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Aliases for RARRES2 Gene

Aliases for RARRES2 Gene

  • Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder 2 2 3 5
  • Chemerin 2 3 4
  • Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (Tazarotene Induced) 2 2 3
  • Tazarotene-Induced Gene 2 Protein 3 4
  • RAR-Responsive Protein TIG2 3 4
  • TIG2 3 4
  • Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder Protein 2 3
  • HP10433 3

External Ids for RARRES2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RARRES2 Gene

  • GC07M148282
  • GC07M149350
  • GC07M149427
  • GC07M149473
  • GC07M149666
  • GC07M150035
  • GC07M143851

Summaries for RARRES2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RARRES2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted chemotactic protein that initiates chemotaxis via the ChemR23 G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane domain ligand. Expression of this gene is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene and occurs in a wide variety of tissues. The active protein has several roles, including that as an adipokine and as an antimicrobial protein with activity against bacteria and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for RARRES2 Gene

RARRES2 (Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RARRES2 include Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent. Among its related pathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

  • Adipocyte-secreted protein (adipokine) that regulates adipogenesis, metabolism and inflammation through activation of the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Its other ligands include G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) and chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2). Positively regulates adipocyte differentiation, modulates the expression of adipocyte genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and might play a role in angiogenesis, a process essential for the expansion of white adipose tissue. Also acts as a proinflammatory adipokine, causing an increase in secretion of proinflammatory and prodiabetic adipokines, which further impair adipose tissue metabolic function and have negative systemic effects including impaired insulin sensitivity, altered glucose and lipid metabolism, and a decrease in vascular function in other tissues. Can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the modality of enzymatic cleavage by different classes of proteases. Acts as a chemotactic factor for leukocyte populations expressing CMKLR1, particularly immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but also immature myeloid DCs, macrophages and natural killer cells. Exerts an anti-inflammatory role by preventing TNF/TNFA-induced VCAM1 expression and monocytes adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. The effect is mediated via inhibiting activation of NF-kappa-B and CRK/p38 through stimulation of AKT1/NOS3 signaling and nitric oxide production. Its dual role in inflammation and metabolism might provide a link between chronic inflammation and obesity, as well as obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exhibits an antimicrobial function in the skin.

Gene Wiki entry for RARRES2 Gene

Additional gene information for RARRES2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RARRES2 Gene

Genomics for RARRES2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RARRES2 Gene

Enhancers for RARRES2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH07H150317 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.7 +23.5 23468 1 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT TCF12 ZNF766 CBX5 ATF7 NCOA1 ZNF592 LRRC61 RARRES2 ZNF775 LOC105375564 GC07P150294
GH07H150434 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.4 -94.1 -94052 1 HDGF TBL1XR1 RB1 SIN3A BMI1 RFX5 ZNF766 ZNF143 ZNF207 ATF7 ZNF775 LOC105375564 RARRES2 LINC00996 ATP6V0E2 GIMAP8
GH07H150753 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.7 -413.7 -413704 4 CTCF PKNOX1 JUN MAX YBX1 EBF1 BATF RAD21 RELA ZNF366 GIMAP5 GIMAP3P RARRES2 GIMAP2 GIMAP8 TMEM176B TMEM176A GIMAP1 GIMAP7 GIMAP6
GH07H150311 1.3 ENCODE dbSUPER 12 +28.5 28500 2 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 ELK1 ATF7 CAVIN1 LRRC61 RARRES2 ZNF775 LOC105375564 AOC1 GC07P150294
GH07H150363 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.5 -22.4 -22448 1 SIN3A MAX BATF ZNF664 GATA3 CTBP1 POLR2A EED FOS ETV6 REPIN1 RARRES2 GC07P150358
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around RARRES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for RARRES2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000219689 374 601 NFIA POLR2A KLF16 NR2F2 CHD2 EZH2

