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Aliases for RAC1 Gene

Aliases for RAC1 Gene

  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac1) 2 3
  • Cell Migration-Inducing Gene 5 Protein 3 4
  • Ras-Like Protein TC25 3 4
  • P21-Rac1 3 4
  • Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1 3
  • Rac-1 3
  • TC-25 3
  • MIG5 3
  • TC25 4

External Ids for RAC1 Gene

Summaries for RAC1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for RAC1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GeneCards Summary for RAC1 Gene

RAC1 (Ras-Related C3 Botulinum Toxin Substrate 1 (Rho Family, Small GTP Binding Protein Rac1)) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and PI-3K cascade. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is RAC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC1 Gene

  • Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts. In glioma cells, promotes cell migration and invasion. In podocytes, promotes nuclear shuttling of NR3C2; this modulation is required for a proper kidney functioning. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3

  • Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction

Tocris Summary for RAC1 Gene

  • Small G proteins (small GTPases) are homologous to Galpha proteins and are often referred to as the Ras proto-oncogene superfamily. The Ras superfamily contains over 100 small GTPases grouped into eight families; Ras, Rho, Rab, Rap, Arf, Ran, Rheb and Rad. Small GTPases regulate a wide variety of processes in the cell, including growth, differentiation, movement and lipid vesicle transport. Like Galpha proteins, small GTPases alternate between an on state (bound to GTP) and an off state (bound to GDP). This cyclic process requires guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Small GTPases are the downstream effectors of most receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and are linked via two proteins, GRB2 and SOS. They are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades including the MAPK pathway, through interactions with Raf kinase. Normally, activation of small GTPases is induced by ligand binding to a RTK. In many transformed cells activating mutations of GTPases, often Ras, produce a cellular response in the absence of a ligand, thus promoting malignant progression.

Gene Wiki entry for RAC1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for RAC1 Gene

Genomics for RAC1 Gene

Genomic Location for RAC1 Gene

Start:
6,374,495 bp from pter
End:
6,403,977 bp from pter
Size:
29,483 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for RAC1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for RAC1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for RAC1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for RAC1 Gene

Proteins for RAC1 Gene

  • Protein details for RAC1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P63000-RAC1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
    Protein Accession:
    P63000
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O95501
    • P15154
    • Q3Y4D3
    • Q5JAA8
    • Q9BTB4

    Protein attributes for RAC1 Gene

    Size:
    192 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21450 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with NISCH. Interacts with PIP5K1A. Interacts with the GTP-bound form of RAB7A. Interacts with SRGAP2. Interacts with CYFIP1/SRA-1. Interacts with PLXNB3. Interacts with ARHGDIA; the interaction is induced by SEMA5A, mediated through PLXNB3 and inactivates and stabilizes RAC1. Interacts (GTP-bound form preferentially) with PKN2 (via the REM repeats); the interaction stimulates autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of PKN2. Interacts with the GEF proteins PREX1, RASGRF2, FARP1, FARP2, DOCK1, DOCK2 and DOCK7, which promote the exchange between GDP and GTP, and therefore activate it. Interacts with PARD6A, PARD6B and PARD6G in a GTP-dependent manner. Part of a quaternary complex containing PARD3, some PARD6 protein (PARD6A, PARD6B or PARD6G) and some atypical PKC protein (PRKCI or PRKCZ), which plays a central role in epithelial cell polarization. Found in a trimeric complex composed of DOCK1 and ELMO1, which plays a central role in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Interacts with RALBP1 via its effector domain. Interacts with PLXNB1. Probably found in a ternary complex composed of DSCAM, PAK1 and RAC1. Interacts with DSCAM; the interaction requires PAK1. Part of a complex with MAP2K3, MAP3K3, CCM2 and DEF6. Interacts with BAIAP2, BAIAP2L1 and DEF6. Interacts with Y.pseudotuberculosis YPKA and PLCB2. Interacts with NOXA1. Interacts with ARHGEF2. Interacts with TBC1D2. Interacts with UNKL. Interacts with USP6. Interacts with SPATA13. Interacts with ARHGEF16; mediates activation of RAC1 by EPHA2. Interacts with ITGB4. Interacts with S100A8 and calprotectin (S100A8/9). Interacts with PACSIN2. Interacts with ITGB1BP1. Interacts (when active) with PPP5C (via TPR repeats); activates PPP5C phosphatase activity and translocates PPP5C to the cell membrane.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAZ80485.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for RAC1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for RAC1 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for RAC1 Gene

