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Aliases for RARRES2 Gene

Aliases for RARRES2 Gene

  • Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (Tazarotene Induced) 2 2 3
  • Chemerin 2 3 4
  • TIG2 3 4 6
  • Tazarotene-Induced Gene 2 Protein 3 4
  • RAR-Responsive Protein TIG2 3 4
  • Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder Protein 2 3
  • HP10433 3

External Ids for RARRES2 Gene

Summaries for RARRES2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RARRES2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted chemotactic protein that initiates chemotaxis via the ChemR23 G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane domain ligand. Expression of this gene is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene and occurs in a wide variety of tissues. The active protein has several roles, including that as an adipokine and as an antimicrobial protein with activity against bacteria and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for RARRES2 Gene

RARRES2 (Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (Tazarotene Induced) 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RARRES2 include skin squamous cell carcinoma and vascular disease. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

  • Adipocyte-secreted protein (adipokine) that regulates adipogenesis, metabolism and inflammation through activation of the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Its other ligands include G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) and chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2). Positively regulates adipocyte differentiation, modulates the expression of adipocyte genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and might play a role in angiogenesis, a process essential for the expansion of white adipose tissue. Also acts as a proinflammatory adipokine, causing an increase in secretion of proinflammatory and prodiabetic adipokines, which further impair adipose tissue metabolic function and have negative systemic effects including impaired insulin sensitivity, altered glucose and lipid metabolism, and a decrease in vascular function in other tissues. Can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the modality of enzymatic cleavage by different classes of proteases. Acts as a chemotactic factor for leukocyte populations expressing CMKLR1, particularly immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but also immature myeloid DCs, macrophages and natural killer cells. Exerts an anti-inflammatory role by preventing TNF/TNFA-induced VCAM1 expression and monocytes adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. The effect is mediated via inhibiting activation of NF-kappa-B and CRK/p38 through stimulation of AKT1/NOS3 signaling and nitric oxide production. Its dual role in inflammation and metabolism might provide a link between chronic inflammation and obesity, as well as obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exhibits an antimicrobial function in the skin.

Gene Wiki entry for RARRES2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RARRES2 Gene

Genomics for RARRES2 Gene

Genomic Location for RARRES2 Gene

Start:
150,333,944 bp from pter
End:
150,341,683 bp from pter
Size:
7,740 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for RARRES2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RARRES2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RARRES2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RARRES2 Gene

Proteins for RARRES2 Gene

  • Protein details for RARRES2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q99969-RARR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q99969
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q7LE02

    Protein attributes for RARRES2 Gene

    Size:
    163 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18618 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for RARRES2 Gene

Proteomics data for RARRES2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RARRES2 Gene

  • Secreted in an inactive precursor form, prochemerin, which is proteolytically processed by a variety of extracellular proteases to generate forms with differing levels of bioactivity. For example, the removal of six amino acids results in chemerin-157, which exhibits the highest activity, while removal of seven amino acids results in chemerin-156 which has slightly less activity. Some proteases are able to cleave at more than one site and chemerin forms may be sequentially processed by different enzymes to modulate activity levels. The coordinated expression and activity of chemerin-modifying enzymes is essential for regulating its bioactivation, inactivation and, consequently, biological function. Cathepsin G cleaves seven C-terminal amino acids from prochemerin (chemerin-156), elastase is able to cleave six (chemerin-157), eight (chemerin-155) or eleven (chemerin-152), plasmin cleaves five amino acids (chemerin-158), and tryptase cleaves five (chemerin-158) or eight (chemerin-155). Multiple cleavages might be required to fully activate chemerin, with an initial tryptase cleavage resulting in chemerin with low activity (chemerin-158), and a second cleavage by carboxypeptidase N or B producing highly active chemerin (chemerin-157).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Ser157

Other Protein References for RARRES2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RARRES2 Gene

Domains for RARRES2 Gene

Gene Families for RARRES2 Gene

HGNC:

Protein Domains for RARRES2 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RARRES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

Function for RARRES2 Gene

Molecular function for RARRES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Adipocyte-secreted protein (adipokine) that regulates adipogenesis, metabolism and inflammation through activation of the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Its other ligands include G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) and chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2). Positively regulates adipocyte differentiation, modulates the expression of adipocyte genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and might play a role in angiogenesis, a process essential for the expansion of white adipose tissue. Also acts as a proinflammatory adipokine, causing an increase in secretion of proinflammatory and prodiabetic adipokines, which further impair adipose tissue metabolic function and have negative systemic effects including impaired insulin sensitivity, altered glucose and lipid metabolism, and a decrease in vascular function in other tissues. Can have both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties depending on the modality of enzymatic cleavage by different classes of proteases. Acts as a chemotactic factor for leukocyte populations expressing CMKLR1, particularly immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but also immature myeloid DCs, macrophages and natural killer cells. Exerts an anti-inflammatory role by preventing TNF/TNFA-induced VCAM1 expression and monocytes adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. The effect is mediated via inhibiting activation of NF-kappa-B and CRK/p38 through stimulation of AKT1/NOS3 signaling and nitric oxide production. Its dual role in inflammation and metabolism might provide a link between chronic inflammation and obesity, as well as obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exhibits an antimicrobial function in the skin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Inhibited in psoriatic lesions. Activated by tazarotene in skin rafts and in the epidermis of psoriatic lesions.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RARRES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 14530373
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14530373
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARRES2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RARRES2: view

miRNA for RARRES2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RARRES2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for RARRES2 Gene