Genomic Location for RARRES2 Gene

Chromosome:
7
Start:
150,338,317 bp from pter
End:
150,341,674 bp from pter
Size:
3,358 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for RARRES2 Gene

Genes around RARRES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RARRES2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RARRES2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RARRES2 Gene

Proteins for RARRES2 Gene

  • Protein details for RARRES2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q99969-RARR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q99969
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q7LE02

    Protein attributes for RARRES2 Gene

    Size:
    163 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18618 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for RARRES2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for RARRES2 Gene

  • Secreted in an inactive precursor form, prochemerin, which is proteolytically processed by a variety of extracellular proteases to generate forms with differing levels of bioactivity. For example, the removal of six amino acids results in chemerin-157, which exhibits the highest activity, while removal of seven amino acids results in chemerin-156 which has slightly less activity. Some proteases are able to cleave at more than one site and chemerin forms may be sequentially processed by different enzymes to modulate activity levels. The coordinated expression and activity of chemerin-modifying enzymes is essential for regulating its bioactivation, inactivation and, consequently, biological function. Cathepsin G cleaves seven C-terminal amino acids from prochemerin (chemerin-156), elastase is able to cleave six (chemerin-157), eight (chemerin-155) or eleven (chemerin-152), plasmin cleaves five amino acids (chemerin-158), and tryptase cleaves five (chemerin-158) or eight (chemerin-155). Multiple cleavages might be required to fully activate chemerin, with an initial tryptase cleavage resulting in chemerin with low activity (chemerin-158), and a second cleavage by carboxypeptidase N or B producing highly active chemerin (chemerin-157).
  • Glycosylation at Ser157
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RARRES2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for RARRES2

Protein Products

  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for RARRES2

Assay Products

  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Assay Kits for RARRES2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RARRES2 Gene

Domains & Families for RARRES2 Gene

Gene Families for RARRES2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for RARRES2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RARRES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

Function for RARRES2 Gene

Molecular function for RARRES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Adipocyte-secreted protein (adipokine) that regulates adipogenesis, metabolism and inflammation through activation of the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Its other ligands include G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) and chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2). Positively regulates adipocyte differentiation, modulates the expression of adipocyte genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and might play a role in angiogenesis, a process essential for the expansion of white adipose tissue. Also acts as a proinflammatory adipokine, causing an increase in secretion of proinflammatory and prodiabetic adipokines, which further impair adipose tissue metabolic function and have negative systemic effects including impaired insulin sensitivity, altered glucose and lipid metabolism, and a decrease in vascular function in other tissues. Can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the modality of enzymatic cleavage by different classes of proteases. Acts as a chemotactic factor for leukocyte populations expressing CMKLR1, particularly immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but also immature myeloid DCs, macrophages and natural killer cells. Exerts an anti-inflammatory role by preventing TNF/TNFA-induced VCAM1 expression and monocytes adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. The effect is mediated via inhibiting activation of NF-kappa-B and CRK/p38 through stimulation of AKT1/NOS3 signaling and nitric oxide production. Its dual role in inflammation and metabolism might provide a link between chronic inflammation and obesity, as well as obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exhibits an antimicrobial function in the skin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Inhibited in psoriatic lesions. Activated by tazarotene in skin rafts and in the epidermis of psoriatic lesions.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for RARRES2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RARRES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 14530373
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14530373
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARRES2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RARRES2: view

Animal Models for RARRES2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RARRES2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for RARRES2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RARRES2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for RARRES2
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RARRES2 Gene

Localization for RARRES2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RARRES2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RARRES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 23527010
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix IDA 19443732
GO:0031089 platelet dense granule lumen TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARRES2: view

Pathways & Interactions for RARRES2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RARRES2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RARRES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process IDA 9204961
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development IEP 19443732
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 17635925
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARRES2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for RARRES2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for RARRES2 Gene

(5) Drugs for RARRES2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for RARRES2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RARRES2: view

