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RAC1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 72
GCID: GC07P006380

Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1 (Rho Family,...

  Search for RAC1
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1 (Rho Family, Small GTP
Binding Protein Rac1)1 2
     Rac-12
Cell Migration-Inducing Gene 5 Protein2 3     TC-252
Ras-Like Protein TC252 3     Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 12
p21-Rac12 3     TC253

External Ids:    HGNC: 98011   Entrez Gene: 58792   Ensembl: ENSG000001362387   OMIM: 6020485   UniProtKB: P630003   

Export aliases for RAC1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC07P006058 GC07P006159 GC07P006160 GC07P006187


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for RAC1 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins.
Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell
growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding
different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009)

GeneCards Summary for RAC1 Gene:
RAC1 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is RHOH.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RAC1_HUMAN, P63000
Function: Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound
states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as
secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced
formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma
1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages. Essential for the
SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase
activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in
osteoclasts. In glioma cells, promotes cell migration and invasion. In podocytes, promotes nuclear shuttling of
NR3C2; this modulation is required for a proper kidney functioning. Required for atypical chemokine receptor
ACKR2-induced LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for up-regulation of ACKR2 from
endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In
synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3
Function: Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is
restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not
full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector
interaction

summary for RAC1 Gene:
Small G proteins (small GTPases) are homologous to Galpha proteins and are often referred to as the Ras
proto-oncogene superfamily. The Ras superfamily contains over 100 small GTPases grouped into eight families;
Ras, Rho, Rab, Rap, Arf, Ran, Rheb and Rad. Small GTPases regulate a wide variety of processes in the cell,
including growth, differentiation, movement and lipid vesicle transport. Like Galpha proteins, small GTPases
alternate between an 'on' state (bound to GTP) and an 'off' state (bound to GDP). This cyclic process
requires guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Small GTPases are the
downstream effectors of most receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and are linked via two proteins, GRB2 and SOS.
They are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades including the MAPK pathway, through interactions with
Raf kinase. Normally, activation of small GTPases is induced by ligand binding to a RTK. In many transformed
cells activating mutations of GTPases, often Ras, produce a cellular response in the absence of a ligand,
thus promoting malignant progression.

Gene Wiki entry for RAC1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000007.13  NC_018918.2  NT_007819.18  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the RAC1 gene promoter:
         AP-1   SRF (504 AA)   STAT5A   YY1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 6): RAC1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for RAC1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat RAC1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 7p22   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  7p22.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 7p22

RAC1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
RAC1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 7         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC07P006380:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
6,414,126 bp from pter      End:
6,443,608 bp from pter
Size:
29,483 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr7+,CRA_TCAG 6,460,486-6,489,951     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RAC1_HUMAN, P63000 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 precursor  
Size: 192 amino acids; 21450 Da
Subunit: Interacts with NISCH. Interacts with PIP5K1A. Interacts with the GTP-bound form of RAB7A. Interacts with
SRGAP2. Interacts with CYFIP1/SRA-1. Interacts with PLXNB3. Interacts with ARHGDIA; the interaction is induced by
SEMA5A, mediated through PLXNB3 and inactivates and stabilizes RAC1. Interacts (GTP-bound form preferentially)
with PKN2 (via the REM repeats); the interaction stimulates autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of PKN2.
Interacts with the GEF proteins PREX1, RASGRF2, FARP1, FARP2, DOCK1, DOCK2 and DOCK7, which promote the exchange
between GDP and GTP, and therefore activate it. Interacts with PARD6A, PARD6B and PARD6G in a GTP-dependent
manner. Part of a quaternary complex containing PARD3, some PARD6 protein (PARD6A, PARD6B or PARD6G) and some
atypical PKC protein (PRKCI or PRKCZ), which plays a central role in epithelial cell polarization. Found in a
trimeric complex composed of DOCK1 and ELMO1, which plays a central role in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.
Interacts with RALBP1 via its effector domain. Interacts with PLXNB1. Probably found in a ternary complex
composed of DSCAM, PAK1 and RAC1. Interacts with DSCAM; the interaction requires PAK1. Part of a complex with
MAP2K3, MAP3K3, CCM2 and DEF6. Interacts with BAIAP2, BAIAP2L1 and DEF6. Interacts with Y.pseudotuberculosis YPKA
and PLCB2. Interacts with NOXA1. Interacts with ARHGEF2. Interacts with TBC1D2. Interacts with UNKL. Interacts
with USP6. Interacts with SPATA13. Interacts with ARHGEF16; mediates activation of RAC1 by EPHA2. Interacts with
ITGB4. Interacts with S100A8 and calprotectin (S100A8/9). Interacts with PACSIN2. Interacts with ITGB1BP1.
Interacts (when active) with PPP5C (via TPR repeats); activates PPP5C phosphatase activity and translocates PPP5C
to the cell membrane
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAZ80485.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for RAC1 (see all 31):
1E96 (3D)        1FOE (3D)        1G4U (3D)        1HE1 (3D)        1HH4 (3D)        1I4D (3D)    
Secondary accessions: O95501 P15154 Q3Y4D3 Q5JAA8 Q9BTB4
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P63000-1, P15154-1   P63000-2, P15154-2   (Contains a phosphoserine at position 71)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for RAC1: NX_P63000

