Aliases for RELA Gene
External Ids for RELA Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for RELA Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RELA Gene
NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
GeneCards Summary for RELA Gene
RELA (RELA Proto-Oncogene, NF-KB Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RELA include Ependymoma and Reticuloendotheliosis. Among its related pathways are RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts and Bacterial infections in CF airways. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA binding transcription factor activity and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is REL.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RELA Gene
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B heterodimeric p65-p50 and p65-c-Rel complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p65-p65 complex appears to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon NF-kappa-B the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. p65 shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. Associates with chromatin at the NF-kappa-B promoter region via association with DDX1. Essential for cytokine gene expression in T-cells (PubMed:15790681).