Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for RAC2 Gene

Aliases for RAC2 Gene

  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 2 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac2) 2 3
  • Small G Protein 3 4
  • P21-Rac2 3 4
  • Gx 3 4
  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 3 (Rho Family, Small GTP-Binding Protein Rac2) 3
  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 2 3
  • HSPC022 3
  • EN-7 3

External Ids for RAC2 Gene

Summaries for RAC2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RAC2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing proteins. The encoded protein localizes to the plasma membrane, where it regulates diverse processes, such as secretion, phagocytosis, and cell polarization. Activity of this protein is also involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mutations in this gene are associated with neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for RAC2 Gene

RAC2 (Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 2 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac2)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with RAC2 include neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome. Among its related pathways are MAPK signaling pathway and Ras signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GTPase activity. An important paralog of this gene is RHOH.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC2 Gene

  • Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as secretory processes, phagocytose of apoptotic cells and epithelial cell polarization. Augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase.

Tocris Summary for RAC2 Gene

  • Small G proteins (small GTPases) are homologous to Galpha proteins and are often referred to as the Ras proto-oncogene superfamily. The Ras superfamily contains over 100 small GTPases grouped into eight families; Ras, Rho, Rab, Rap, Arf, Ran, Rheb and Rad. Small GTPases regulate a wide variety of processes in the cell, including growth, differentiation, movement and lipid vesicle transport. Like Galpha proteins, small GTPases alternate between an on state (bound to GTP) and an off state (bound to GDP). This cyclic process requires guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Small GTPases are the downstream effectors of most receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and are linked via two proteins, GRB2 and SOS. They are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades including the MAPK pathway, through interactions with Raf kinase. Normally, activation of small GTPases is induced by ligand binding to a RTK. In many transformed cells activating mutations of GTPases, often Ras, produce a cellular response in the absence of a ligand, thus promoting malignant progression.

Gene Wiki entry for RAC2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RAC2 Gene

Genomics for RAC2 Gene

Genomic Location for RAC2 Gene

37,225,261 bp from pter
37,244,448 bp from pter
19,188 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for RAC2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RAC2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RAC2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RAC2 Gene

Proteins for RAC2 Gene

  • Protein details for RAC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9UDJ4

    Protein attributes for RAC2 Gene

    192 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21429 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with DOCK2, which may activate it. Interacts with S100A8 and calprotectin (S100A8/9).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RAC2 Gene

neXtProt entry for RAC2 Gene

Proteomics data for RAC2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RAC2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys123, Lys133, Lys147, Lys153, and Lys166

Other Protein References for RAC2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RAC2 Gene

Domains for RAC2 Gene

Gene Families for RAC2 Gene



  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.:
    • P15153
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RAC2: view

Function for RAC2 Gene

Molecular function for RAC2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: ras-related C3 botulinism toxin substrate 2,Ras-like protein,member of the Rho family of GTPase,specifically expressed in hemopoietic lineage,involved in the production of superoxide in neutrophils,putative regulator of mitogen-induced cytoskeletal changes essential for membrane ruffling,and C-jun aminoterminal kinase JNK,key downstream target in Ras signaling putatively mediated by EPS58 and SSH3BP1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which promote the exchange of bound GDP for free GTP, GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which increase the GTP hydrolysis activity, and GDP dissociation inhibitors which inhibit the dissociation of the nucleotide from the GTPase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as secretory processes, phagocytose of apoptotic cells and epithelial cell polarization. Augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RAC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005525 GTP binding IMP 19625648
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RAC2: view

Animal Models for RAC2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RAC2:

miRNA for RAC2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target RAC2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for RAC2 Gene

Localization for RAC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Note=Membrane-associated when activated.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for RAC2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RAC2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 3
extracellular 2
golgi apparatus 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RAC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005635 nuclear envelope IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005884 colocalizes_with actin filament IDA 19625648
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC2: view

Pathways for RAC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RAC2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RAC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006184 obsolete GTP catabolic process --
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport --
GO:0006913 nucleocytoplasmic transport --
GO:0006935 chemotaxis --
GO:0007015 actin filament organization IMP 21167572
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC2: view

Compounds for RAC2 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for RAC2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
EHT 1864 Potent inhibitor of Rac family GTPases [754240-09-0]
NSC 23766 Selective inhibitor of Rac1-GEF interaction; antioncogenic [733767-34-5]
QS 11 ARFGAP1 inhibitor; modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling [944328-88-5]
Rac1 Inhibitor W56 Selective inhibitor of Rac1-GEF interaction [1095179-01-3]
SecinH3 Sec7-specific GEF inhibitor (cytohesins) [853625-60-2]

