Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ROBO2 Gene

Aliases for ROBO2 Gene

  • Roundabout Guidance Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • Roundabout, Axon Guidance Receptor, Homolog 2 (Drosophila) 2
  • Roundabout (Axon Guidance Receptor, Drosophila) Homolog 2 2
  • Roundabout, Axon Guidance Receptor, Homolog 2 3
  • Roundabout Homolog 2 3
  • KIAA1568 4
  • SAX3 3

External Ids for ROBO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ROBO2 Gene

  • GC03P075389
  • GC03P077181
  • GC03P076895
  • GC03P077010
  • GC03P077009
  • GC03P077172
  • GC03P077608
  • GC03P076069

Summaries for ROBO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ROBO2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ROBO family, part of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that are highly conserved from fly to human. The encoded protein is a transmembrane receptor for the slit homolog 2 protein and functions in axon guidance and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with vesicoureteral reflux, characterized by the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters or the kidney. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

GeneCards Summary for ROBO2 Gene

ROBO2 (Roundabout Guidance Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ROBO2 include Vesicoureteral Reflux 2 and Familial Vesicoureteral Reflux. Among its related pathways are Developmental Biology and Development Slit-Robo signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and axon guidance receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is ROBO1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ROBO2 Gene

  • Receptor for SLIT2, and probably SLIT1, which are thought to act as molecular guidance cue in cellular migration, including axonal navigation at the ventral midline of the neural tube and projection of axons to different regions during neuronal development.

Gene Wiki entry for ROBO2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ROBO2 Gene

Genomics for ROBO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ROBO2 Gene

Enhancers for ROBO2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03G076684 0.3 FANTOM5 4.5 +777.7 777689 0.2 ROBO2 LOC102724949 GC03P076507
GH03G076556 0.3 FANTOM5 2.4 +649.7 649697 0.4 ROBO2 GC03P076507 LOC102724949
GH03G075906 0.6 ENCODE 0.7 -0.1 -68 0.9 ZNF263 CTCF L3MBTL2 SUZ12 POLR2A RBBP5 ZNF717 ROBO2
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around ROBO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for ROBO2 Gene

75,906,675 bp from pter
77,649,964 bp from pter
1,743,290 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ROBO2 Gene

Genes around ROBO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ROBO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ROBO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ROBO2 Gene

Proteins for ROBO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ROBO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Roundabout homolog 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O43608
    • Q19AB4
    • Q19AB5

    Protein attributes for ROBO2 Gene

    1378 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    151200 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with SLIT2.
    • Sequence=AAC39576.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=601; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAB13394.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ROBO2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ROBO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ROBO2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ROBO2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn123, Asn426, Asn752, isoforms=2, 3782, Asn789, and Asn845
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ROBO2 Gene

Domains & Families for ROBO2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ROBO2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. ROBO family.
  • Belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. ROBO family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ROBO2: view

Function for ROBO2 Gene

Molecular function for ROBO2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for SLIT2, and probably SLIT1, which are thought to act as molecular guidance cue in cellular migration, including axonal navigation at the ventral midline of the neural tube and projection of axons to different regions during neuronal development.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ROBO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12504588
GO:0008046 axon guidance receptor activity NAS 9458045
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IDA 12504588
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ROBO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ROBO2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ROBO2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ROBO2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ROBO2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ROBO2 Gene

Localization for ROBO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ROBO2 Gene

Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ROBO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ROBO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 12504588
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030673 axolemma ISS,IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ROBO2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ROBO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ROBO2: view

Pathways by source for ROBO2 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for ROBO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ROBO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001656 metanephros development ISS --
GO:0001657 ureteric bud development IMP 17357069
GO:0001822 kidney development IEA --
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IEA --
GO:0007155 cell adhesion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ROBO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ROBO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ROBO2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for ROBO2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ROBO2 Gene

Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (Drosophila):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ROBO2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ROBO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ROBO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ROBO2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ROBO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x5.7), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x5.1), Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x5.0), and Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ROBO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal Brain (24.9), Heart (18.0), and Breast (18.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for ROBO2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ROBO2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ROBO2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ROBO2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ROBO2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Kidney(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ROBO2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • immune
  • reproductive
  • skeleton
  • urinary
  • kidney
  • placenta
  • ureter
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • uterus
  • ankle
  • digit
  • elbow
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • hip
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • shoulder
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ROBO2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ROBO2 Gene