Explore proteomics data for RAC1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • AMPylation at Tyr-32 and Thr-35 are mediated by bacterial enzymes in case of infection by H.somnus and
    V.parahaemolyticus, respectively. AMPylation occurs in the effector region and leads to inactivation of the
    GTPase activity by preventing the interaction with downstream effectors, thereby inhibiting actin assembly in
    infected cells. It is unclear whether some human enzyme mediates AMPylation; FICD has such ability in vitro but
    additional experiments remain to be done to confirm results in vivo1
  • GTP-bound active form is ubiquitinated by HACE1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys96, Lys116, Lys123, Lys133, Lys147, Lys153, Lys166
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See RAC1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_008839.2  NP_061485.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000258737   ENSP00000348461  
    Reactome Protein details: P63000

    RAC1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for RAC1
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for RAC1
    OriGene MassSpec for RAC1
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for RAC1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for RAC1
    Novus Biologicals RAC1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals RAC1 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for RAC1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for RAC1
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for RAC1
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for RAC1 

    RAC1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of RAC1
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for RAC1 
    OriGene Antibodies for RAC1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for RAC1
    Novus Biologicals RAC1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for RAC1 (P60953, P63000, P15153, P17081)
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for RAC1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for RAC1

    RAC1 Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of RAC1
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for RAC1
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for RAC1
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for RAC1
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for RAC1 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR003578 Small_GTPase_Rho
     IPR005225 Small_GTP-bd_dom
     IPR001806 Small_GTPase
     IPR027417 P-loop_NTPase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P63000

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P63000

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RAC1_HUMAN, P63000
    Domain: The effector region mediates interaction with DEF6
    Similarity: Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family


    Find genes that share domains with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: RAC1_HUMAN, P63000
    Function: Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound
    states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as
    secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced
    formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma
    1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages. Essential for the
    SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase
    activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in
    osteoclasts. In glioma cells, promotes cell migration and invasion. In podocytes, promotes nuclear shuttling of
    NR3C2; this modulation is required for a proper kidney functioning. Required for atypical chemokine receptor
    ACKR2-induced LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for up-regulation of ACKR2 from
    endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In
    synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3
    Function: Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is
    restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not
    full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector
    interaction
    Enzyme regulation: Regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which promote the exchange of bound GDP
    for free GTP, GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which increase the GTP hydrolysis activity, and GDP dissociation
    inhibitors which inhibit the dissociation of the nucleotide from the GTPase. GTP hydrolysis is stimulated by
    ARHGAP30

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003924GTPase activity TAS9312003
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10051605
    GO:0005525GTP binding IDA15467718
    GO:0017137Rab GTPase binding IEA--
    GO:0019899enzyme binding IPI16636067
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         5 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for RAC1:
     Decreased focal adhesion (FA)   Decreased telomerase activity  Decreased viability after Chla  Increased cell death HMECs cel 
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 7 alleles(MGI details for Rac1) (see all 16):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland 
     growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument 
     limbs/digits/tail  mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system  pigmentation 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for RAC1: Rac1tm1.1Djk Rac1tm2Tyb Rac1tm1Jms

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for RAC1
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for RAC1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for RAC1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for RAC1

