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RELA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC11M065421

V-Rel Avian Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog...

(Previous name: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer...)
(Previous symbol: NFKB3)
  See RELA-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
V-Rel Avian Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog A1 2     NF-Kappa-B P65delta32
NFKB31 2 3 5     p652
Nuclear Factor Of Kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer In B-Cells 31 2 3     Transcription Factor P652
Nuclear Factor NF-Kappa-B P65 Subunit2 3     V-Rel Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog A2

External Ids:    HGNC: 99551   Entrez Gene: 59702   Ensembl: ENSG000001730397   OMIM: 1640145   UniProtKB: Q042063   

Export aliases for RELA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11M067936 GC11M067102 GC11M065671 GC11M065196 GC11M065172 GC11M065178 GC11M061748


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for RELA Gene:
NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the
cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the
nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either
REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA.
Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Sep
2011)

GeneCards Summary for RELA Gene:
RELA (v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with RELA include ependymoma, and hypersplenism. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is NFKB1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TF65_HUMAN, Q04206
Function: NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of
a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological
processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B
is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105,
NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers
bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for
different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer
combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various
mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions
with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state
complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway,
I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently
degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B
heterodimeric p65-p50 and p65-c-Rel complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p65-p65 complex
appears to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon
NF-kappa-B the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. p65 shows a weak DNA-binding site
which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. Associates with chromatin at the
NF-kappa-B promoter region via association with DDX1

Gene Wiki entry for RELA Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NC_018922.2  NT_167190.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the RELA gene promoter:
         HEN1   Sp1   AP-1   ATF-2   p300   STAT3   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): RELA promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for RELA

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat RELA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11q13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11q13.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11q13

RELA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
RELA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11M065421:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
65,421,067 bp from pter      End:
65,430,565 bp from pter
Size:
9,499 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TF65_HUMAN, Q04206 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Transcription factor p65  
Size: 551 amino acids; 60219 Da
Subunit: Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-p50 complex. Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-c-Rel complex. Homodimer;
component of the NF-kappa-B p65-p65 complex. Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-p52 complex. May interact with
ETHE1. Binds AES and TLE1. Interacts with TP53BP2. Binds to and is phosphorylated by the activated form of either
RPS6KA4 or RPS6KA5. Interacts with ING4 and this interaction may be indirect. Interacts with CARM1, USP48 and
UNC5CL. Interacts with IRAK1BP1 (By similarity). Interacts with NFKBID (By similarity). Interacts with NFKBIA.
Interacts with GSK3B. Interacts with NFKBIB (By similarity). Interacts with NFKBIE. Interacts with NFKBIZ.
Interacts with EHMT1 (via ANK repeats) (By similarity). Part of a 70-90 kDa complex at least consisting of CHUK,
IKBKB, NFKBIA, RELA, IKBKAP and MAP3K14. Interacts with HDAC3; HDAC3 mediates the deacetylation of RELA.
Interacts with HDAC1; the interaction requires non-phosphorylated RELA. Interacts with CBP; the interaction
requires phosphorylated RELA. Interacts (phosphorylated at 'Thr-254') with PIN1; the interaction inhibits p65
binding to NFKBIA. Interacts with SOCS1. Interacts with UXT. Interacts with MTDH and PHF11. Interacts with ARRB2.
Interacts with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) protein M2-1. Interacts with NFKBIA (when
phosphorylated), the interaction is direct; phosphorylated NFKBIA is part of a SCF(BTRC)-like complex lacking
CUL1. Interacts with RNF25. Interacts (via C-terminus) with DDX1. Interacts with UFL1 and COMMD1. Interacts with
BRMS1; this promotes deacetylation of 'Lys-310'. Interacts with NOTCH2 (By similarity). Directly interacts with
MEN1; this interaction represses NFKB-mediated transactivation. Interacts with AKIP1, which promotes the
phosphorylation and nuclear retention of RELA. Interacts (via the RHD) with GFI1; the interaction, after
bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, inhibits the transcriptional activity by interfering with the
DNA-binding activity to target gene promoter DNA. Interacts (when acetylated at Lys-310) with BRD4; leading to
activation of the NF-kappa-B pathway. Interacts with MEFV
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for RELA (see all 8):
1NFI (3D)        2LSP (3D)        2O61 (3D)        3GUT (3D)        3QXY (3D)        3RC0 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q6GTV1 Q6SLK1
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  Q04206-1   Q04206-2   Q04206-3   Q04206-4   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for RELA: NX_Q04206