Orthologs for ROBO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ROBO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ROBO2 34 35
  • 98.52 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC487691 34
  • 91.07 (n)
ROBO2 35
  • 88 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC534842 34
  • 90.01 (n)
ROBO2 35
  • 90 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Robo2 34 16 35
  • 88.18 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Robo2 34
  • 84.32 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ROBO2 35
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ROBO2 34 35
  • 82.81 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ROBO2 35
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia robo2 34
  • 78.09 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii robo2 34 35 35
  • 70.49 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta robo 34 35
  • 48.23 (n)
robo3 35
  • 27 (a)
lea 35
  • 25 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010969 34
  • 44.66 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea sax-3 35
  • 32 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 20 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ROBO2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ROBO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ROBO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ROBO2 (if available)

Paralogs for ROBO2 Gene

Paralogs for ROBO2 Gene Pseudogenes for ROBO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ROBO2: view

Variants for ROBO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ROBO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs267607014 Pathogenic, Vesicoureteral reflux 2 (VUR2) [MIM:610878] 77,596,730(+) TGAGA(C/T)TGGAA reference, missense
rs267607015 Pathogenic, Vesicoureteral reflux 2 (VUR2) [MIM:610878] 77,622,378(+) TGAGA(A/C/G)CACTG reference, missense
rs113680429 Likely benign 77,481,096(+) TTTAA(C/T)AGATC intron-variant
rs114621892 Likely benign 77,647,794(+) TTAGG(A/G)TCAGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs115128094 Likely benign 77,579,935(+) ACTTT(A/C)CATTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ROBO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv8392n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv1000557 CNV deletion 20482838
esv1093026 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1136393 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1228509 CNV deletion 17803354
esv1519897 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1623331 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1701230 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2662491 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2675710 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2678855 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2725535 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2725536 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2725537 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2725538 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2725539 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2759158 CNV gain 17122850
esv29384 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv3329708 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3562106 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3562107 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3562108 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3596655 CNV loss 21293372
esv3596656 CNV gain 21293372
esv3596657 CNV loss 21293372
esv3596658 CNV loss 21293372
esv3596659 CNV loss 21293372
esv989139 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1012185 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1013631 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1072702 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1117947 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1118702 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1145817 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv3886 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv509832 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv509833 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv512806 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv525804 CNV loss 19592680
nsv590732 CNV loss 21841781
nsv819347 CNV gain 19587683
nsv822146 CNV loss 20364138
nsv834739 CNV gain 17160897
nsv834740 CNV gain+loss 17160897
nsv954896 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv956271 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv967241 CNV deletion 23825009
nsv979849 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ROBO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 5.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.82; 58.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for ROBO2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ROBO2 Gene

Disorders for ROBO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for ROBO2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
vesicoureteral reflux 2
  • vesicoureteric reflux 2
familial vesicoureteral reflux
  • familial vur
vesicoureteral reflux
  • vesico-ureteral reflux
ureteral disease
  • ureteral disorders
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ROBO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving ROBO2 is a cause of multiple congenital abnormalities, including severe bilateral VUR with ureterovesical junction defects. Translocation t(Y;3)(p11;p12) with PCDH11Y. This translocation disrupts ROBO2 and produces dominant-negative ROBO2 proteins that abrogate SLIT-ROBO signaling in vitro.
  • Vesicoureteral reflux 2 (VUR2) [MIM:610878]: A disease belonging to the group of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. It is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys, and is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary disease results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction. In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy. Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17357069}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for ROBO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ROBO2: view

No data available for Genatlas for ROBO2 Gene

Publications for ROBO2 Gene

  1. Roundabout controls axon crossing of the CNS midline and defines a novel subfamily of evolutionarily conserved guidance receptors. (PMID: 9458045) Kidd T. … Tear G. (Cell 1998) 2 3 4 64
  2. Human variation in alcohol response is influenced by variation in neuronal signaling genes. (PMID: 20201926) Joslyn G. … White R.L. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2010) 3 46 64
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 46 64
  4. Whole-genome linkage and association scan in primary, nonsyndromic vesicoureteric reflux. (PMID: 19959718) Cordell H.J. … Goodship J.A. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2010) 3 46 64
  5. In search of genes associated with risk for psychopathic tendencies in children: a two-stage genome-wide association study of pooled DNA. (PMID: 20345837) Viding E. … Plomin R. (J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2010) 3 46 64

Products for ROBO2 Gene

Sources for ROBO2 Gene

Loading form....