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Aliases for ROBO2 Gene

Aliases for ROBO2 Gene

  • Roundabout, Axon Guidance Receptor, Homolog 2 (Drosophila) 2 3
  • KIAA1568 4 6
  • SAX3 3 6
  • Roundabout (Axon Guidance Receptor, Drosophila) Homolog 2 2
  • Roundabout Homolog 2 3

External Ids for ROBO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ROBO2 Gene

  • GC03P075389
  • GC03P077181
  • GC03P076895
  • GC03P077010
  • GC03P077009
  • GC03P077172
  • GC03P077608
  • GC03P076069

Summaries for ROBO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ROBO2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ROBO family, part of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that are highly conserved from fly to human. The encoded protein is a transmembrane receptor for the slit homolog 2 protein and functions in axon guidance and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with vesicoureteral reflux, characterized by the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters or the kidney. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

GeneCards Summary for ROBO2 Gene

ROBO2 (Roundabout, Axon Guidance Receptor, Homolog 2 (Drosophila)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ROBO2 include vesicoureteral reflux 2 and familial vesicoureteral reflux. Among its related pathways are L1CAM interactions and L1CAM interactions. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and axon guidance receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRTG.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ROBO2 Gene

  • Receptor for SLIT2, and probably SLIT1, which are thought to act as molecular guidance cue in cellular migration, including axonal navigation at the ventral midline of the neural tube and projection of axons to different regions during neuronal development

Gene Wiki entry for ROBO2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ROBO2 Gene

Genomics for ROBO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ROBO2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for ROBO2 Gene

75,906,694 bp from pter
77,649,964 bp from pter
1,743,271 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ROBO2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ROBO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ROBO2 Gene

Proteins for ROBO2 Gene

  • Protein details for ROBO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Roundabout homolog 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O43608
    • Q19AB4
    • Q19AB5

    Protein attributes for ROBO2 Gene

    1378 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    151200 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with SLIT2.
    • Sequence=AAC39576.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=601; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAB13394.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ROBO2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ROBO2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ROBO2 Gene

Proteomics data for ROBO2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ROBO2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn123, Asn426, Asn752, Asn782, Asn789, and Asn845
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ROBO2 Gene

Domains for ROBO2 Gene

Gene Families for ROBO2 Gene

  • FN3 :Fibronectin type III domain containing
  • ISET :Immunoglobulin superfamily / I-set domain containing

Protein Domains for ROBO2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ROBO2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9HCK4
  • Contains 3 fibronectin type-III domains.
  • Contains 5 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains.
  • Belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. ROBO family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ROBO2: view

Function for ROBO2 Gene

Molecular function for ROBO2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Receptor for SLIT2, and probably SLIT1, which are thought to act as molecular guidance cue in cellular migration, including axonal navigation at the ventral midline of the neural tube and projection of axons to different regions during neuronal development

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ROBO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12504588
GO:0008046 axon guidance receptor activity NAS 9458045
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IDA 12504588
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ROBO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ROBO2: view

Animal Models for ROBO2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ROBO2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ROBO2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ROBO2

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ROBO2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for ROBO2 Gene

Localization for ROBO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ROBO2 Gene

Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ROBO2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ROBO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ROBO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 12504588
GO:0016020 membrane --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030673 axolemma ISS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ROBO2: view

Pathways for ROBO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ROBO2: view

Pathways by source for ROBO2 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for ROBO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ROBO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001656 metanephros development ISS --
GO:0001657 ureteric bud development IMP 17357069
GO:0007155 cell adhesion --
GO:0007156 homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules IDA 12504588
GO:0007411 axon guidance TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ROBO2: view

Transcripts for ROBO2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ROBO2 Gene

Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (Drosophila):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ROBO2

Primer Products

  • OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human,mouse,rat for ROBO2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ROBO2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ROBO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ROBO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ROBO2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ROBO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (5.7), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (5.1), Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (5.0), and Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (4.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for ROBO2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ROBO2 Gene Hs.13305

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ROBO2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ROBO2 Gene