Explore proteomics data for RELA at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitinated, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Degradation is required for termination of NF-kappa-B
    response1
  • Monomethylated at Lys-310 by SETD6. Monomethylation at Lys-310 is recognized by the ANK repeats of EHMT1 and
    promotes the formation of repressed chromatin at target genes, leading to down-regulation of NF-kappa-B
    transcription factor activity. Phosphorylation at Ser-311 disrupts the interaction with EHMT1 without preventing
    monomethylation at Lys-310 and relieves the repression of target genes (By similarity)1
  • Phosphorylation at Ser-311 disrupts the interaction with EHMT1 and promotes transcription factor activity (By
    similarity). Phosphorylation on Ser-536 stimulates acetylation on Lys-310 and interaction with CBP; the
    phosphorylated and acetylated forms show enhanced transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation at Ser-276 by RPS6KA4
    and RPS6KA5 promotes its transactivation and transcriptional activities1
  • Reversibly acetylated; the acetylation seems to be mediated by CBP, the deacetylation by HDAC3 and SIRT2.
    Acetylation at Lys-122 enhances DNA binding and impairs association with NFKBIA. Acetylation at Lys-310 is
    required for full transcriptional activity in the absence of effects on DNA binding and NFKBIA association.
    Acetylation at Lys-310 promotes interaction with BRD4. Acetylation can also lower DNA-binding and results in
    nuclear export. Interaction with BRMS1 promotes deacetylation of Lys-310. Lys-310 is deacetylated by SIRT21
  • S-nitrosylation of Cys-38 inactivates the enzyme activity (By similarity)1
  • Sulfhydration at Cys-38 mediates the anti-apoptotic activity by promoting the interaction with RPS3 and activating
    the transcription factor activity (By similarity)1
  • Sumoylation by PIAS3 negatively regulates DNA-bound activated NF-kappa-B1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See RELA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001138610.1  NP_001230913.1  NP_001230914.1  NP_068810.3  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000384273   ENSP00000432537   ENSP00000435290   ENSP00000311508   ENSP00000433526  
     ENSP00000431304   ENSP00000437137   ENSP00000434008   ENSP00000433144   ENSP00000432922  
     ENSP00000434372   ENSP00000436545   ENSP00000431153   ENSP00000434745   ENSP00000434098  
     ENSP00000435531   ENSP00000433616  
    Reactome Protein details: Q04206

    RELA Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for RELA
    OriGene Purified Protein for RELA
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for RELA
    OriGene MassSpec for RELA
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for RELA
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for RELA
    Novus Biologicals RELA Proteins
    Novus Biologicals RELA Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for RELA
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for RELA

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for RELA 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for RELA (12 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for RELA

    RELA Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of RELA
    R&D Systems Antibodies for RELA (RelA/NFkB p65)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for RELA  (NFkB-p65)
    OriGene Antibodies for RELA
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for RELA
    Novus Biologicals RELA Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for RELA
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for RELA
    ThermoFisher Antibody for RELA
    antibodies-online antibodies for RELA (871 products) 

    RELA Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of RELA
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for RELA
    R&D Systems ELISAs for RELA (RelA/NFkB p65)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for RELA
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for RELA (NFkB-p65)
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for RELA
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for RELA
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for RELA
    eBioscience ELISAs for RELA:  
                        NFkB Pathway Activation InstantOne ELISA 96 tests
    antibodies-online kits for RELA (61 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR014756 Ig_E-set
     IPR008967 p53-like_TF_DNA-bd
     IPR002909 IPT
     IPR013783 Ig-like_fold
     IPR000451 NF_Rel_Dor

