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Aliases for RPL21 Gene

Aliases for RPL21 Gene

  • Ribosomal Protein L21 2 3
  • 60S Ribosomal Protein L21 2 3
  • HYPT12 3
  • L21 3

External Ids for RPL21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RPL21 Gene

  • GC10M121019
  • GC13P021805
  • GC13P026755
  • GC13P025623
  • GC13P026723
  • GC13P027827

Summaries for RPL21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RPL21 Gene

  • Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L21E family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for RPL21 Gene

RPL21 (Ribosomal Protein L21) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RPL21 include hypotrichosis 12 and hypotrichosis simplex. Among its related pathways are Disease and Biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor (dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide, LLO) and transfer to a nascent protein. GO annotations related to this gene include RNA binding and structural constituent of ribosome.

Gene Wiki entry for RPL21 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RPL21 Gene

Genomics for RPL21 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RPL21 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for RPL21 Gene

27,251,309 bp from pter
27,256,691 bp from pter
5,383 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RPL21 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RPL21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RPL21 Gene

Proteins for RPL21 Gene

  • Protein details for RPL21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    60S ribosomal protein L21
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16699

    Protein attributes for RPL21 Gene

    160 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18565 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RPL21 Gene

neXtProt entry for RPL21 Gene

Proteomics data for RPL21 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RPL21 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys21 and Lys43
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RPL21 Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RPL21 Gene

Domains for RPL21 Gene

Gene Families for RPL21 Gene

Protein Domains for RPL21 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RPL21 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein L21e family.
  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein L21e family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RPL21: view

Function for RPL21 Gene

Molecular function for RPL21 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
60S ribosomal protein L21,gene or pseudogene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding TAS 7772601
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome NAS 12962325
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22658674
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RPL21: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RPL21: view

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RPL21

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RPL21 Gene

Localization for RPL21 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RPL21 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RPL21 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
chloroplast 2
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005840 ribosome --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RPL21: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RPL21 Gene

Pathways for RPL21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RPL21: view

Pathways by source for RPL21 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for RPL21 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for RPL21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000184 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay TAS --
GO:0006412 translation TAS --
GO:0006413 translational initiation TAS --
GO:0006414 translational elongation TAS --
GO:0006415 translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RPL21: view

Transcripts for RPL21 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RPL21 Gene

Ribosomal protein L21:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RPL21

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RPL21 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for RPL21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RPL21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RPL21 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for RPL21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Amniocyte (11.1) and Tlymphocyte (8.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RPL21 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RPL21 Gene Hs.381123

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RPL21: view

Expression partners for RPL21 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RPL21 Gene

Orthologs for RPL21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RPL21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RPL21 35
  • 93.12 (n)
  • 98.75 (a)
RPL21 36
  • 73 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RPL21 35
  • 95.21 (n)
  • 100 (a)
-- 36
  • 99 (a)
RPL21 36
  • 99 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rpl21 35
  • 89.17 (n)
  • 99.37 (a)
Rpl21 16
Rpl21 36
  • 99 (a)
Rpl21-ps4 36
  • 93 (a)
Rpl21-ps6 36
  • 94 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rpl21 35
  • 88.75 (n)
  • 98.12 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 97 (a)
-- 36
  • 99 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RPL21 36
  • 76 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 100 (a)
-- 36
  • 100 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RPL21 35
  • 85 (n)
  • 94.37 (a)
RPL21 36
  • 94 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RPL21 36
  • 94 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rpl21 35
  • 78.12 (n)
  • 88.75 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
rpl21 35
  • 76.46 (n)
  • 85 (a)
rpl21 36
  • 85 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8730 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG12775 37
  • 72 (a)
RpL21 35
  • 67.3 (n)
  • 72.96 (a)
RpL21 36
  • 73 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012138 35
  • 60.17 (n)
  • 63.52 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rpl-21 37
  • 63 (a)
rpl-21 35
  • 59.79 (n)
  • 63.75 (a)
rpl-21 36
  • 63 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL254W 35
  • 59.45 (n)
  • 57.96 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E23651g 35
  • 60.08 (n)
  • 59.87 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RPL21B 35
  • 60.93 (n)
  • 59.87 (a)
RPL21A 36
  • 59 (a)
RPL21B 36
  • 59 (a)
RPL21A 38
RPL21A 38
RPL21A 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G09590 35
  • 56.26 (n)
  • 48.41 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.8168 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0141000 35
  • 52.65 (n)
  • 49.04 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01948 35
  • 55.41 (n)
  • 57.32 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes rpl2102 35
  • 61.78 (n)
  • 59.24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11307 36
  • 71 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RPL21:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RPL21 Gene

Gene Tree for RPL21 (if available)
Gene Tree for RPL21 (if available)

Paralogs for RPL21 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for RPL21 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins: Pseudogenes for RPL21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RPL21: view

No data available for Paralogs for RPL21 Gene

Variants for RPL21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RPL21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1855252 -- 27,256,991(+) GAGAC(A/G)GGGTT downstream-variant-500B
rs3094291 -- 27,252,731(+) TAACA(A/G)TGGTT intron-variant
rs28631849 -- 27,252,708(+) GCATT(A/T)AAAGG intron-variant
rs57114181 -- 27,256,682(+) TTAAT(-/G)TATTT downstream-variant-500B
rs57568768 -- 27,256,814(+) AAAAT(-/A)TTTTT downstream-variant-500B

Relevant External Links for RPL21 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RPL21 Gene

Disorders for RPL21 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for RPL21 Gene in MalaCards »

(2) Diseases for RPL21 Gene


  • Hypotrichosis 12 (HYPT12) [MIM:615885]: A form of hypotrichosis, a condition characterized by the presence of less than the normal amount of hair and abnormal hair follicles and shafts, which are thin and atrophic. The extent of scalp and body hair involvement can be very variable, within as well as between families. HYPT12 patients have normal scalp hair density at birth. Hair loss begins during the first 6 months of life and gradually progresses to nearly complete loss of scalp hair. The remaining hairs grow slowly and are thin, sparse, dry, and fragile. Body hair, axillary and pubic hair, eyebrows and eyelashes are also sparse or absent. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21412954}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for RPL21 Gene

Relevant External Links for RPL21

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RPL21: view

No data available for OMIM , Novoseek inferred disease relationships and Genatlas for RPL21 Gene

Publications for RPL21 Gene

  1. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the L5, L21, L27a, L28, S5, S9, S10 and S29 human ribosomal protein mRNAs. (PMID: 7772601) Frigerio J.-M. … Iovanna J.L. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. Characterization and analysis of posttranslational modifications of the human large cytoplasmic ribosomal subunit proteins by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. (PMID: 12962325) Odintsova T.I. … Karpova G.G. (J. Protein Chem. 2003) 3 4 23
  3. A map of 75 human ribosomal protein genes. (PMID: 9582194) Kenmochi N. … Page D.C. (Genome Res. 1998) 3 4
  4. The human ribosomal protein genes: sequencing and comparative analysis of 73 genes. (PMID: 11875025) Yoshihama M. … Kenmochi N. (Genome Res. 2002) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4

Products for RPL21 Gene

Sources for RPL21 Gene

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