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Aliases for RRM1 Gene

Aliases for RRM1 Gene

  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 2 3
  • Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Subunit M1 3 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 Polypeptide 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • RR1 3 4
  • Ribonucleoside-Diphosphate Reductase Large Subunit 3
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase Large Subunit 4
  • Ribonucleotide Reductase, R1 Subunit 3
  • RIR1 3
  • R1 3

External Ids for RRM1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RRM1 Gene

  • GC11P004668
  • GC11P004381
  • GC11P004075
  • GC11P004080
  • GC11P004072
  • GC11P003849

Summaries for RRM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RRM1 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits that constitute ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase, an enzyme essential for the production of deoxyribonucleotides prior to DNA synthesis in S phase of dividing cells. It is one of several genes located in the imprinted gene domain of 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocrotical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian, and breast cancer. This gene may play a role in malignancies and disease that involve this region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for RRM1 Gene

RRM1 (Ribonucleotide Reductase M1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RRM1 include beckwith-wiedemann syndrome and wilms tumor. Among its related pathways are Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway and Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control. GO annotations related to this gene include ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene

  • Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides

Gene Wiki entry for RRM1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RRM1 Gene

Genomics for RRM1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RRM1 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for RRM1 Gene

4,094,694 bp from pter
4,138,876 bp from pter
44,183 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RRM1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RRM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RRM1 Gene

Proteins for RRM1 Gene

  • Protein details for RRM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UNN2

    Protein attributes for RRM1 Gene

    792 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    90070 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a large and a small subunit. Heterodimer with small subunit RRM2 or RRM2B. The heterodimer with RRM2 has higher catalytic activity than the heterodimer with RRM2B. Interacts with AHCYL1 which inhibits its activity.
    • The level of the enzyme activity is closely correlated with the growth rate of a cell and appears to vary with the cell cycle
    • Two distinct regulatory sites have been defined: the specificity site, which controls substrate specificity, and the activity site which regulates overall catalytic activity. A substrate-binding catalytic site, located on M1, is formed only in the presence of the second subunit M2

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RRM1 Gene

neXtProt entry for RRM1 Gene

Proteomics data for RRM1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RRM1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys24, Lys70, Lys92, Lys111, Lys128, Lys149, Lys158, Lys180, Lys243, Lys376, Lys414, Lys465, Lys471, Lys479, Lys496, Lys643, Lys656, Lys681, Lys689, Lys693, Lys719, Lys729, Lys733, and Lys754
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RRM1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for RRM1 (RRM1)

Domains for RRM1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RRM1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 ATP-cone domain.
  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase large chain family.
  • Contains 1 ATP-cone domain.
  • Belongs to the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase large chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RRM1: view

No data available for Gene Families for RRM1 Gene

Function for RRM1 Gene

Molecular function for RRM1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase M1 polypeptide,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway,putative metastasis suppressor (see TSG11D)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H(2)O = ribonucleoside diphosphate + thioredoxin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Under complex allosteric control mediated by deoxynucleoside triphosphates and ATP binding to separate specificity and activation sites on the M1 subunit. The type of nucleotide bound at the specificity site determines substrate preference. It seems probable that ATP makes the enzyme reduce CDP and UDP, dGTP favors ADP reduction and dTTP favors GDP reduction. Stimulated by ATP and inhibited by dATP binding to the activity site, the dATP inhibition is mediated by AHCYL1 which stabilizes dATP in the site.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for RRM1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004748 ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22632967
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0017076 purine nucleotide binding --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RRM1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for RRM1 Gene

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RRM1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RRM1 Gene

Localization for RRM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RRM1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RRM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005635 nuclear envelope IEA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0042995 cell projection IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view

Pathways for RRM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RRM1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P23921-RIR1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Genetic information processing; DNA replication

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle IEA --
GO:0006206 pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006260 DNA replication IEA --
GO:0008584 male gonad development IEA --
GO:0009263 deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic process ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RRM1: view

Drugs for RRM1 Gene

(7) Drugbank Compounds for RRM1 Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • (2R,3S,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-Chloropurin-9-yl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol
4291-63-8 20279 Target inhibitor approved, investigational
  • (2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-Chloropurin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-3-ol
123318-82-1 119182 Target inhibitor approved, investigational
  • 2-Fluoro-ara AMP
75607-67-9 30751 Target inhibitor approved
  • 2'-Deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine
95058-81-4 60750 Target inhibitor approved
  • Carbamohydroxamic Acid
127-07-1 3657 Target inhibitor approved

(5) ApexBio Compounds for RRM1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Clofarabine Antimetabolite,inhibit DNA polymerase and ribonucleotide reductase [123318-82-1]
Fludarabine Phosphate (Fludara) Inhibits STAT1 activation and DNA synthesis [75607-67-9]
Gemcitabine [95058-81-4]
Hydroxyurea [127-07-1]
Triapine Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor [236392-56-6]