Proteomics data for RAC1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for RAC1 Gene

  • AMPylation at Tyr-32 and Thr-35 are mediated by bacterial enzymes in case of infection by H.somnus and V.parahaemolyticus, respectively. AMPylation occurs in the effector region and leads to inactivation of the GTPase activity by preventing the interaction with downstream effectors, thereby inhibiting actin assembly in infected cells. It is unclear whether some human enzyme mediates AMPylation; FICD has such ability in vitro but additional experiments remain to be done to confirm results in vivo.
  • GTP-bound active form is ubiquitinated by HACE1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys96, Lys116, Lys123, Lys133, Lys147, Lys153, and Lys166

Other Protein References for RAC1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for RAC1 Gene

Domains for RAC1 Gene

Gene Families for RAC1 Gene

HGNC:

Protein Domains for RAC1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RAC1_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The effector region mediates interaction with DEF6.:
    • P63000
Family:
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.:
    • P63000
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with RAC1: view

Function for RAC1 Gene

Molecular function for RAC1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which promote the exchange of bound GDP for free GTP, GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which increase the GTP hydrolysis activity, and GDP dissociation inhibitors which inhibit the dissociation of the nucleotide from the GTPase. GTP hydrolysis is stimulated by ARHGAP30.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts. In glioma cells, promotes cell migration and invasion. In podocytes, promotes nuclear shuttling of NR3C2; this modulation is required for a proper kidney functioning. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for RAC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity TAS 9312003
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10051605
GO:0005525 GTP binding IMP 19625648
GO:0017137 Rab GTPase binding IEA --
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 16636067
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with RAC1: view

Animal Models for RAC1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for RAC1:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for RAC1 Gene

Localization for RAC1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC1 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Melanosome. Cytoplasm. Note=Inner surface of plasma membrane possibly with attachment requiring prenylation of the C-terminal cysteine (By similarity). Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to stage IV. Found in the ruffled border (a late endosomal-like compartment in the plasma membrane) of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for RAC1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for RAC1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 3
endosome 2
extracellular 2
golgi apparatus 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for RAC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane IEA --
GO:0001891 phagocytic cup IEA --
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 19625648
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC1: view

Pathways for RAC1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with RAC1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for RAC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP 23633677
GO:0002093 auditory receptor cell morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0002551 mast cell chemotaxis IEA --
GO:0003382 epithelial cell morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0006184 obsolete GTP catabolic process --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with RAC1: view

Compounds for RAC1 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for RAC1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
EHT 1864 Potent inhibitor of Rac family GTPases [754240-09-0]
NSC 23766 Selective inhibitor of Rac1-GEF interaction; antioncogenic [733767-34-5]
QS 11 ARFGAP1 inhibitor; modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling [944328-88-5]
Rac1 Inhibitor W56 Selective inhibitor of Rac1-GEF interaction [1095179-01-3]
SecinH3 Sec7-specific GEF inhibitor (cytohesins) [853625-60-2]

(5) HMDB Compounds for RAC1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Guanosine diphosphate
  • 5'-GDP
146-91-8
Guanosine monophosphate
  • 5'-GMP
85-32-5
Guanosine triphosphate
  • 5'-GTP
86-01-1
Pravastatin
  • 3beta-Hydroxycompactin
81093-37-0
Simvastatin
  • (+)-Simvastatin
79902-63-9

(1) Drugbank Compounds for RAC1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Guanosine-5'-Diphosphate
146-91-8 target

(90) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for RAC1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gdp 76.8 40
nadph 76.1 113
gtp 69.6 51
phosphatidylinositol 67.3 40
mdi-a 65.8 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with RAC1: view

Transcripts for RAC1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for RAC1 Gene

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for RAC1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for RAC1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
RAC1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
RAC1

Expression for RAC1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for RAC1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for RAC1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for RAC1 Gene Hs.413812

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for RAC1 Gene

P63000-RAC1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Isoform B is predominantly identified in skin and epithelial tissues from the intestinal tract. Its expression is elevated in colorectal tumors at various stages of neoplastic progression, as compared to their respective adjacent tissues
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with RAC1: view

