

Pathways & Interactions for RRM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRM1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P23921-RIR1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Genetic information processing; DNA replication.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006206 pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006260 DNA replication IEA --
GO:0021846 cell proliferation in forebrain IEA --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
GO:0051290 protein heterotetramerization IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RRM1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RRM1 Gene

(43) Drugs for RRM1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Gemcitabine Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, Target Ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis inhibitor, Nucleoside Analogs 1898
Clofarabine Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, binder, Target Antimetabolite,inhibit DNA polymerase and ribonucleotide reductase 154
Hydroxyurea Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target 204
Cladribine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Apoptosis inducer in CLL cells 68
Fludarabine Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target DNA synthsis inhibitor 1075

(12) Additional Compounds for RRM1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
  • 2'-Deoxyadenosine-5'-diphosphate
  • dADP
  • Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxy-Cytidine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • 2'-Deoxy-Cytidine pyrophosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxycytidine-5'-diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxy-GDP
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine-5'-diphosphate
  • 5'-dGDP
  • Deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate
  • Deoxyguanosine diphosphate
  • Armco iron
  • Carbonyl iron
  • FE
  • Ferrovac e
  • Hematite

(5) ApexBio Compounds for RRM1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Clofarabine Antimetabolite,inhibit DNA polymerase and ribonucleotide reductase 123318-82-1
Fludarabine Phosphate (Fludara) Inhibits STAT1 activation and DNA synthesis 75607-67-9
Gemcitabine 95058-81-4
Hydroxyurea 127-07-1
Triapine Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor 236392-56-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRM1: view

Transcripts for RRM1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RRM1 Gene

Ribonucleotide reductase M1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRM1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for RRM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RRM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (16.9), Fetal Brain (8.2), and Uterus (7.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RRM1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRM1 Gene Hs.445705

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RRM1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for RRM1 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RRM1 Gene

Orthologs for RRM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RRM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRM1 35
  • 92.79 (n)
  • 96.97 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRM1 35
  • 92.68 (n)
  • 97.98 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rrm1 35
  • 90.11 (n)
  • 97.6 (a)
Rrm1 16
Rrm1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRM1 35
  • 99.71 (n)
  • 99.87 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rrm1 35
  • 90.53 (n)
  • 97.47 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RRM1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRM1 36
  • 96 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRM1 35
  • 82.24 (n)
  • 94.05 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRM1 36
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rrm1 35
  • 78.2 (n)
  • 90.4 (a)
Str.591 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.1365 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rrm1 35
  • 76.47 (n)
  • 89.14 (a)
rrm1 36
  • 90 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10214 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RnrL 37
  • 74 (a)
RnrL 35
  • 66.58 (n)
  • 75 (a)
RnrL 36
  • 73 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010198 35
  • 65.82 (n)
  • 77.78 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rnr-1 37
  • 73 (a)
rnr-1 35
  • 67.82 (n)
  • 75.06 (a)
rnr-1 36
  • 74 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL057W 35
  • 63.31 (n)
  • 69.76 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C07887g 35
  • 65.38 (n)
  • 69.1 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RNR1 35
  • 64.1 (n)
  • 67.64 (a)
RNR3 36
  • 59 (a)
RNR1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons RNR1 35
  • 64.23 (n)
  • 69.19 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.9033 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.4222 35
Os06g0168600 35
  • 64.23 (n)
  • 69.07 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.6274 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.5173 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2172 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03539 35
  • 66.4 (n)
  • 74.11 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes cdc22 35
  • 65.07 (n)
  • 70.8 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7111 36
  • 71 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RRM1:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for RRM1 Gene

Gene Tree for RRM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for RRM1 (if available)

Paralogs for RRM1 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for RRM1 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRM1: view

No data available for Paralogs for RRM1 Gene

Variants for RRM1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RRM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2228123 - 4,129,149(+) TTGCA(A/C)AGTAA reference, missense
rs2229196 - 4,138,337(+) CATGG(C/T)GTGCT reference, missense
rs720106 -- 4,118,748(-) CATAC(A/G)GTAAG intron-variant
rs725518 -- 4,107,615(-) TTTTG(C/T)AGTGT intron-variant
rs725519 -- 4,107,256(-) CCTCA(C/T)TTAAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRM1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv896896 CNV Gain 21882294
essv17026 CNV CNV 17122850
nsv428248 CNV Gain+Loss 18775914
nsv832053 CNV Gain 17160897
esv1431944 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv8777 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for RRM1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.38; 27.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for RRM1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene

Disorders for RRM1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for RRM1 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
lung papillary adenocarcinoma
  • papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung
adenosquamous pancreas carcinoma
  • adenosquamous carcinoma of pancreas
granuloma inguinale
  • donovanosis
autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia
  • adpeo
brachial plexus neuritis
  • brachial neuritis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RRM1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for RRM1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RRM1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RRM1 Gene

Publications for RRM1 Gene

  1. RRM1 single nucleotide polymorphism -37C-->A correlates with progression-free survival in NSCLC patients after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. (PMID: 20226083) Dong S. … Wu Y.L. (J Hematol Oncol 2010) 3 23 48 67
  2. Involvement of ribonucleotide reductase M1 subunit overexpression in gemcitabine resistance of human pancreatic cancer. (PMID: 17131328) Nakahira S. … Monden M. (Int. J. Cancer 2007) 3 23 25 26
  3. RRM1 modulated in vitro and in vivo efficacy of gemcitabine and platinum in non-small-cell lung cancer. (PMID: 16966686) Bepler G. … Simon G. (J. Clin. Oncol. 2006) 3 23 25 26
  4. Micro-array analysis of resistance for gemcitabine results in increased expression of ribonucleotide reductase subunits. (PMID: 17065054) Smid K. … Peters G.J. (Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2006) 3 25 26
  5. Ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) 2464G>A polymorphism shows an association with gemcitabine chemosensitivity in cancer cell lines. (PMID: 16708051) Kwon W.S. … Chung H.C. (Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2006) 23 25 26

Products for RRM1 Gene

Sources for RRM1 Gene