Transcripts for RARRES2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RARRES2 Gene

Retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for RARRES2
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RARRES2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4:
SP5: - -
SP6:

Relevant External Links for RARRES2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RARRES2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
RARRES2

Expression for RARRES2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for RARRES2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RARRES2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x9.4) and Liver (x7.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RARRES2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (28.4), Amniocyte (9.3), and Vitreous humor (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for RARRES2 Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of RARRES2 Gene:

RARRES2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RARRES2 Gene:

Hs.647064

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RARRES2 Gene:

Q99969-RARR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at the highest levels in placenta, liver, and white adipose tissue (WAT), and to a lesser extent in many other tissues such as lung, brown adipose tissue, heart, ovary, kidney, skeletal muscle and pancreas. Within WAT, expression is enriched in adipocytes as compared to the stromal vascular fraction. Expression and secretion increases dramatically with adipogenesis. Highly expressed in skin (basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis, hair follicles and endothelial cells). Expression is elevated in numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for RARRES2 Gene

  • Kidney(4.4)
  • Skin(4.4)
  • Liver(3.2)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Pancreas(2.9)
  • Spleen(2.9)
  • Adrenal gland(2.7)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Heart(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RARRES2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for RARRES2 Gene

Orthologs for RARRES2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for RARRES2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RARRES2 33 34
  • 99.59 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RARRES2 33 34
  • 84.87 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RARRES2 33 34
  • 80.5 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rarres2 33
  • 76.58 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rarres2 33 16 34
  • 74.95 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RARRES2 34
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RARRES2 33 34
  • 55.34 (n)
Species where no ortholog for RARRES2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for RARRES2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RARRES2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RARRES2 (if available)

Paralogs for RARRES2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for RARRES2 Gene

Variants for RARRES2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RARRES2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000391241 -- 150,340,395(+) CCTGG(G/T)GTACG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000717158 -- 150,339,290(+) AAACT(A/G)TGGAA intron-variant
rs1000769980 -- 150,339,522(+) TTTCT(C/T)GTAAG intron-variant
rs1001187217 -- 150,342,200(+) TGATC(A/G)ACAGC nc-transcript-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1001728076 -- 150,342,427(+) TTGCA(C/T)GTCAG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RARRES2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv11718n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv3695n106 OTHER inversion 24896259
dgv435n21 CNV loss 19592680
nsv1015582 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1034409 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1067934 OTHER inversion 25765185
nsv1151906 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv508490 CNV deletion 20534489
nsv521407 CNV loss 19592680
nsv608990 CNV gain 21841781
nsv951645 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for RARRES2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 70.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.23; 24.70% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for RARRES2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
RARRES2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

Disorders for RARRES2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for RARRES2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
obesity
  • obesity, association with
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent
  • diabetes, type 2
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for RARRES2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
RARRES2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
RARRES2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
RARRES2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RARRES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for RARRES2 Gene

Publications for RARRES2 Gene

  1. Chemerin--a new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor. (PMID: 17767914) Roh SG … Sasaki S (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2007) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Chemerin, a novel adipokine in the regulation of angiogenesis. (PMID: 20237162) Bozaoglu K … Jowett JB (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2010) 3 4 22 60
  3. RARRES2, encoding the novel adipokine chemerin, is a genetic determinant of disproportionate regional body fat distribution: a comparative magnetic resonance imaging study. (PMID: 19303973) Müssig K … Häring HU (Metabolism: clinical and experimental 2009) 3 22 45 60
  4. Chemerin, a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism. (PMID: 17635925) Goralski KB … Sinal CJ (The Journal of biological chemistry 2007) 3 4 22 60
  5. Chemerin activation by serine proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolytic, and inflammatory cascades. (PMID: 16096270) Zabel BA … Butcher EC (The Journal of biological chemistry 2005) 3 4 22 60

Products for RARRES2 Gene

Sources for RARRES2 Gene

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