Orthologs for RAC1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for RAC1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
RAC1 36
  • 99.48 (n)
  • 100 (a)
RAC1 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToMany
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia RAC1 36
  • 90.1 (n)
  • 100 (a)
RAC1 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia RAC1 36
  • 93.58 (n)
  • 100 (a)
RAC1 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Rac1 36
  • 91.67 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Rac1 16
Rac1 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia RAC1 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia RAC1 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Rac1 36
  • 90.97 (n)
  • 100 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CRAC1A 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
RAC1 36
  • 88.19 (n)
  • 100 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia RAC1 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.26588 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia rac1 36
  • 85.24 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Str.6635 36
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8916 36
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii RAC1 (1 of 8) 37
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
RAC1 (6 of 8) 37
  • 88 (a)
OneToMany
RAC1 (7 of 8) 37
  • 52 (a)
OneToMany
RAC1 (8 of 8) 37
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
rac1a 36
  • 80.21 (n)
  • 98.44 (a)
rac1a 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
rac1b 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
rac1b 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToMany
rac1l 37
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
zgc55823 36
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005445 36
  • 73.44 (n)
  • 90.62 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Rac1 36
  • 73.78 (n)
  • 91.67 (a)
Rac1 37
  • 92 (a)
ManyToMany
Rac2 37
  • 90 (a)
ManyToMany
Rac1 38
  • 91 (a)
RhoL 38
  • 53 (a)
Rac2 38
  • 89 (a)
Mtl 38
  • 71 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea rac-2 37
  • 75 (a)
ManyToMany
cdc-42 38
  • 69 (a)
mig-2 38
  • 67 (a)
F22E12.2 38
  • 48 (a)
Y32F6B.3 38
  • 45 (a)
ced-10 38
  • 97 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ARAC1 36
  • 60.14 (n)
  • 66.3 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0120800 36
  • 58.79 (n)
  • 67.03 (a)
Species with no ortholog for RAC1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for RAC1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for RAC1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for RAC1 (if available)

Paralogs for RAC1 Gene

Paralogs for RAC1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with RAC1: view

Variants for RAC1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for RAC1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs5828 - 6,401,968(+) ACTGA(A/G)GGAGA reference, missense
rs5835 - 6,401,976(+) AGARG(A/G)AGCTG reference, missense
rs5836 - 6,402,412(+) TCCCG(A/T)GAAGA missense, reference
rs9374 -- 6,402,740(+) TTCTT(A/G)TTCAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs12977 -- 6,402,802(-) TGCTC(A/C/G)GTGTT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for RAC1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv436904 CNV Insertion 17901297
nsv7392 OTHER Inversion 18451855
esv1914954 OTHER Inversion 16254605

Relevant External Links for RAC1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
RAC1
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
RAC1

Disorders for RAC1 Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for RAC1 Gene

(57) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for RAC1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
wiskott-aldrich syndrome 49.2 3
metastasis 40.9 27
tumors 38 69
colorectal tumors 27.5 4
cancer 25.2 11

Relevant External Links for RAC1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
RAC1
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
RAC1
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with RAC1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for RAC1 Gene

Publications for RAC1 Gene

  1. Cloning of a novel human Rac1b splice variant with increased expression in colorectal tumors. (PMID: 10597294) Jordan P. … Chastre E. (Oncogene 1999) 2 3 4 23
  2. Crystal structure of Rac1 in complex with the guanine nucleotide exchange region of Tiam1. (PMID: 11130063) Worthylake D.K. … Sondek J. (Nature 2000) 3 4 23
  3. Carboxyl-terminal isoprenylation of ras-related GTP-binding proteins encoded by rac1, rac2, and ralA. (PMID: 1903399) Kinsella B.T. … Maltese W.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991) 3 4 23
  4. Crystal structure of the Rac1-RhoGDI complex involved in NADPH oxidase activation. (PMID: 11513578) Grizot S. … Pebay-Peyroula E. (Biochemistry 2001) 3 4 23
  5. Cooperation of DEF6 with activated Rac in regulating cell morphology. (PMID: 17121847) Oka T. … Fukui Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 3 4 23

Products for RAC1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for RAC1

Sources for RAC1 Gene

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