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q04206

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q04206

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000451 NF-kappa-B/Rel/dorsal family
    IPB002909 Cell surface receptor IPT/TIG
    IPB011539 Rel homology


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TF65_HUMAN, Q04206
    Domain: the 9aaTAD motif is a transactivation domain present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription
    factors
    Similarity: Contains 1 RHD (Rel-like) domain


    Find genes that share domains with RELA           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TF65_HUMAN, Q04206
    Function: NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of
    a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological
    processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B
    is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105,
    NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers
    bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for
    different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer
    combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various
    mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions
    with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state
    complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway,
    I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently
    degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B
    heterodimeric p65-p50 and p65-c-Rel complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p65-p65 complex
    appears to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon
    NF-kappa-B the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. p65 shows a weak DNA-binding site
    which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. Associates with chromatin at the
    NF-kappa-B promoter region via association with DDX1

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for RELA:
    nuclear transcription factor of kappa light chain enhancer in B cells,3 (p65),NF-kappa B/REL family

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 19):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding IDA15790681
    GO:0003682chromatin binding IDA19058135
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA12048232
    GO:0003705RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA3091258
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10498867
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with RELA           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         4 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for RELA:
     Decreased Tat-dependent transc  Decreased p24 protein expressi  Downregulation of NF-kappaB pa  Downregulation of NF-kappaB pa 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 9 alleles(MGI details for Rela) (see all 19):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland 
     growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument 
     limbs/digits/tail  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with RELA           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for RELA: Relatm1Yuo Relatm1Bal

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for RELA

    Transcription Factor Targeting: 
    Targeting motifs: HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif viewer 
                                          Consensus sequence:  AGGGGATTTCCC 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target RELA:
    hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044799), hsa-mir-96-5p (MIRT027888), hsa-mir-373-3p (MIRT002531), hsa-mir-7-5p (MIRT025722), hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT002616), hsa-mir-30e-5p (MIRT044156), hsa-mir-324-5p (MIRT043112)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat RELA using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate RELA (see all 27):
    hsa-miR-596 hsa-miR-3910 hsa-miR-4311 hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302e hsa-miR-759 hsa-miR-520a-3p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for RELA
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat RELA

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for RELA

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for RELA (see all 12)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for RELA
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): RELA (NM_021975)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for RELA
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for RELA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat RELA
    Addgene plasmids for RELA 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for RELA
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for RELA 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for RELA

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-11996) for RELA 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TF65_HUMAN, Q04206: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Colocalized with DDX1 in the nucleus upon TNF-alpha induction (By
    similarity). Nuclear, but also found in the cytoplasm in an inactive form complexed to an inhibitor (I-kappa-B).
    Colocalizes with GFI1 in the nucleus after LPS stimulation
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    cytoskeleton1
    extracellular1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA15790681
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005667transcription factor complex IDA12048232
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA15790681
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with RELA           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for RELA About   (see all 129)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways0.58
    Mucin expression in CF via TLRs, EGFR signaling pathways0.42
    NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways0.58
    Immune response IL 1 signaling pathway0.42
    Inflammasome Activation Pathways0.51
    Immune response Role of TLRs 3 and 4 in cell antiviral response TICAM1 specific signaling pathways0.33
    IL-1 Family Signaling Pathways0.44
    Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways0.31
    2Development IGF 1 receptor signaling
    Development IGF RI signaling0.49
    Development IGF 1 receptor signaling0.48
    Signal transduction AKT signaling0.49
    Immune response IL 4 signaling pathway0.39
    3B cell receptor signaling pathway (KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway0.42
    T cell receptor signaling pathway0.38
    BCR signaling pathway0.42
    TCR Signaling Pathway0.36
    4Prolactin Signaling Pathway
    Development Prolactin receptor signaling0.39
    Leptin signaling pathway0.35
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway0.39
    Prolactin signaling pathway0.33
    5TWEAK Pathway
    Apoptosis and survival TNFR1 signaling pathway0.52
    TWEAK Signaling Pathway0.31
    HIV-1 Nef- Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha0.46


