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Aliases for RAC2 Gene

Aliases for RAC2 Gene

  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 2 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac2) 2 3 5
  • Small G Protein 3 4
  • P21-Rac2 3 4
  • Gx 3 4
  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 3 (Rho Family, Small GTP-Binding Protein Rac2) 3
  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 2 3
  • HSPC022 3
  • EN-7 3

External Ids for RAC2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for RAC2 Gene

  • GC22M034235
  • GC22M035864
  • GC22M035945
  • GC22M037621
  • GC22M020586

Summaries for RAC2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RAC2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing proteins. The encoded protein localizes to the plasma membrane, where it regulates diverse processes, such as secretion, phagocytosis, and cell polarization. Activity of this protein is also involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mutations in this gene are associated with neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for RAC2 Gene

RAC2 (Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 2 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac2)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RAC2 include Neutrophil Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Wnt Signaling Pathways: beta-Catenin-dependent Wnt Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is RAC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC2 Gene

  • Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as secretory processes, phagocytose of apoptotic cells and epithelial cell polarization. Augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase.

Tocris Summary for RAC2 Gene

  • Small G proteins (small GTPases) are homologous to Galpha proteins and are often referred to as the Ras proto-oncogene superfamily. Small GTPases regulate a wide variety of processes in the cell, including growth, differentiation, movement and lipid vesicle transport.

Gene Wiki entry for RAC2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RAC2 Gene

Genomics for RAC2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RAC2 Gene

Enhancers for RAC2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH22F037217 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 17.5 +12.8 12790 28.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT MLX CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF143 CSF2RB RAC2 LL22NC01-81G9.3 ENSG00000229971 SSTR3 GGA1 CYTH4 TEX33 ENSG00000226233 C1QTNF6
GH22F037281 1.1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 9.8 -39.3 -39338 4.3 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A YBX1 SLC30A9 ZNF121 GLIS2 CYTH4 CSF2RB GGA1 NCF4 RAC2 LGALS2 SH3BP1 RPS15AP38 MFNG NOL12
GH22F036911 1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 7 +330.9 330943 3.5 HDGF TBP ATF1 PKNOX1 NFRKB WRNIP1 EGR1 ZNF143 ETV6 CREM NCF4 CSF2RB CYTH4 NCF4-AS1 RAC2 LOC105373022
GH22F036546 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 5.5 +697.6 697555 1.6 CTCF PKNOX1 JUN MAX RAD21 ZKSCAN1 ZNF547 SMC3 FOS E2F6 RAC2 ENSG00000229971 LOC100500719
GH22F037301 0.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 4.9 -62.5 -62479 10.2 HDGF ATF1 PKNOX1 WRNIP1 SIN3A ZNF121 ELK1 ZNF207 FOS ZNF263 CYTH4 GGA1 RAC2 SH3BP1 IL2RB LGALS2 NCF4 CSF2RB MFNG GC22M037293
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around RAC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for RAC2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000617919 1048 2001 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT MLX CREB3L1 WRNIP1 SIN3A ARID4B ZNF143 ZNF207

Genomic Location for RAC2 Gene

Chromosome:
22
Start:
37,225,261 bp from pter
End:
37,244,448 bp from pter
Size:
19,188 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for RAC2 Gene

Genes around RAC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
RAC2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for RAC2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RAC2 Gene

Proteins for RAC2 Gene

  • Protein details for RAC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P15153-RAC2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2
    Protein Accession:
    P15153
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UDJ4

    Protein attributes for RAC2 Gene

    Size:
    192 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21429 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with DOCK2, which may activate it. Interacts with S100A8 and calprotectin (S100A8/9).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RAC2 Gene

neXtProt entry for RAC2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for RAC2 Gene

  • (Microbial infection) Glycosylated at Tyr-32 by Photorhabdus asymbiotica toxin PAU_02230. Mono-O-GlcNAcylation by PAU_02230 inhibits downstream signaling by an impaired interaction with diverse regulator and effector proteins of Rac and leads to actin disassembly.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 133, Lys 147, and Lys 153
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for RAC2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for RAC2 (RAC2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RAC2 Gene

Domains & Families for RAC2 Gene

Gene Families for RAC2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for RAC2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P15153

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RAC2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RAC2: view

Function for RAC2 Gene

Molecular function for RAC2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
ras-related C3 botulinism toxin substrate 2,Ras-like protein,member of the Rho family of GTPase,specifically expressed in hemopoietic lineage,involved in the production of superoxide in neutrophils,putative regulator of mitogen-induced cytoskeletal changes essential for membrane ruffling,and C-jun aminoterminal kinase JNK,key downstream target in Ras signaling putatively mediated by EPS58 and SSH3BP1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which promote the exchange of bound GDP for free GTP, GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which increase the GTP hydrolysis activity, and GDP dissociation inhibitors which inhibit the dissociation of the nucleotide from the GTPase.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as secretory processes, phagocytose of apoptotic cells and epithelial cell polarization. Augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RAC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA,IMP 19625648
GO:0019887 protein kinase regulator activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RAC2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for RAC2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for RAC2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RAC2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for RAC2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RAC2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for RAC2

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RAC2 Gene

Localization for RAC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Note=Membrane-associated when activated.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for RAC2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RAC2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 4
cytoskeleton 2
golgi apparatus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RAC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005635 nuclear envelope IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA,TAS --
GO:0005884 colocalizes_with actin filament IDA 19625648
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC2: view