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target RAC1:
    rno-mir-194-5p (MIRT003540), hsa-mir-122-5p (MIRT000663), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT020715), hsa-mir-652-3p (MIRT039481), hsa-mir-142-3p (MIRT006370), hsa-mir-30c-5p (MIRT047987), hsa-mir-101-3p (MIRT027282), hsa-mir-194-5p (MIRT005890)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat RAC1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate RAC1 (see all 26):
    hsa-miR-3128 hsa-miR-320a hsa-miR-142-3p hsa-miR-137 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-485-3p hsa-miR-1271 hsa-miR-548x
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidRAC1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for RAC1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat RAC1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for RAC1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for RAC1 (see all 16)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for RAC1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): RAC1 (NM_006908)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for RAC1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for RAC1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat RAC1
    Addgene plasmids for RAC1 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for RAC1 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for RAC1

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-11891) for RAC1 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    RAC1_HUMAN, P63000: Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side (By similarity). Melanosome. Cytoplasm (By
    similarity). Note=Inner surface of plasma membrane possibly with attachment requiring prenylation of the
    C-terminal cysteine (By similarity). Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to
    stage IV. Found in the ruffled border (a late endosomal-like compartment in the plasma membrane) of
    bone-resorbing osteoclasts (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol4
    cytoskeleton3
    endosome2
    extracellular2
    golgi apparatus2
    mitochondrion2
    nucleus2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    peroxisome1
    vacuole1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 16):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000139Golgi membrane IEA--
    GO:0001891phagocytic cup IEA--
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005802trans-Golgi network IDA12915445

    Find genes that share ontologies with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for RAC1 About   (see all 185)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Immune response Fc epsilon RI pathway
    Immune response Fc epsilon RI pathway0.43
    VEGF signaling pathway0.39
    Immune response BCR pathway0.43
    VEGF - VEGF R2 Signaling Pathways0.35
    Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway0.41
    2Focal adhesion
    Focal adhesion0.65
    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion0.38
    Focal Adhesion0.65
    HGF Pathway0.34
    3Wnt signaling pathway (KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway0.40
    Wnt Signaling Pathway NetPath0.37
    Wnt Signaling Pathways0.40
    4Development HGF signaling pathway
    Development HGF signaling pathway0.45
    Development PDGF signaling via MAPK cascades0.41
    Development Neurotrophin family signaling0.45
    Development EGFR signaling via PIP30.40
    Development EGFR signaling via small GTPases0.44
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway0.36
    5Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.94
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.93
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway0.94


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    3 R&D Systems Pathways for RAC1
        Wnt Signaling Pathways
    VEGF - VEGF R2 Signaling Pathways
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for RAC1 (see all 76)
        Fc-GammaR Pathway
    Toll-Like Receptors Pathway
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    JNK Pathway
    Inhibition of Ribosome Biogenesis by p14(ARF)

    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for RAC1
        MAP Kinase Signaling
    Cytoskeletal Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for RAC1 (see all 49)
        G-protein signaling Regulation of RAC1 activity
    Cytoskeleton remodeling Role of PDGFs in cell migration
    Development FGF-family signaling
    Development EGFR signaling pathway
    Development Endothelin-1/EDNRA signaling

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for RAC1 (see all 78)
        MAPK signaling pathway
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy
    Focal Adhesion
    NOD pathway
    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion

    2 Sino Biological Pathways for RAC1
        EGFR Signaling Pathway
    Non-Canonical Wnt Pathway

    Selected Reactome Pathways for RAC1 (see all 20)
        CD28 dependent Vav1 pathway
    FCERI mediated MAPK activation
    G alpha (12/13) signalling events
    Activation of Rac
    Signal transduction by L1

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for RAC1
        Bisphosphonate Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Thiopurine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for RAC1) (see all 34):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    Ras signaling pathway
    Rap1 signaling pathway
    Chemokine signaling pathway
    Phagosome

