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RLN2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 56
GCID: GC09M005311

Relaxin 2

(Previous name: relaxin 2 (H2))
  See RLN2-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Relaxin 21 2     H22
Prorelaxin H21 2     H2-RLX2
Of Pregnancy1     H2-preprorelaxin2
ovarian1     RLXH22
relaxin1     bA12D24.1.12
Relaxin 2 (H2)1     bA12D24.1.22
Relaxin H21     Relaxin, Ovarian, Of Pregnancy2

External Ids:    HGNC: 100271   Entrez Gene: 60192   Ensembl: ENSG000001070147   OMIM: 1797405   UniProtKB: P040903   

Export aliases for RLN2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC09M005453 GC09M005281 GC09M005289 GC09M005301 GC09M005305


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for RLN2 Gene:
Relaxins are known endocrine and autocrine/paracrine hormones, belonging to the insulin gene superfamily. In
humans there are three non-allelic relaxin genes, RLN1, RLN2 and RLN3, where RLN1 and RLN2 share high sequence
homology. The active form of the protein encoded by this gene consists of an A chain and a B chain linked by
disulfide bonds. Relaxin is produced by the ovary, and targets the mammalian reproductive system to ripen the
cervix, elongate the pubic symphysis and inhibit uterine contraction. It may have additional roles in enhancing
sperm motility, regulating blood pressure, controlling heart rate and releasing oxytocin and vasopressin.
Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. (provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013)

GeneCards Summary for RLN2 Gene:
RLN2 (relaxin 2) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with RLN2 include anterior cruciate ligament tears. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity. An important paralog of this gene is RLN1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: REL2_HUMAN, P04090
Function: Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many
mammals. May be involved in remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy, promoting growth of pubic
ligaments and ripening of the cervix




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000009.11  NC_018920.2  NT_008413.19  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the RLN2 gene promoter:
         Nkx3-1 v2   Nkx3-1   Sox5   PPAR-gamma1   AML1a   Nkx3-1 v3   Nkx3-1 v1   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidRLN2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for RLN2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat RLN2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 9p24.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  9p24.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 9p24.1

RLN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
RLN2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 9         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC09M005311:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
5,299,868 bp from pter      End:
5,304,969 bp from pter
Size:
5,102 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: REL2_HUMAN, P04090 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prorelaxin H2 precursor  
Size: 185 amino acids; 21043 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for RLN2:
6RLX (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A0AVM0 Q99936 Q9UCX3 Q9UQJ2
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P04090-1   P04090-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for RLN2: NX_P04090

Explore proteomics data for RLN2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See RLN2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_005050.2  NP_604390.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000371040   ENSP00000399616   ENSP00000308018  
    Reactome Protein details: P04090

    RLN2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    antibodies-online proteins for RLN2 (8 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for RLN2

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    antibodies-online kits for RLN2 (2 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR016179 Insulin-like
     IPR022352 Insulin_family
     IPR022421 Relaxin
     IPR022353 Insulin_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P04090

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P04090

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB004825 Insulin/IGF/relaxin

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: REL2_HUMAN, P04090
    Similarity: Belongs to the insulin family


    Find genes that share domains with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: REL2_HUMAN, P04090
    Function: Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many
    mammals. May be involved in remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy, promoting growth of pubic
    ligaments and ripening of the cervix

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for RLN2:
    relaxin 2 (H2)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005179hormone activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for RLN2:
     Increased number of cells in m 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for RLN2

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    REL2_HUMAN, P04090: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for RLN2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    Relaxin receptors0.00
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    3CREB Pathway
    Activation of PKC through GPCR0.63
    4G-Beta Gamma Signaling
    Relaxin Pathway0.37
    5G alpha (s) signalling events
    G alpha (s) signalling events


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for RLN2
        Relaxin Pathway
    Activation of PKC through GPCR


    2 Reactome Pathways for RLN2
        Relaxin receptors
    G alpha (s) signalling events


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for RLN2
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for RLN2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 2 interactants - click image to see more details)

    2 Interacting proteins for RLN2 (P040903 ENSP000003710404) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    RXFP2Q8WXD03, ENSP000002983864I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000298386
    RXFP1Q9HBX93, ENSP000003032484I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000303248
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007565female pregnancy TAS6548702

    Find genes that share ontologies with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for RLN2 (REL2)

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for RLN2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    adenylate 1.99 3 15956723 (2), 15956719 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for RLN2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_005059.3  NM_134441.2  

    Unigene Cluster for RLN2:

    Relaxin 2
    Hs.127032  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005059
    3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000381627(uc003zja.1) ENST00000416837 ENST00000308420(uc003ziz.1)

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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF057706.1 BC126415.1 BC126419.1 X00948.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.203337  DT.99983463 