Pathways & Interactions for RAC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RAC2: view

Pathways by source for RAC2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for RAC2 Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RAC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IEA --
GO:0007015 actin filament organization IMP 21167572
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 2674130
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007264 small GTPase mediated signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC2: view

Drugs & Compounds for RAC2 Gene

(14) Drugs for RAC2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Dextromethorphan Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 129
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational Pharma Topo II inhibitor,immunosuppresive antineoplastic antibiotic 1714
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(12) Additional Compounds for RAC2 Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6
CASIN
425399-05-9
SecinH3
853625-60-2

(5) Tocris Compounds for RAC2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
CASIN Cdc42 GTPase inhibitor 425399-05-9
EHT 1864 Potent inhibitor of Rac family GTPases 754240-09-0
NSC 23766 Selective inhibitor of Rac1-GEF interaction; antioncogenic 1177865-17-6
SecinH3 Sec7-specific GEF inhibitor (cytohesins) 853625-60-2
ZCL 278 Cdc42 inhibitor 587841-73-4

(1) ApexBio Compounds for RAC2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
EHop-016 Rac1/Rac3 GTPase inhibitor,potent and specific 1380432-32-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RAC2: view

Transcripts for RAC2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RAC2 Gene

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for RAC2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RAC2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for RAC2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RAC2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
RAC2

Expression for RAC2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RAC2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RAC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x32.9) and Spleen (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for RAC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Tlymphocyte (12.0), NK cells (11.4), Neutrophil (7.9), and Monocytes (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for RAC2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for RAC2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of RAC2 Gene:

RAC2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RAC2 Gene:

Hs.517601

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RAC2 Gene:

P15153-RAC2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Hematopoietic specific.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with RAC2: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for RAC2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RAC2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RAC2 35
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RAC2 34 35
  • 92.36 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RAC2 34 35
  • 90.62 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rac2 34
  • 90.1 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rac2 34 16 35
  • 89.24 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RAC2 35
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RAC2 34 35
  • 83.51 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RAC2 35
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rac2 34
  • 77.78 (n)
Str.15383 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rac2 34 35
  • 79.17 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Rac1 36 35
  • 89 (a)
Rac2 36 35
  • 88 (a)
Mtl 36 35
  • 68 (a)
RhoL 36
  • 51 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ced-10 36
  • 95 (a)
rac-2 35
  • 72 (a)
ManyToMany
mig-2 36
  • 62 (a)
F22E12.2 36
  • 44 (a)
Y32F6B.3 36
  • 44 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons RAC10 34
  • 58.38 (n)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.1324 34
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os06g0234200 34
  • 61.47 (n)
Os.5505 34
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.12745 34
wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.7476 34
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02160 34
  • 70.37 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2693 34
Species where no ortholog for RAC2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for RAC2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RAC2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RAC2 (if available)

Paralogs for RAC2 Gene

Variants for RAC2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RAC2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs74315507 Neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome (NEUID) [MIM:608203], Pathogenic 37,232,857(-) TGTGG(A/G)ACACT reference, missense
VAR_036569 A breast cancer sample
rs193920791 Uncertain significance 37,232,800(-) AGACG(A/G)TGTGC splice-donor-variant
rs1064498 Benign 37,226,775(-) TCAGC(C/T)CTCAC reference, synonymous-codon
rs2239774 Benign 37,241,613(+) GGAAA(C/G)GCGTT reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RAC2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1002006 CNV loss 20482838
esv2724208 CNV deletion 23290073
nsv1126630 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv459883 CNV loss 19166990
nsv513590 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv528767 CNV gain 19592680
nsv588987 CNV loss 21841781
nsv829203 CNV loss 20364138
nsv834188 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for RAC2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 34.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.16; 3.71% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for RAC2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
RAC2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
RAC2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC2 Gene

Disorders for RAC2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for RAC2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome
  • neuid
chronic granulomatous disease
  • bridges-good syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search RAC2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

RAC2_HUMAN
  • Neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome (NEUID) [MIM:608203]: An immunodeficiency syndrome due to defective neutrophils. Affected individuals present with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, severe recurrent bacterial infections and poor wound healing. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10758162}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for RAC2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
RAC2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
RAC2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
RAC2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RAC2: view

No data available for Genatlas for RAC2 Gene

Publications for RAC2 Gene

  1. Human neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an inhibitory Rac2 mutation. (PMID: 10758162) Ambruso D.R. … Roos D. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000) 3 4 22 46 64
  2. Regulation of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase by rho-related G- proteins. (PMID: 8504089) Kwong C.H. … Leto T.L. (Biochemistry 1993) 3 4 22 64
  3. Carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation of ras-related GTP-binding proteins encoded by rac1, rac2, and ralA. (PMID: 1903399) Kinsella B.T. … Maltese W.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991) 3 4 22 64
  4. Rac, a novel ras-related family of proteins that are botulinum toxin substrates. (PMID: 2674130) Didsbury J. … Snyderman R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1989) 2 3 4 64
  5. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and patients response to dendritic cell-based HIV immuno-treatment. (PMID: 20056178) Segat L. … Crovella S. (Vaccine 2010) 3 46 64

Products for RAC2 Gene

Sources for RAC2 Gene

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