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including RAC1 (see all 15): 
              Neurogenesis in human mouse rat
              Cytoskeleton Regulators in human mouse rat
              Adherens Junctions in human mouse rat
              Tight Junctions in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for RAC1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for RAC1 (P630001, 2, 3 ENSP000003484614) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 584)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PAK1Q131531, 2, 3, ENSP000002785684EBI-413628,EBI-1307 MINT-49675 MINT-8078140 MINT-7145274 MINT-8320267 MINT-60985 MINT-7217644 MINT-7146277 MINT-4298496 MINT-7384952 MINT-7288809 I2D: score=12 STRING: ENSP00000278568
    SETQ011051, 2, 3, ENSP000003617774EBI-413628,EBI-1053182 MINT-4298550 MINT-4298508 MINT-4298480 MINT-4298402 MINT-8401879 MINT-4298417 MINT-4298434 MINT-4298526 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000361777
    ARHGEF7Q141551, 2, 3, ENSP000003648934EBI-413628,EBI-717515 MINT-7145257 MINT-7145327 MINT-7145306 MINT-7145341 MINT-7145361 MINT-7145246 MINT-7145235 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000364893
    PLCG1P191741, 2, 3, ENSP000002440074EBI-413628,EBI-79387 MINT-7230055 MINT-7229927 MINT-7229937 MINT-7229970 MINT-7230002 MINT-7230027 MINT-7229952 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000244007
    ARHGDIAP525651, 2, 3, ENSP000002693214EBI-413628,EBI-712693 MINT-4298452 MINT-8267874 MINT-8378220 MINT-8378181 MINT-8378199 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000269321
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 65):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001934positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP--
    GO:0002093auditory receptor cell morphogenesis IEA--
    GO:0002551mast cell chemotaxis IEA--
    GO:0003382epithelial cell morphogenesis IEA--
    GO:0006184GTP catabolic process ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for RAC1 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    QS 11ARFGAP1 inhibitor; modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling[944328-88-5]
    NSC 23766Selective inhibitor of Rac1-GEF interaction; antioncogenic[733767-34-5]
    EHT 1864Potent inhibitor of Rac family GTPases[754240-09-0]
    SecinH3Sec7-specific GEF inhibitor (cytohesins)[853625-60-2]
    Rac1 Inhibitor W56Selective inhibitor of Rac1-GEF interaction[1095179-01-3]

    5 HMDB Compounds for RAC1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Guanosine diphosphate5'-GDP (see all 10)146-91-8--
    Guanosine monophosphate5'-GMP (see all 14)85-32-5--
    Guanosine triphosphate5'-GTP (see all 10)86-01-1--
    Pravastatin3beta-Hydroxycompactin (see all 7)81093-37-0--
    Simvastatin(+)-Simvastatin (see all 28)79902-63-9--

    1 DrugBank Compound for RAC1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Guanosine-5'-Diphosphate-- 146-91-8target----

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RAC1 gene (see all 90)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gdp 76.8 53 7980444 (5), 10893266 (3), 11900529 (2), 15242348 (2) (see all 27)
    nadph 76.1 128 11007780 (5), 9585526 (3), 19344766 (3), 18658277 (3) (see all 85)
    gtp 69.6 72 7980444 (3), 10893266 (3), 10036235 (2), 12620811 (2) (see all 40)
    phosphatidylinositol 67.3 48 9488489 (3), 19473989 (2), 10594018 (2), 15836616 (2) (see all 34)
    mdi-a 65.8 1 12445462 (1)
    diphenyleneiodonium 63.2 8 17008589 (1), 16990552 (1), 10747906 (1), 18218673 (1) (see all 5)
    geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate 62.4 6 16873994 (2), 17556673 (1), 15701825 (1), 17279352 (1)
    tyrosine 61.2 48 8816388 (2), 19366706 (2), 17093062 (2), 9430636 (1) (see all 38)
    phosphoinositide 59.6 23 17140407 (3), 11278419 (2), 19723872 (2), 11805146 (1) (see all 12)
    guanosine 59 14 19645540 (2), 17954607 (1), 10871853 (1), 15521546 (1) (see all 11)



    Find genes that share compounds with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for RAC1 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_006908.4  NM_018890.3  NM_198829.1  

    Unigene Cluster for RAC1:

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)
    Hs.413812  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AB209410
    6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000348035(uc003spw.3 uc003spx.3 uc021zzg.1) ENST00000356142
    ENST00000488373 ENST00000497741 ENST00000473564 ENST00000495499
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate RAC1 (see all 26):
    hsa-miR-3128 hsa-miR-320a hsa-miR-142-3p hsa-miR-137 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-485-3p hsa-miR-1271 hsa-miR-548x
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidRAC1 3' UTR sequence
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    Addgene plasmids for RAC1 
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    Flow Cytometry
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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-11891) for RAC1 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209410.1 AB451238.1 AB451363.1 AF136373.1 AF498964.1 AJ012502.1 AJ132694.1 AK054993.1 
    AK291806.1 AK291815.1 AY279384.1 BC004247.1 BC050687.1 BC107748.1 BT007121.1 D25274.1 
    M29870.1 M31467.1 U85236.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 39):