    10 AceView cDNA sequences:

    NM_134441 X00948 NM_005059 BX094853 BF513584 AA935560 AI033912 BG206251 
    AV753250 AF057706 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    RLN2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTGGTTGTAC
    RLN2 Expression
    About this image

    RLN2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    RLN2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.127032

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: REL2_HUMAN, P04090
    Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is expressed in the ovary during pregnancy. Also expressed in placenta, decidua and
    prostate. Isoform 2 is relatively abundant in placenta. It is in much lower abundance in the prostate gland. Not
    detected in the ovary

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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      --

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for RLN2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for RLN2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for RLN2 gene
    RLN12  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for RLN2 using alignment to 2 protein entries:     REL2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    RLN1

    Find genes that share paralogs with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for RLN2 (see all 211)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 9 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs109750431,2
    C,F,A,H--5299385(+) TTTTTC/ATCCTT 2 -- ds500121Minor allele frequency- A:0.32NS EA NA WA CSA 2216
    rs1809473481,2
    C--5299420(+) CTTAGA/TCACTG 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1493105741,2
    --5299480(+) CTATAC/GTAGAA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1863159381,2
    C--5299514(+) AAAAGC/TGTTTG 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1445509081,2
    C--5299515(+) AAAGCA/GTTTGA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1421751851,2
    --5299631(+) GTCAAC/GTTTTA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1910605161,2
    --5299648(+) TATCTA/GTATCC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs558587481,2
    C,F--5299655(+) ATCCAA/GTCTAA 2 -- ds500110Minor allele frequency- G:0.18WA NA CSA EA 372
    rs1834692221,2
    --5299691(+) GTCCAC/TTTCAT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1440508311,2
    --5299696(+) TTTCAC/TGTAAC 2 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for RLN2 (5299868 - 5304969 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for RLN2 (see all 12):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv831495CNV Loss17160897
    dgv8017n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv466102CNV Loss19166990
    nsv824828CNV Loss20364138
    nsv892145CNV Gain21882294
    nsv892136CNV Gain21882294
    nsv527495CNV Gain19592680
    nsv892141CNV Gain21882294
    nsv516752CNV Gain+Loss19592680
    dgv8019n71CNV Gain+Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing RLN2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for RLN2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 179740    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for RLN2:    
    About MalaCards
    anterior cruciate ligament tears


    Find genes that share disorders with RLN2           About GenesLikeMe

    2 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RLN2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    breast cancer 0 5 19416221 (2), 15956747 (1), 18718015 (1)
    tumors 0 14 16049981 (5), 17197386 (2)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): RLN2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: RLN2 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for RLN2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for RLN2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 129):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with RLN2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Relaxin gene expression in human ovaries and the predicted structure of a human preprorelaxin by analysis of cDNA clones. (PubMed id 6548702)1, 2, 3 Hudson P.... Niall H. (EMBO J. 1984)
    2. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of relaxin-2 and preterm birth: involvement of relaxin in the etiology of preterm birth. (PubMed id 20023247)1, 4, 9 Vogel I....Grove J. (In Vivo 2009)
    3. DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9. (PubMed id 15164053)1, 2 Humphray S.J.... Dunham I. (Nature 2004)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Analysis of the 5'-upstream regions of the human relaxin H1 and H2 genes and their chromosomal localization on chromosome 9p24.1 by radiation hybrid and breakpoint mapping. (PubMed id 10601981)1, 2 Garibay-Tupas J.L....Bryant-Greenwood G.D. (J. Mol. Endocrinol. 1999)
    6. Expression of human relaxin genes: characterization of a novel alternatively-spliced human relaxin mRNA species. (PubMed id 8735594)1, 2 Gunnersen J.M.... Tregear G.W. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 1996)
    7. Human seminal relaxin is a product of the same gene as human luteal relaxin. (PubMed id 1572287)1, 2 Winslow J.W....Goldsmith L.T. (Endocrinology 1992)
    8. Total synthesis of human relaxin and human relaxin derivatives by solid-phase peptide synthesis and site-directed chain combination. (PubMed id 2040595)1, 2 Buellesbach E.E. and Schwabe C. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991)
    9. X-ray structure of human relaxin at 1.5 A. Comparison to insulin and implications for receptor binding determinants. (PubMed id 1656049)1, 2 Eigenbrot C.... Kossiakoff A.A. (J. Mol. Biol. 1991)
    10. Structural characterization by mass spectrometry of native and recombinant human relaxin. (PubMed id 2076464)1, 2 Winslow J.W.... Vandlen R.L. (Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom. 1990)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 6019 HGNC: 10027 AceView: RLN2 Ensembl:ENSG00000107014 euGenes: HUgn6019
    ECgene: RLN2 H-InvDB: RLN2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for RLN2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for RLN2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for RLN2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving RLN2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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