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with RELA           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected R&D Systems Pathways for RELA (see all 7)
        NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    Inflammasome Activation Pathways
    IL-1 Family Signaling Pathways
    IL-17 Family Signaling Pathways
    Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for RELA (see all 10)
        LT-BetaR Pathway
    NF-KappaB (p50-p65) Pathway
    NTHi-Induced Signaling
    Cellular Transformation by HTLV1
    NF-kappaB Activation by Viruses

    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for RELA
        Chromatin Regulation / Acetylation
    NF-kappaB Signaling

    2 Tocris Bioscience Pathways for RELA
        Toll-like Receptor Pathway
    NF-kappaB Pathway

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for RELA (see all 58)
        Immune response TLR3 and TLR4 induce TICAM1-specific signaling pathway
    Development A2A receptor signaling
    Immune response Bacterial infections in normal airways
    Immune response MIF in innate immunity response
    Development EGFR signaling pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for RELA (see all 45)
        Osteopontin Signaling
    Apoptosis
    NOD pathway
    EBV LMP1 signaling
    Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins

    3 Sino Biological Pathways for RELA
        TNF Signaling
    Death Receptor Signaling
    NF-kB (NFkB) Pathway

    Selected Reactome Pathways for RELA (see all 12)
        DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production
    Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation
    FCERI mediated NF-kB activation
    TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex
    Regulated proteolysis of p75NTR

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for RELA
        EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Tacrolimus/Cyclosporine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for RELA) (see all 46):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    Ras signaling pathway
    Chemokine signaling pathway
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway
    HIF-1 signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including RELA (see all 13): 
              NFKB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for RELA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for RELA (Q042061, 2, 3 ENSP000003842734) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 536)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SETD7Q8WTS61, 2, 3, ENSP000002740314EBI-73886,EBI-1268586 MINT-7263887 MINT-7263974 MINT-7263941 MINT-7263834 MINT-7263864 MINT-7263824 MINT-7263924 MINT-7263994 MINT-7263960 MINT-7263847 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000274031
    NFKB2Q006532, 3, ENSP000001894444MINT-6178467 MINT-47896 MINT-48764 MINT-47925 MINT-48623 MINT-48943 MINT-6178544 MINT-6178520 I2D: score=8 STRING: ENSP00000189444
    NFKB1P198381, 2, 3, ENSP000002265744EBI-73886,EBI-300010 MINT-47911 MINT-6178467 MINT-48923 MINT-47891 MINT-6178544 MINT-48559 MINT-6178520 MINT-48686 I2D: score=10 STRING: ENSP00000226574
    HSPA1AP081073, ENSP000003648024I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000364802
    ENSG00000212866P081073I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 69):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001889liver development IEA--
    GO:0001942hair follicle development IEA--
    GO:0002224toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002755MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002756MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with RELA           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for RELA (TF65)

    9 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RELA gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    deoxycholic acid 22.2 4 14726307 (2), 15876188 (1)
    daunorubicin 10.2 5 16424027 (2), 15053878 (1)
    okadaic acid 7.19 2 11591705 (1)
    lysine 4.5 3 19262565 (3)
    paraffin 1.35 2 15112579 (1), 15484295 (1)
    oxygen 0 2 16919261 (1), 19706715 (1)
    calcium 0 1 16556680 (1)
    testosterone 0 1 8798655 (1)
    serine 0 8 19706715 (3)



    Find genes that share compounds with RELA           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for RELA gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001145138.1  NM_001243984.1  NM_001243985.1  NM_021975.3  

    Unigene Cluster for RELA:

