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Aliases for RLN2 Gene

Aliases for RLN2 Gene

  • Relaxin 2 2 3 5
  • Relaxin, Ovarian, Of Pregnancy 3
  • H2-Preprorelaxin 3
  • Relaxin 2 (H2) 2
  • Prorelaxin H2 2
  • Of Pregnancy 2
  • BA12D24.1.1 3
  • BA12D24.1.2 3
  • Relaxin H2 2
  • Relaxin 2
  • Ovarian 2
  • H2-RLX 3
  • RLXH2 3
  • H2 3

External Ids for RLN2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RLN2 Gene

  • GC09M005453
  • GC09M005281
  • GC09M005289
  • GC09M005301
  • GC09M005305

Summaries for RLN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RLN2 Gene

  • Relaxins are known endocrine and autocrine/paracrine hormones, belonging to the insulin gene superfamily. In humans there are three non-allelic relaxin genes, RLN1, RLN2 and RLN3, where RLN1 and RLN2 share high sequence homology. The active form of the protein encoded by this gene consists of an A chain and a B chain linked by disulfide bonds. Relaxin is produced by the ovary, and targets the mammalian reproductive system to ripen the cervix, elongate the pubic symphysis and inhibit uterine contraction. It may have additional roles in enhancing sperm motility, regulating blood pressure, controlling heart rate and releasing oxytocin and vasopressin. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

GeneCards Summary for RLN2 Gene

RLN2 (Relaxin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RLN2 include anterior cruciate ligament tears and bone squamous cell carcinoma. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity. An important paralog of this gene is RLN1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RLN2 Gene

  • Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many mammals. May be involved in remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy, promoting growth of pubic ligaments and ripening of the cervix.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RLN2 Gene

Genomics for RLN2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RLN2 Gene

Promoters for RLN2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around RLN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for RLN2 Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
5,299,864 bp from pter
End:
5,339,412 bp from pter
Size:
39,549 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for RLN2 Gene

Genes around RLN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RLN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RLN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RLN2 Gene

Proteins for RLN2 Gene

  • Protein details for RLN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P04090-REL2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prorelaxin H2
    Protein Accession:
    P04090
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AVM0
    • Q99936
    • Q9UCX3
    • Q9UQJ2

    Protein attributes for RLN2 Gene

    Size:
    185 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21043 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RLN2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RLN2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for RLN2 Gene

Proteomics data for RLN2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RLN2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for RLN2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RLN2 Gene

Domains & Families for RLN2 Gene

Gene Families for RLN2 Gene

Protein Domains for RLN2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RLN2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P04090

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

REL2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the insulin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the insulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RLN2: view

Function for RLN2 Gene

Molecular function for RLN2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
relaxin 2 (H2)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many mammals. May be involved in remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy, promoting growth of pubic ligaments and ripening of the cervix.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RLN2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for RLN2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RLN2 Gene

Localization for RLN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RLN2 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for RLN2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RLN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RLN2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for RLN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RLN2: view

Interacting Proteins for RLN2 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 2 interactants - click image to see details)
http://string-db.org/version_10/api/image/networkList?limit=0&targetmode=proteins&caller_identity=gene_cards&network_flavor=evidence&identifiers=9606.ENSP00000371040%0d%0a9606.ENSP00000298386%0d%0a9606.ENSP00000303248%0d%0a
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000371040 P04090-REL2_HUMAN for RLN2 Gene via STRING I2D

SIGNOR curated interactions for RLN2 Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RLN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007565 female pregnancy TAS 6548702
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RLN2: view

Drugs & Compounds for RLN2 Gene

(1) Additional Compounds for RLN2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RLN2: view

Transcripts for RLN2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RLN2 Gene

(3) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(10) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for RLN2 Gene

Relaxin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RLN2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for RLN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RLN2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
RLN2

Expression for RLN2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RLN2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RLN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x7.3), Testis (x5.5), and Prostate (x4.6).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RLN2 Gene Hs.127032

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RLN2 Gene

P04090-REL2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is expressed in the ovary during pregnancy. Also expressed in placenta, decidua and prostate. Isoform 2 is relatively abundant in placenta. It is in much lower abundance in the prostate gland. Not detected in the ovary.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RLN2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for RLN2 Gene

Orthologs for RLN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for RLN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RLN1 35
  • 63.84 (n)
  • 42.94 (a)
RLN1 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RLN2 35
  • 98.92 (n)
  • 97.84 (a)
-- 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rln1 36
  • 47 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for RLN2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for RLN2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RLN2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RLN2 (if available)

Paralogs for RLN2 Gene

Paralogs for RLN2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for RLN2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RLN2: view

Variants for RLN2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RLN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_022124 -
rs618066 - 5,304,498(+) CCTCC(A/T)TCCAT reference, missense
rs2020050 - 5,304,547(+) ACAGA(A/C)TCCTA intron-variant, reference, missense
rs471225 -- 5,302,794(+) AAATT(A/G)TGTTT intron-variant
rs580825 -- 5,304,491(+) ATAAC(A/T)TCCTC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RLN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv892136 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv527495 CNV Gain 19592680
dgv8017n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv892141 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv831495 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv892145 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv516752 CNV Gain+Loss 19592680
essv18911 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv2277e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv466102 CNV Loss 19166990
dgv8019n71 CNV Gain+Loss 21882294
nsv824828 CNV Loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for RLN2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 89.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.80; 34.00% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for RLN2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
RLN2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RLN2 Gene

Disorders for RLN2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for RLN2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RLN2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for RLN2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
RLN2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
RLN2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
RLN2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RLN2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RLN2 Gene

Publications for RLN2 Gene

  1. Relaxin gene expression in human ovaries and the predicted structure of a human preprorelaxin by analysis of cDNA clones. (PMID: 6548702) Hudson P. … Niall H. (EMBO J. 1984) 2 3 4 67
  2. An optimized chemical synthesis of human relaxin-2. (PMID: 20191607) Barlos K.K. … Barlos K. (J. Pept. Sci. 2010) 3 23
  3. Relaxin inhibits renal myofibroblast differentiation via RXFP1, the nitric oxide pathway, and Smad2. (PMID: 19073841) Mookerjee I. … Samuel C.S. (FASEB J. 2009) 3 23
  4. Autoregulation of human relaxin-2 gene expression critically involves relaxin and glucocorticoid receptor binding to glucocorticoid response half-sites in the relaxin-2 promoter. (PMID: 19289144) Dschietzig T. … Stangl K. (Regul. Pept. 2009) 3 23
  5. Estrogen and TCDD influence RLN2 gene activity in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells. (PMID: 19416221) Kietz S. … Hombach-Klonisch S. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2009) 3 23

Products for RLN2 Gene

Sources for RLN2 Gene

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