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Aliases for RARS Gene

Aliases for RARS Gene

  • Arginyl-TRNA Synthetase 4 2 3
  • EC 4 64
  • ArgRS 3 4
  • Arginyl-TRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Arginine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Arginine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Arginine TRNA Ligase 1 2
  • Cytoplasmic 2
  • DALRD1 3
  • HLD9 3

External Ids for RARS Gene

Summaries for RARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Arginyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for RARS Gene

RARS (Arginyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RARS include leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 9. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include tRNA binding and arginine-tRNA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is RARS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARS Gene

  • Forms part of a macromolecular complex that catalyzes the attachment of specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs during protein synthesis. Modulates the secretion of AIMP1 and may be involved in generation of the inflammatory cytokine EMAP2 from AIMP1.

Gene Wiki entry for RARS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RARS Gene

Genomics for RARS Gene

Genomic Location for RARS Gene

168,486,445 bp from pter
168,519,306 bp from pter
32,862 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for RARS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for RARS Gene

Proteins for RARS Gene

  • Protein details for RARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Arginine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RBS9
    • Q53GY4
    • Q9BWA1

    Protein attributes for RARS Gene

    660 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    75379 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (via N-terminus) with AIMP1 (via N-terminus); this stimulates its catalytic activity. Interacts (via N-terminus) with LARS2 (via C-terminus). Monomer; also part of a multisubunit complex that groups tRNA ligases for Arg, Asp, Glu, Gln, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met and Pro. Interacts with QARS.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RARS Gene


neXtProt entry for RARS Gene

Proteomics data for RARS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RARS Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys20, Lys205, Lys362, Lys393, and Lys557

Other Protein References for RARS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for RARS Gene

Gene Families for RARS Gene

  • aaRS1 :Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / Class I


  • The N-terminus (AA 1-72) has two regions predicted to be alpha-helical that might be involved in the multisynthetase complex assembly:
    • P54136
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.:
    • P54136
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RARS: view

Function for RARS Gene

Molecular function for RARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=3.9 uM for arginine (ATP-PPi exchange at 37 degrees Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16055448}; KM=3.5 uM for arginine (arginylation at 37 degrees Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16055448}; KM=1183 uM for ATP (ATP-PPi exchange at 37 Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16055448}; KM=910 uM for ATP (arginylation at 37 Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16055448}; KM=0.05 uM for calf liver tRNA-Arg (ATP-PPi exchange at 37 Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16055448}; KM=0.41 uM for calf liver tRNA-Arg (arginylation at 37 Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16055448};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + L-arginine + tRNA(Arg) = AMP + diphosphate + L-arginyl-tRNA(Arg)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Forms part of a macromolecular complex that catalyzes the attachment of specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs during protein synthesis. Modulates the secretion of AIMP1 and may be involved in generation of the inflammatory cytokine EMAP2 from AIMP1.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for RARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding IEA --
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity --
GO:0004814 arginine-tRNA ligase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16055448
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARS: view

Phenotypes for RARS Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for RARS:
inferred from 1 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for RARS:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RARS: view

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for RARS Gene

Localization for RARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARS: view

Pathways for RARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RARS: view

Pathways by source for RARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for RARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006420 arginyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
GO:0010467 gene expression TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARS: view

Compounds for RARS Gene

(5) HMDB Compounds for RARS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-AMP
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
  • (S)-2-Amino-5-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]pentanoate
Phosphoric acid
  • acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion

(46) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RARS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
retinoic acid 95.6 192
retinoid 95.3 112
am 580 87.3 4
am80 87.3 2
hx 600 86.6 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RARS: view

Transcripts for RARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for RARS Gene

Arginyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for RARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RARS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RARS Gene Hs.654907

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RARS: view

Orthologs for RARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RARS 36
  • 99.65 (n)
  • 99.85 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RARS 36
  • 90.4 (n)
  • 90.45 (a)
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RARS 36
  • 91.82 (n)
  • 93.03 (a)
  • 93 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rars 36
  • 86.97 (n)
  • 91.52 (a)
Rars 16
Rars 37
  • 92 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 87 (a)
-- 37
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RARS 37
  • 87 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rars 36
  • 86.52 (n)
  • 91.52 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RARS 36
  • 77.37 (n)
  • 82.88 (a)
  • 82 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RARS 37
  • 83 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6139 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia MGC76310 36
rars 36
  • 73.38 (n)
  • 77.73 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.401 36
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rars 36
  • 70.33 (n)
  • 76.98 (a)
rars 37
  • 76 (a)
wufa96g09 36
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004708 36
  • 57.05 (n)
  • 57.72 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-arg 36
  • 57 (n)
  • 58.76 (a)
Aats-arg 37
  • 57 (a)
CG9020 38
  • 58 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rars-1 36
  • 58.16 (n)
  • 54.47 (a)
rars-1 37
  • 46 (a)
rrt-1 38
  • 49 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes -- 37
  • 26 (a)
MSR1 37
  • 23 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.10893 36
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons emb1027 36
  • 53.6 (n)
  • 49.3 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.6153 36
Os05g0163000 36
  • 53.77 (n)
  • 48.31 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11500 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 59 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RARS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RARS Gene

Gene Tree for RARS (if available)
Gene Tree for RARS (if available)

Paralogs for RARS Gene

Paralogs for RARS Gene Pseudogenes for RARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RARS: view

Variants for RARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1136673 -- 168,500,698(+) AAGCT(G/T)ATCTG synonymous-codon, reference
rs1136672 -- 168,494,562(+) TAATG(G/T)CCACT missense, reference, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1136669 -- 168,493,998(+) GCTGG(C/T)CCTGG synonymous-codon, reference, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1136668 -- 168,493,913(+) GGAAC(A/C)GAAAG reference, missense, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1136667 -- 168,493,899(+) ATGCT(C/T)AAAAC reference, synonymous-codon, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv516697 CNV Loss 19592680

Relevant External Links for RARS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for RARS Gene


  • Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 9 (HLD9) [MIM:616140]: An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, severe spasticity, nystagmus, and ataxia associated with diffuse hypomyelination apparent on brain MRI. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:24777941}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for RARS Gene

(41) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RARS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
leukemia promyelocytic acute 75.4 6
carcinoma embryonal 66.2 3
salivary gland adenocarcinoma 54.9 1
myeloid leukemia 46.1 1
premalignant 45 2

Relevant External Links for RARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RARS: view

Publications for RARS Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding a human arginyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 7590355) Girjes A.A. … Lavin M.F. (Gene 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. The C-terminal appended domain of human cytosolic leucyl-tRNA synthetase is indispensable in its interaction with arginyl-tRNA synthetase in the multi-tRNA synthetase complex. (PMID: 16055448) Ling C. … Wang E.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 4 23
  3. Precursor of pro-apoptotic cytokine modulates aminoacylation activity of tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 10358004) Park S.G. … Shiba K. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 3 4
  4. Proteasomes and RARS modulate AIMP1/EMAP II secretion in human cancer cell lines. (PMID: 17443684) Bottoni A. … Uberti E.C. (J. Cell. Physiol. 2007) 3 4
  5. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 49

Products for RARS Gene

Sources for RARS Gene

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