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Aliases for RHO Gene

Aliases for RHO Gene

  • Rhodopsin 2 3
  • OPN2 3 4 6
  • Opsin-2 3 4
  • CSNBAD1 3 6
  • RP4 3 6
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa 4, Autosomal Dominant 2
  • Opsin 2, Rod Pigment 3
  • Rod Pigment 2
  • Opsin 2 2

External Ids for RHO Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for RHO Gene

  • RP4

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RHO Gene

  • GC03P126073
  • GC03P129884
  • GC03P130529
  • GC03P130568
  • GC03P130730
  • GC03P129247
  • GC03P126630

Summaries for RHO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RHO Gene

  • Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited progressive disease which is a major cause of blindness in western communities. It can be inherited as an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked recessive disorder. In the autosomal dominant form,which comprises about 25% of total cases, approximately 30% of families have mutations in the gene encoding the rod photoreceptor-specific protein rhodopsin. This is the transmembrane protein which, when photoexcited, initiates the visual transduction cascade. Defects in this gene are also one of the causes of congenital stationary night blindness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for RHO Gene

RHO (Rhodopsin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RHO include night blindness, congenital stationary, autosomal dominant 1 and retinitis pigmentosa 4, autosomal dominant or recessive. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Disease. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and photoreceptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is OPN1SW.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHO Gene

  • Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal

Gene Wiki entry for RHO Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RHO Gene

Genomics for RHO Gene

Regulatory Elements for RHO Gene

Genomic Location for RHO Gene

129,528,639 bp from pter
129,535,344 bp from pter
6,706 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RHO Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RHO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RHO Gene

Proteins for RHO Gene

  • Protein details for RHO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16414
    • Q2M249

    Protein attributes for RHO Gene

    348 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38893 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

neXtProt entry for RHO Gene

Proteomics data for RHO Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RHO Gene

  • Contains one covalently linked retinal chromophore.
  • Phosphorylated on some or all of the serine and threonine residues present in the C-terminal region
  • Glycosylation at Asn2 and Asn15
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RHO Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for RHO (Rhodopsin)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RHO Gene

Domains for RHO Gene

Gene Families for RHO Gene

  • OPN :GPCR / Class A : Opsin receptors

Protein Domains for RHO Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RHO Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P08100
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Opsin subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RHO: view

Function for RHO Gene

Molecular function for RHO Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
rhodopsin,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,visual pigment of the rod cells of retina
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Absorption: Abs(max)=495 nm;
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RHO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17693260
GO:0009881 photoreceptor activity IEA --
GO:0016918 retinal binding IEA --
GO:0030507 spectrin binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHO: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RHO: view

Animal Models for RHO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RHO:

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RHO

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for RHO Gene

Localization for RHO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHO Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Synthesized in the inner segment (IS) of rod photoreceptor cells before vectorial transport to the rod outer segment (OS) photosensory cilia.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RHO Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RHO gene
Compartment Confidence
golgi apparatus 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endosome 1
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RHO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0001750 photoreceptor outer segment IDA 11767049
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IDA 11767049
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA 11767049
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHO: view

Pathways for RHO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RHO: view

Pathways by source for RHO Gene

1 KEGG pathway for RHO Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for RHO Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RHO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0006996 organelle organization TAS --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 2218504
GO:0007601 visual perception IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RHO: view

Compounds for RHO Gene

(1) ApexBio Compounds for RHO Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Zoledronic Acid Potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates [118072-93-8]

(14) Drugbank Compounds for RHO Gene

(84) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RHO Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
metarhodopsin ii 96.3 148
bathorhodopsin 89.1 22
bacteriorhodopsin 85.9 107
phosphorhodopsin 85.3 4
beta-ionone 84 14
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RHO: view

Transcripts for RHO Gene

mRNA/cDNA for RHO Gene

(364) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for RHO Gene

Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for RHO

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RHO Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for RHO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RHO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RHO Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RHO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (8.9), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (8.4), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (5.5), and Brain - Cerebellum (5.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for RHO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for RHO Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RHO Gene Hs.247565

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RHO Gene

Tissue specificity: Rod shaped photoreceptor cells which mediates vision in dim light
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RHO: view