    DT.100858626  DT.100690590  DT.97864716  DT.100045437  DT.95159201  DT.91931125  DT.92466364  DT.99943990 
    DT.121127892  DT.92044118  DT.92466365  DT.92005684  DT.100690587  DT.92028822  DT.95159178  DT.100045435 
    DT.100690586  DT.121127905  DT.100690597  DT.121127838  DT.121245026  DT.100690595  DT.121127894  DT.121127955 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1283):

    CN481318 BM699856 BM766517 BQ927251 BQ895842 BM665898 CB126390 CB159340 
    BU165685 BU508675 BQ637365 BQ687094 BU527010 BQ232502 BQ686314 BQ056802 
    BU683336 AA295389 CB126262 CB122829 H57690 BQ427707 AI313143 BM781748 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    RAC1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATGACTTAA
    RAC1 Expression
    About this image


    RAC1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 19) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 10 entries
             Thalamus
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Basal Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
     
     Hair
             Primary Hair Placode Cells Hair Follicle
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)
             Basal Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
     
     Colon (Gastrointestinal Tract)
    RAC1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    RAC1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.413812

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: RAC1_HUMAN, P63000
    Tissue specificity: Isoform B is predominantly identified in skin and epithelial tissues from the intestinal
    tract. Its expression is elevated in colorectal tumors at various stages of neoplastic progression, as compared
    to their respective adjacent tissues

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including RAC1 (see all 15): 
              Neurogenesis in human mouse rat
              Cytoskeleton Regulators in human mouse rat
              Adherens Junctions in human mouse rat
              Tight Junctions in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for RAC1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for RAC1 gene from Selected species (see all 19)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Rac11 , 5 RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 11, 5 91.67(n)1
    100(a)1
      5 (82.22 cM)5
    193531  NM_009007.21  NP_033033.11 
     1435054785 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves RAC11 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, more 88.19(n)
    100(a)
      395871  NM_205017.1  NP_990348.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia RAC16
    ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho fa...
    100(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343507.1(107208-123345)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.265882 Xenopus laevis rac GTPase mRNA, complete cds 84.78(n)    AF174644.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc558232 similar to CEll Death abnormality CED-10, RAC related more 80.78(n)   393898  BC044501.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Rac11 , 3 cell proliferation GTPase3
    Rac11
    91(a)
    (best of 4)3
    73.78(n)1
    91.67(a)1
      3 61F53
    381461  NM_057602.41  NP_476950.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea ced-103 RAS-related protein 97(a)
    (best of 5)
      IV(3507381-3509495)   --
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons ARAC11 ARAC1 60.14(n)
    66.3(a)
      816290  NM_127334.3  NP_179371.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os02g01208001 Os02g0120800 58.79(n)
    67.03(a)
      4328116  NM_001052247.1  NP_001045712.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for RAC1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for RAC1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for RAC1 gene
    RHOH2  RHOQ2  RHOBTB12  RHOV2  RHOU2  RHOG2  RHOBTB22  RAC22  
    CDC422  RHOJ2  RAC32  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for RAC1 using alignment to 5 protein entries:     RAC1_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    RAC3    RAC2    CDC42    ARHG    RHOG    RHOJ
    RHOQ    RHOV    RHOD    RHOF    RHOU    RHOB
    RHOC    RHOH    RND2    RHOA    ARHE    ARHH

    Find genes that share paralogs with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe


    5 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for RAC1
    PGOHUM00000234900 PGOHUM00000244483 PGOHUM00000237589 PGOHUM00000232968 PGOHUM00000233232


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for RAC1 (see all 1044)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 7 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs715399261,2
    C--6285537(+) AACAC-/T/TT  
            
    TTTTT
    2 -- us2k11NA 2
    rs43973031,2
    C,F--6286136(+) CACTGC/AAACCT 2 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- A:0.18WA NA 240
    rs1405966111,2
    C--6289482(+) GTCTC-/ACAAAC 2 -- int10--------
    rs106319871,2
    C--6296173(+) CACTTTAAAG/
            
    TAAGA
    2 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs339295551,2
    C--6296174(+) ACTTT-/AAAGT/
    AAG
    /TAAAG
    AAGAA
    4 -- int1 cds11NA 2
    rs670123251,2
    C--6296536(+) TTTTT-/TT/TTTTT
    /TTTTTTTTT
    TTTTT
    4 -- int1 cds11NA 2
    rs58820931,2
    C--6301946(+) CTCCC-/AA/AAA
            