Orthologs for ROBO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ROBO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ROBO2 35
  • 98.52 (n)
  • 98.55 (a)
ROBO2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC534842 35
  • 90.01 (n)
  • 93.31 (a)
ROBO2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC487691 35
  • 91.07 (n)
  • 95.15 (a)
ROBO2 36
  • 88 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Robo2 35
  • 88.18 (n)
  • 95.04 (a)
Robo2 16
Robo2 36
  • 87 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ROBO2 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 94 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Robo2 35
  • 84.32 (n)
  • 88.71 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ROBO2 35
  • 82.81 (n)
  • 93.37 (a)
ROBO2 36
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ROBO2 36
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia robo2 35
  • 78.09 (n)
  • 86.75 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii robo2 35
  • 70.49 (n)
  • 78.22 (a)
robo2 36
  • 69 (a)
robo2 36
  • 76 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010969 35
  • 44.66 (n)
  • 38.68 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta lea 36
  • 25 (a)
robo 35
  • 48.23 (n)
  • 41.2 (a)
robo 36
  • 29 (a)
robo3 36
  • 27 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea sax-3 36
  • 32 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 20 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ROBO2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ROBO2 Gene

Gene Tree for ROBO2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ROBO2 (if available)

Paralogs for ROBO2 Gene Pseudogenes for ROBO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ROBO2: view

Variants for ROBO2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ROBO2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2284 -- 76,003,785(+) CCTCA(C/T)GGAGA intron-variant
rs2289 -- 76,402,548(-) AGTTG(A/G)GTGAG intron-variant
rs17203 -- 76,276,120(-) CTTTA(C/G)GAAGA intron-variant
rs155334 -- 76,718,008(+) TAAGA(C/T)GCTTG intron-variant
rs155335 -- 76,718,143(+) TCTCT(A/G)TAACA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ROBO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv509832 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv822146 CNV Loss 20364138
esv1623331 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv525804 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv877015 CNV Gain 21882294
esv29384 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
esv2662491 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2725535 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1000557 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1228509 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2725536 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2725537 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2675710 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2725538 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1519897 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv1136393 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv2725539 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv877016 CNV Gain 21882294
esv989139 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1093026 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv512806 CNV Insertion 21212237
esv1701230 CNV Insertion 17803354
dgv1475e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv2678855 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv834739 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv3886 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv509833 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv834740 CNV Gain+Loss 17160897
nsv819347 CNV Gain 19587683

Relevant External Links for ROBO2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ROBO2 Gene

Disorders for ROBO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (3) Diseases for ROBO2 Gene including...

Search for ROBO2 Gene in MalaCards »

(1) OMIM Diseases for ROBO2 Gene (602431)


  • Vesicoureteral reflux 2 (VUR2) [MIM:610878]: A disease belonging to the group of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. It is characterized by the reflux of urine from the bladder into the ureters and sometimes into the kidneys, and is a risk factor for urinary tract infections. Primary disease results from a developmental defect of the ureterovesical junction. In combination with intrarenal reflux, the resulting inflammatory reaction may result in renal injury or scarring, also called reflux nephropathy. Extensive renal scarring impairs renal function and may predispose patients to hypertension, proteinuria, renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17357069}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving ROBO2 is a cause of multiple congenital abnormalities, including severe bilateral VUR with ureterovesical junction defects. Translocation t(Y;3)(p11;p12) with PCDH11Y. This translocation disrupts ROBO2 and produces dominant-negative ROBO2 proteins that abrogate SLIT-ROBO signaling in vitro.

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for ROBO2 Gene

Relevant External Links for ROBO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ROBO2: view

Publications for ROBO2 Gene

  1. Roundabout controls axon crossing of the CNS midline and defines a novel subfamily of evolutionarily conserved guidance receptors. (PMID: 9458045) Kidd T. … Tear G. (Cell 1998) 2 3 4
  2. Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance. (PMID: 10102268) Brose K. … Kidd T. (Cell 1999) 3 4
  3. Novel regulated expression of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in the ovary: possible role during luteolysis in women. (PMID: 18566128) Dickinson R.E. … Duncan W.C. (Endocrinology 2008) 3 23
  4. Extracellular Ig domains 1 and 2 of Robo are important for ligand (Slit) binding. (PMID: 15207848) Liu Z. … Sundaresan V. (Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 2004) 3 23
  5. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PMID: 10997877) Nagase T. … Ohara O. (DNA Res. 2000) 3 4

Products for ROBO2 Gene

Sources for ROBO2 Gene

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