Expression partners for RHO Gene

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for RHO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for RHO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RHO 35
  • 89.66 (n)
  • 93.39 (a)
RHO 36
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RHO 35
  • 92.72 (n)
  • 95.4 (a)
RHO 36
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rho 35
  • 88.31 (n)
  • 94.83 (a)
Rho 16
Rho 36
  • 95 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RHO 35
  • 99.43 (n)
  • 100 (a)
RHO 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rho 35
  • 88.7 (n)
  • 95.11 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RHO 36
  • 93 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RHO 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RHO 35
  • 83.72 (n)
  • 86.49 (a)
RHO 36
  • 87 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RHO 36
  • 81 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rho 35
  • 77.87 (n)
  • 83.33 (a)
Str.5791 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia rho-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii exorh 35
  • 77.3 (n)
  • 81.03 (a)
rho 35
opn1sw2 36
  • 45 (a)
rho 36
  • 79 (a)
RHO (4 of 4) 36
  • 85 (a)
rhol 36
  • 72 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11367 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 33 (a)
CSA.11297 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RHO:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for RHO Gene

Gene Tree for RHO (if available)
Gene Tree for RHO (if available)

Paralogs for RHO Gene

Paralogs for RHO Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for RHO Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RHO: view

Variants for RHO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RHO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2410 -- 129,533,950(+) TCCCC(A/G)AGGCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs7984 -- 129,528,708(+) CAGCC(A/G)CGGGT utr-variant-5-prime
rs2071092 -- 129,533,585(+) GCCCT(A/G)ACTCA intron-variant
rs2071093 -- 129,533,761(+) CCCAT(A/C)CCCTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs2269736 -- 129,528,683(+) CCTTC(A/G)CAGCA utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RHO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv3998 CNV Loss 18451855
dgv5254n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv5255n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv822251 CNV Loss 20364138

Relevant External Links for RHO Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RHO Gene

Disorders for RHO Gene

(3) OMIM Diseases for RHO Gene (180380)


  • Retinitis pigmentosa 4 (RP4) [MIM:613731]: A retinal dystrophy belonging to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination and primary loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by secondary loss of cone photoreceptors. Patients typically have night vision blindness and loss of midperipheral visual field. As their condition progresses, they lose their far peripheral visual field and eventually central vision as well. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1302614, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1391967, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1833777, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1840561, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1862076, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1897520, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1985460, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19960070, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2137202, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2215617, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22334370, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2239971, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7633434, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7981701, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7987326, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7987331, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8045708, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8076945, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8081400, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8088850, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8317502, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8353500, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8554077, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9452035}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Night blindness, congenital stationary, autosomal dominant 1 (CSNBAD1) [MIM:610445]: A non-progressive retinal disorder characterized by impaired night vision, often associated with nystagmus and myopia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:7846071, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8358437, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9888392}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(52) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RHO Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
retinitis pigmentosa 92.8 150
retinal degeneration 86.7 62
oguchis disease 86.3 13
night blindness 83.3 10
night blindness, congenital stationary 70.3 4

Relevant External Links for RHO

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RHO: view

No data available for Genatlas for RHO Gene

Publications for RHO Gene

  1. Retinitis punctata albescens associated with the Arg135Trp mutation in the rhodopsin gene. (PMID: 8554077) Souied E. … Kaplan J. (Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1996) 3 4 23 48
  2. Identification of a novel rhodopsin mutation (Met-44-Thr) in a simplex case of retinitis pigmentosa. (PMID: 8076945) Reig C. … Carballo M. (Hum. Genet. 1994) 3 4 23
  3. [Digenic association of RHO and RP1 genes with retinitis pigmentosa among Chinese population in Hong Kong]. (PMID: 16185528) Wang D.Y. … Pang C.P. (Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2005) 3 23 48
  4. Rhodopsin mutation proline347-to-alanine in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa indicates an important role for proline at position 347. (PMID: 7633434) Macke J.P. … Nathans J. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1995) 3 4 23
  5. Dark-light: model for nightblindness from the human rhodopsin Gly- 90-->Asp mutation. (PMID: 7846071) Sieving P.A. … Alpern M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995) 3 4 23

Products for RHO Gene

Sources for RHO Gene

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