(4) HMDB Compounds for RAC2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Guanosine diphosphate
  • 5'-GDP
Guanosine monophosphate
  • 5'-GMP
Guanosine triphosphate
  • 5'-GTP
  • 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide

(15) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RAC2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
nadph 80.9 40
fmlp 64 9
superoxide 61.9 20
guanosine 58.5 3
gtp 58.3 7

(1) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for RAC2 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
doxorubicin CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RAC2: view

Transcripts for RAC2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RAC2 Gene

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RAC2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for RAC2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for RAC2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RAC2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for RAC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (32.9) and Spleen (4.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RAC2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RAC2 Gene Hs.517601

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RAC2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Hematopoietic specific
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RAC2: view

Orthologs for RAC2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RAC2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RAC2 36
  • 92.36 (n)
  • 98.44 (a)
RAC2 37
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RAC2 36
  • 90.62 (n)
  • 97.92 (a)
RAC2 37
  • 98 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rac2 36
  • 89.24 (n)
  • 98.96 (a)
Rac2 16
Rac2 37
  • 99 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RAC2 37
  • 67 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RAC2 37
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rac2 36
  • 90.1 (n)
  • 98.96 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves RAC2 36
  • 83.51 (n)
  • 98.44 (a)
RAC2 37
  • 98 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RAC2 37
  • 96 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rac2 36
  • 77.78 (n)
  • 92.71 (a)
Str.15383 36
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii rac2 36
  • 79.17 (n)
  • 93.75 (a)
rac2 37
  • 82 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mtl 37
  • 66 (a)
Rac1 37
  • 89 (a)
Rac2 37
  • 88 (a)
Rac1 38
  • 89 (a)
RhoL 38
  • 51 (a)
Rac2 38
  • 88 (a)
Mtl 38
  • 68 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rac-2 37
  • 72 (a)
mig-2 38
  • 62 (a)
F22E12.2 38
  • 44 (a)
Y32F6B.3 38
  • 44 (a)
ced-10 38
  • 95 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.1324 36
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons RAC10 36
  • 58.38 (n)
  • 60.77 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.12745 36
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.5505 36
Os06g0234200 36
  • 61.47 (n)
  • 62.9 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.7476 36
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02160 36
  • 70.37 (n)
  • 75.66 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2693 36
Species with no ortholog for RAC2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for RAC2 Gene

Gene Tree for RAC2 (if available)
Gene Tree for RAC2 (if available)

Paralogs for RAC2 Gene

Paralogs for RAC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RAC2: view

Variants for RAC2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RAC2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs6572 -- 37,225,405(-) CTGCT(C/G)CACTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs739041 -- 37,228,959(+) CCCTG(A/G)GCTCA intron-variant
rs739042 -- 37,229,379(+) CTGTC(A/G)GAATC intron-variant
rs929023 -- 37,239,850(+) CTCCC(C/T)GCTCA intron-variant
rs1064498 Benign 37,226,775(-) TCAGC(A/C/T)CTCAC synonymous-codon, reference

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RAC2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv829203 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv915020 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv834188 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv459883 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv513590 CNV Insertion 21212237
esv2724208 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv528767 CNV Gain 19592680
esv1002006 CNV Loss 20482838

Relevant External Links for RAC2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)

Disorders for RAC2 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for RAC2 Gene (602049)


  • Neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome (NEUID) [MIM:608203]: An immunodeficiency syndrome due to defective neutrophils. Affected individuals present with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, severe recurrent bacterial infections and poor wound healing. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10758162}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(7) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RAC2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
granulomatous disease chronic 43.5 1
tumors 1 1
bacterial infections 0 1
inflammation 0 1
gastric cancer 0 1

Relevant External Links for RAC2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RAC2: view

Publications for RAC2 Gene

  1. Human neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an inhibitory Rac2 mutation. (PMID: 10758162) Ambruso D.R. … Roos D. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000) 3 4 23 49
  2. Carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation of ras-related GTP-binding proteins encoded by rac1, rac2, and ralA. (PMID: 1903399) Kinsella B.T. … Maltese W.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991) 3 4 23
  3. Regulation of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase by rho-related G- proteins. (PMID: 8504089) Kwong C.H. … Leto T.L. (Biochemistry 1993) 3 4 23
  4. Rac, a novel ras-related family of proteins that are botulinum toxin substrates. (PMID: 2674130) Didsbury J. … Snyderman R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1989) 2 3 4
  5. Neither replication nor simulation supports a role for the axon guidance pathway in the genetics of Parkinson's disease. (PMID: 18628988) Li Y. … Hadjigeorgiou G. (PLoS ONE 2008) 3 49

Products for RAC2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for RAC2

Sources for RAC2 Gene

Back to Top