    V-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian)
    Hs.502875  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC110830
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 25):
    ENST00000406246(uc001off.3 uc001ofh.3 uc001ofg.3 uc021qlq.1 uc010ron.2 uc009yqr.3)
    ENST00000525693(uc001ofe.2) ENST00000526283(uc009yqs.1) ENST00000308639
    ENST00000531484 ENST00000532999 ENST00000526257 ENST00000529389 ENST00000525658
    ENST00000533546 ENST00000526738 ENST00000527909 ENST00000534558 ENST00000527749
    ENST00000529330 ENST00000532879 ENST00000531238 ENST00000527074
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate RELA (see all 27):
    hsa-miR-596 hsa-miR-3910 hsa-miR-4311 hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302e hsa-miR-759 hsa-miR-520a-3p
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): RELA (NM_021975)
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    Addgene plasmids for RELA 
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    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-11996) for RELA 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK303262.1 AK308020.1 AK308478.1 BC011603.1 BC014095.2 BC033522.1 BC069248.1 BC110830.1 
    L19067.1 M62399.1 U33838.1 U88316.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 31):

    DT.91765826  DT.453518  DT.120691756  DT.100828990  DT.91713615  DT.100828991  DT.100706889  DT.95168121 
    DT.120691732  DT.95168124  DT.95168119  DT.95168127  DT.91765817  DT.91765829  DT.95168120  DT.120691718 
    DT.91765812  DT.99942709  DT.102830297  DT.120691721  DT.120691754  DT.120691767  DT.100830769  DT.120691701 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 513):

    BX283504 CD722491 AW817150 AW612678 BM054874 BM454711 CR590105 AU150783 
    CA391650 BM689971 BI000249 BU857126 BM771615 CD672701 R72435 AA236704 
    BE906494 BU633061 BE208001 BM917161 CR598825 CK824580 BM558723 BU180728 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RELA (see all 14)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d · 4e ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^
    SP1:                                      -                       -     -                                                                                       
    SP2:              -     -     -           -                       -     -                                                                                       
    SP3:                                      -                       -     -                                         -     -     -     -     -     -               
    SP4:              -                       -                       -     -                                                                                       
    SP5:                                                              -     -                                                                                       

    ExUns: 12
    SP1:      
    SP2:      
    SP3:      
    SP4:      
    SP5:      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for RELA

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    RELA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCTGAAGGAA
    RELA Expression
    About this image


    RELA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Hair (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Fetal Precortex Cells Hair Shaft
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Fetal Precortex Cells Hair Shaft
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
    RELA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    RELA Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.502875
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including RELA (see all 13): 
              NFKB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for RELA

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for RELA gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Rela1 , 5 v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog more1, 5 87.02(n)1
    89.21(a)1
      19 (4.34 cM)5
    196971  NM_009045.41  NP_033071.11 
     56374835 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves RELA1 v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog more 65.45(n)
    64.81(a)
      396027  NM_205129.1  NP_990460.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia RELA6
    v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene h...
    68(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    AAWZ02040295(347-7100)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia rela-A-prov2 v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog more 76.23(n)    BC041188.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii rela1 v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog more 69.01(n)
    71.24(a)
      415099  NM_001001839.2  NP_001001839.2 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta dl3 immune response transcription factor 42(a)
    (best of 2)
        --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for RELA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for RELA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for RELA gene
    NFKB12  REL2  NFKB22  RELB2  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for RELA using alignment to 19 protein entries:     TF65_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    REL    NFKB2    RELB    NFKB1

    Find genes that share paralogs with RELA           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for RELA
    PGOHUM00000233546


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for RELA (see all 304)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1458995201,2
    --65341403(+) CTTTCG/TAACAT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs108960271,2
    C,F,A,H--65341433(+) GCTGGC/GTAGTC 4 -- ds500119Minor allele frequency- G:0.22NS EA NA WA 1682
    rs1859328701,2
    --65341457(+) CACTCC/TCAGCT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs1392337631,2
    --65341532(+) CAGCGA/GGCTCT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs10497281,2
    C,F,A,H--65341790(-) TTGGAC/GTCTTG 4 -- ut31 ese315Minor allele frequency- G:0.02NS EA NA 1272
    rs1506531211,2
    C--65341944(+) TCCTG-/GAGAGAG 4 -- ut310--------
    rs115683041,2
    C,F--65342012(-) ACAGAG/CGTCTC 4 -- ut31 ese35Minor allele frequency- C:0.02NS NA 90
    rs1907958921,2
    --65342346(+) CCAAAA/GAGAGA 4 -- ut310--------
    rs1812567261,2
    --65342378(+) TAAAAA/GAATAA 4 -- ut310--------
    rs1858001901,2
    --65342397(+) TCCCCC/GCTCCA 4 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for RELA (65421067 - 65430565 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for RELA (see all 13):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv897723CNV Loss21882294
    nsv897754CNV Loss21882294
    nsv897748CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1175n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1180n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv897736CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1176n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1183n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1179n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv1184n71CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing RELA
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for RELA

