Aliases for ROCK1 Gene
External Ids for ROCK1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ROCK1 Gene
This gene encodes a protein serine/threonine kinase that is activated when bound to the GTP-bound form of Rho. The small GTPase Rho regulates formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers of fibroblasts, as well as adhesion and aggregation of platelets and lymphocytes by shuttling between the inactive GDP-bound form and the active GTP-bound form. Rho is also essential in cytokinesis and plays a role in transcriptional activation by serum response factor. This protein, a downstream effector of Rho, phosphorylates and activates LIM kinase, which in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for ROCK1 Gene
ROCK1 (Rho-Associated, Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ROCK1 include sry-negative 46,xx testicular disorder of sex development and 46,xx testicular disorder of sex development. Among its related pathways are RhoGDI Pathway and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is STK38L.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ROCK1 Gene
Protein kinase which is a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton and cell polarity. Involved in regulation of smooth muscle contraction, actin cytoskeleton organization, stress fiber and focal adhesion formation, neurite retraction, cell adhesion and motility via phosphorylation of DAPK3, GFAP, LIMK1, LIMK2, MYL9/MLC2, PFN1 and PPP1R12A. Phosphorylates FHOD1 and acts synergistically with it to promote SRC-dependent non-apoptotic plasma membrane blebbing. Phosphorylates JIP3 and regulates the recruitment of JNK to JIP3 upon UVB-induced stress. Acts as a suppressor of inflammatory cell migration by regulating PTEN phosphorylation and stability. Acts as a negative regulator of VEGF-induced angiogenic endothelial cell activation. Required for centrosome positioning and centrosome-dependent exit from mitosis. Plays a role in terminal erythroid differentiation. May regulate closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall by inducing the assembly of actomyosin bundles. Promotes keratinocyte terminal differentiation. Involved in osteoblast compaction through the fibronectin fibrillogenesis cell-mediated matrix assembly process, essential for osteoblast mineralization.
Rho-kinases (aka Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases or ROCKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are activated by RhoA GTPases, and are key modulators of processes involving cytoskeletal rearrangement such focal adhesion formation, cell motility and tumor cell invasion. There are two isoforms of ROCK, ROCKI (aka ROKbeta or p160ROCK) and ROCKII (aka ROKalpha), which share a high degree of structural identity in their kinase domains (92%). The two Rho-kinase isoforms have different patterns of tissue expression; ROCKII expression is highest in the brain and in muscle whereas ROCKI has a ubiquitous tissue distribution. Subcellularly, ROCKII is found in the cytosol and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. ROCKI is thought to colocalize with the centrosomes. ROCKs phosphorylate a number of proteins involved in actin filament assembly and contraction (e.g. LIM Kinases, MLCK, ERM proteins). Other downstream targets of the Rho kinases include signal transduction molecules such as IRS-1 and PI 3-K/AKT.