(17) HMDB Compounds for RRM1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(Tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • CDP
  • 2-CdA

(17) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RRM1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gemcitabine 85.8 95
deoxycytidine 74.6 8
deoxyribonucleotide 74 1
cisplatin 53.9 19
carboplatin 42.3 6

(4) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for RRM1 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
cladribine Clinical Annotation
cytarabine Clinical Annotation
gemcitabine Clinical Annotation
Platinum compounds Clinical Annotation
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RRM1: view

Transcripts for RRM1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RRM1 Gene

Ribonucleotide reductase M1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RRM1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RRM1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for RRM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for RRM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (16.9), Fetal Brain (8.2), and Uterus (7.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RRM1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RRM1 Gene Hs.445705

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RRM1: view

Expression partners for RRM1 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RRM1 Gene

Orthologs for RRM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RRM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RRM1 35
  • 92.79 (n)
  • 96.97 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RRM1 35
  • 92.68 (n)
  • 97.98 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rrm1 35
  • 90.11 (n)
  • 97.6 (a)
Rrm1 16
Rrm1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RRM1 35
  • 99.71 (n)
  • 99.87 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rrm1 35
  • 90.53 (n)
  • 97.47 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RRM1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RRM1 36
  • 96 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RRM1 35
  • 82.24 (n)
  • 94.05 (a)
RRM1 36
  • 94 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RRM1 36
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rrm1 35
  • 78.2 (n)
  • 90.4 (a)
Str.591 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.1365 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rrm1 35
  • 76.47 (n)
  • 89.14 (a)
rrm1 36
  • 90 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10214 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RnrL 37
  • 74 (a)
RnrL 35
  • 66.58 (n)
  • 75 (a)
RnrL 36
  • 73 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010198 35
  • 65.82 (n)
  • 77.78 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rnr-1 37
  • 73 (a)
rnr-1 35
  • 67.82 (n)
  • 75.06 (a)
rnr-1 36
  • 74 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL057W 35
  • 63.31 (n)
  • 69.76 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C07887g 35
  • 65.38 (n)
  • 69.1 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RNR1 35
  • 64.1 (n)
  • 67.64 (a)
RNR3 36
  • 59 (a)
RNR1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons RNR1 35
  • 64.23 (n)
  • 69.19 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.9033 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.4222 35
Os06g0168600 35
  • 64.23 (n)
  • 69.07 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.6274 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.5173 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2172 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03539 35
  • 66.4 (n)
  • 74.11 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes cdc22 35
  • 65.07 (n)
  • 70.8 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7111 36
  • 71 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RRM1:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for RRM1 Gene

Gene Tree for RRM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for RRM1 (if available)

Paralogs for RRM1 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for RRM1 Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RRM1: view

No data available for Paralogs for RRM1 Gene

Variants for RRM1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RRM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2584875 -- 4,126,879(-) TTTCA(A/G)TTTGG intron-variant
rs2584874 -- 4,133,957(-) tccta(A/G)acatt intron-variant
rs2412346 -- 4,114,287(+) ggtgg(A/G)tcatg intron-variant
rs2412345 -- 4,114,120(+) ACAGA(A/G)CGAGA intron-variant
rs2284452 -- 4,134,876(+) AGATT(A/G)ATATT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RRM1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv896896 CNV Gain 21882294
essv17026 CNV CNV 17122850
nsv428248 CNV Gain+Loss 18775914
nsv832053 CNV Gain 17160897
esv1431944 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv8777 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495

Relevant External Links for RRM1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RRM1 Gene

Disorders for RRM1 Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for RRM1 Gene

(11) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RRM1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
nsclc 73.5 27
cancer lung 61 26
xeroderma pigmentosum 59.4 3
pancreatic cancer 51.4 6
tumors 36.6 37

Relevant External Links for RRM1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RRM1: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RRM1 Gene

Publications for RRM1 Gene

  1. Involvement of ribonucleotide reductase M1 subunit overexpression in gemcitabine resistance of human pancreatic cancer. (PMID: 17131328) Nakahira S. … Monden M. (Int. J. Cancer 2007) 3 23 25 26
  2. RRM1 modulated in vitro and in vivo efficacy of gemcitabine and platinum in non-small-cell lung cancer. (PMID: 16966686) Bepler G. … Simon G. (J. Clin. Oncol. 2006) 3 23 25 26
  3. Human gene for the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM1): functional analysis of the promoter. (PMID: 7557993) Parker N.J. … Fox R.M. (Genomics 1995) 2 3 23
  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and outcome in docetaxel-cisplatin-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. (PMID: 15277258) Isla D. … Lianes P. (Ann. Oncol. 2004) 3 23 48
  5. An association between RRM1 haplotype and gemcitabine-induced neutropenia in breast cancer patients. (PMID: 17602053) Rha S.Y. … Chung H.C. (Oncologist 2007) 3 23 48

Products for RRM1 Gene

Sources for RRM1 Gene

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