    AAAAA
    2 -- int11CSA 2
    rs356754351,2
    F--6302792(+) CTTCCCTCCT   
       TCC
    /-
    TTCTC
    2 -- int15Minor allele frequency- -:0.34NS 158
    rs1473375341,2
    C--6384768(+) TGGGCA/GACATA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs681584321,2
    C,F--6384890(+) AGGAAA/GTATAC 2 -- us2k16Minor allele frequency- G:0.11WA CSA NA EA 364

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for RAC1 (6414126 - 6443608 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for RAC1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv436904CNV Insertion17901297
    esv1914954OTHER Inversion16254605
    nsv7392OTHER Inversion18451855

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): RAC1
    1 Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assay for RAC1:
    Cosmic IdAA Change
    125734p.P29S
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing RAC1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for RAC1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 602048    OMIM disorders: --

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for RAC1:
    Cancer     Vascular disease

    Find genes that share disorders with RAC1           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RAC1 gene (see all 57)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    wiskott-aldrich syndrome 49.2 4 11493455 (1), 11179351 (1), 11865026 (1)
    metastasis 40.9 33 20426825 (4), 17049467 (3), 17631638 (1), 19276387 (1) (see all 22)
    tumors 38 88 10636882 (4), 20426825 (4), 11606575 (3), 10893266 (3) (see all 47)
    colorectal tumors 27.5 8 16551621 (1), 18165265 (1), 10597294 (1), 11768613 (1)
    cancer 25.2 14 20067638 (2), 15160999 (1), 14530271 (1), 15067337 (1) (see all 10)
    glioblastoma 24.3 9 18813807 (4), 14736526 (1), 16027728 (1), 11929835 (1)
    astrocytoma 18.5 7 14736526 (2), 16204049 (2), 15242348 (1), 17896341 (1) (see all 5)
    pancreatic tumor 16.5 1 12902401 (1)
    glomerulosclerosis 13.6 1 16690620 (1)
    melanoma 13.1 14 12482591 (2), 17952876 (2), 11571298 (1), 15059909 (1) (see all 9)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): RAC1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: RAC1 (15 documents)

    Export disorders for RAC1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for RAC1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1417):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with RAC1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning of a novel human Rac1b splice variant with increased expression in colorectal tumors. (PubMed id 10597294)1, 2, 3, 9 Jordan P.... Chastre E. (Oncogene 1999)
    2. Rac, a novel ras-related family of proteins that are botulinum toxin substrates. (PubMed id 2674130)1, 2, 3 Didsbury J.... Snyderman R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1989)
    3. Armus is a Rac1 effector that inactivates Rab7 and regulates E- cadherin degradation. (PubMed id 20116244)1, 2, 9 Frasa M.A....Braga V.M. (Curr. Biol. 2010)
    4. Crystal structure of the Rac1-RhoGDI complex involved in NADPH oxidase activation. (PubMed id 11513578)1, 2, 9 Grizot S....Pebay-Peyroula E. (Biochemistry 2001)
    5. The TRE17 oncogene encodes a component of a novel effector pathway for Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 and stimulates actin remodeling. (PubMed id 12612085)1, 2, 9 Masuda-Robens J.M.... Chou M.M. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2003)
    6. Cooperation of DEF6 with activated Rac in regulating cell morphology. (PubMed id 17121847)1, 2, 9 Oka T.... Fukui Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007)
    7. Crystal structure of Rac1 in complex with the guanine nucleotide exchange region of Tiam1. (PubMed id 11130063)1, 2, 9 Worthylake D.K.... Sondek J. (Nature 2000)
    8. Carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation of ras-related GTP-binding proteins encoded by rac1, rac2, and ralA. (PubMed id 1903399)1, 2, 9 Kinsella B.T.... Maltese W.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991)
    9. The F-BAR domain protein PACSIN2 associates with Rac1 and regulates cell spreading and migration. (PubMed id 21693584)1, 2 de Kreuk B.J.... Hordijk P.L. (J. Cell Sci. 2011)
    10. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase HACE1 catalyzes the ubiquitylation of active Rac1. (PubMed id 22036506)1, 2 Torrino S.... Lemichez E. (Dev. Cell 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5879 HGNC: 9801 AceView: RAC1 Ensembl:ENSG00000136238 euGenes: HUgn5879
    ECgene: RAC1 Kegg: 5879 H-InvDB: RAC1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for RAC1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for RAC1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/rac1/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for RAC1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving RAC1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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     Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for RAC1
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     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for RAC1
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     Addgene plasmids for RAC1
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