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 164014    OMIM disorders: --

    2 diseases for RELA:    
    About MalaCards
    ependymoma    hypersplenism

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for RELA:
    Cancer

    Find genes that share disorders with RELA           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RELA gene (see all 17)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    reticuloendotheliosis 66.3 4 16556680 (1), 20332460 (1), 17151784 (1), 17804543 (1)
    necrosis 47.1 10 15876188 (2), 17413040 (1), 12881425 (1), 7852340 (1) (see all 8)
    tumors 41.6 31 16424027 (4), 10467400 (2), 9047386 (2), 17413040 (1) (see all 18)
    inflammation 36.4 4 14691478 (1), 19128834 (1), 19957349 (1), 12509469 (1)
    colorectal tumors 28 4 15112579 (2), 15484295 (2)
    leukemia t-cell 23.3 1 17804543 (1)
    breast cancer 16.1 5 11114727 (2), 12897145 (1), 16408291 (1), 9724088 (1)
    cancer 6.37 12 19345327 (2), 19664134 (2), 20001340 (2), 11591705 (1) (see all 9)
    carcinoma renal cell 5.68 1 10685665 (1)
    melanoma 1.51 13 11775058 (4), 11591705 (3), 8530498 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): RELA
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: RELA (22 documents)

    Export disorders for RELA gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for RELA gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1069):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with RELA)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX1 interacts with RelA and enhances nuclear factor kappaB-mediated transcription. (PubMed id 19058135)1, 2, 9 Ishaq M.... Guo D. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2009)
    2. Duration of nuclear NF-kappaB action regulated by reversible acetylation. (PubMed id 11533489)1, 2, 9 Chen L.F.... Greene W.C. (Science 2001)
    3. A new member of the IkappaB protein family, IkappaB epsilon, inhibits RelA (p65)-mediated NF-kappaB transcription. (PubMed id 9315679)1, 2, 9 Li Z. and Nabel G.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1997)
    4. Genetic variation in the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in relation to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 18434448)1, 4, 9 Dieguez-Gonzalez R....Gonzalez A. (Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2009)
    5. Regulation of NF-kappaB and p53 through activation of ATR and Chk1 by the ARF tumour suppressor. (PubMed id 15775976)1, 2, 9 Rocha S.... Perkins N.D. (EMBO J. 2005)
    6. Identification of a ZU5 and death domain-containing inhibitor of NF- kappaB. (PubMed id 14769797)1, 2, 9 Zhang J.... Shu H.-B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    7. NF-kappaB repression by PIAS3 mediated RelA SUMOylation. (PubMed id 22649547)1, 2 Liu Y.... Kulesz-Martin M. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    8. Zinc finger protein Gfi1 controls the endotoxin-mediated Toll-like receptor inflammatory response by antagonizing NF-kappaB p65. (PubMed id 20547752)1, 2 Sharif-Askari E....Moroy T. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2010)
    9. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    10. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes and multiple myeloma risk among women in Connecticut. (PubMed id 20568250)1, 4 Lee K.M....Lan Q. (Am. J. Hematol. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5970 HGNC: 9955 AceView: RELA Ensembl:ENSG00000173039 euGenes: HUgn5970
    ECgene: RELA Kegg: 5970 H-InvDB: RELA

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for RELA Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for RELA Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/rela/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for RELA gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving RELA

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014 , 7 Oct 2014

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