Localization for RARRES2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for RARRES2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RARRES2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RARRES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region ISS --
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix IDA 19443732
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARRES2: view

Pathways for RARRES2 Gene

SuperPathways for RARRES2 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for RARRES2 Gene

Selected Interacting proteins: Q99969-RARR2_HUMAN for RARRES2 Gene via I2D

Symbol External ID(s) Details
CTSK
CTSL

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RARRES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process IDA 9204961
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development IEP 19443732
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 17635925
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IEA --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RARRES2: view

No data available for Pathways by source for RARRES2 Gene

Compounds for RARRES2 Gene

(7) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RARRES2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
tazarotene 79.2 6
retinoic acid 44.2 5
retinoid 42.9 1
serine 27.7 5
glucose 25.4 9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RARRES2: view

Transcripts for RARRES2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RARRES2 Gene

Retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RARRES2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4:
SP5: - -
SP6:

Relevant External Links for RARRES2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RARRES2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
RARRES2

Expression for RARRES2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RARRES2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RARRES2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (9.4) and Liver (7.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for RARRES2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RARRES2 Gene Hs.647064

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RARRES2 Gene

Q99969-RARR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at the highest levels in placenta, liver, and white adipose tissue (WAT), and to a lesser extent in many other tissues such as lung, brown adipose tissue, heart, ovary, kidney, skeletal muscle and pancreas. Within WAT, expression is enriched in adipocytes as compared to the stromal vascular fraction. Expression and secretion increases dramatically with adipogenesis. Highly expressed in skin (basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis, hair follicles and endothelial cells). Expression is elevated in numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RARRES2: view

Orthologs for RARRES2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for RARRES2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia RARRES2 35
  • 99.59 (n)
  • 99.39 (a)
RARRES2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RARRES2 35
  • 80.5 (n)
  • 76.19 (a)
RARRES2 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RARRES2 35
  • 84.87 (n)
  • 81.6 (a)
RARRES2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rarres2 35
  • 74.95 (n)
  • 65.61 (a)
Rarres2 16
Rarres2 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RARRES2 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rarres2 35
  • 76.58 (n)
  • 68.35 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RARRES2 35
  • 55.34 (n)
  • 41.83 (a)
RARRES2 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for RARRES2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for RARRES2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RARRES2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RARRES2 (if available)

Paralogs for RARRES2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RARRES2: view

No data available for Paralogs for RARRES2 Gene

Variants for RARRES2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RARRES2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1047207 -- 150,340,571(-) CTGGG(C/T)GCGGT synonymous-codon, reference
rs1129497 -- 150,338,991(-) AAGTT(C/T)TGCGG reference, synonymous-codon, intron-variant
rs1804764 -- 150,338,988(-) TTCTG(A/C)GGGTA synonymous-codon, reference, intron-variant
rs3210475 -- 150,339,030(-) AAGTT(C/T)TGGGC reference, synonymous-codon, intron-variant
rs3735167 -- 150,342,466(-) CCTGC(A/G)GTGTG upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RARRES2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv508490 CNV Loss 20534489
dgv7541n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv435n21 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv521407 CNV Loss 19592680

Relevant External Links for RARRES2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
RARRES2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

Disorders for RARRES2 Gene

(7) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RARRES2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
inflammation 45.7 16
insulin resistance 45.6 9
obesity 44.7 9
insulin sensitivity 35.3 4
ascites 5.52 3

Relevant External Links for RARRES2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
RARRES2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
RARRES2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RARRES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RARRES2 Gene

Publications for RARRES2 Gene

  1. Chemerin--a new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor. (PMID: 17767914) Roh S.G. … Sasaki S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007) 2 3 4 23
  2. Chemerin, a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism. (PMID: 17635925) Goralski K.B. … Sinal C.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 3 4 23
  3. Characterization of human circulating TIG2 as a ligand for the orphan receptor ChemR23. (PMID: 14675762) Meder W. … Forssmann W.G. (FEBS Lett. 2003) 3 4 23
  4. Tazarotene-induced gene 2 (TIG2), a novel retinoid-responsive gene in skin. (PMID: 9204961) Nagpal S. … Chandraratna R.A.S. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 1997) 3 4 23
  5. Chemerin activation by serine proteases of the coagulation, fibrinolytic, and inflammatory cascades. (PMID: 16096270) Zabel B.A. … Butcher E.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 4 23

Products for RARRES2 Gene

  • antibodies-online proteins for RARRES2
  • antibodies-online antibodies for RARRES2
  • antibodies-online kits for RARRES2

Sources for RARRES2 Gene

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