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Aliases for QARS Gene

Aliases for QARS Gene

  • Glutaminyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • EC 6.1.1.18 4 63
  • GLNRS 3 4
  • Glutamine-TRNA Synthetase 3
  • Glutamine TRNA Ligase 2
  • EC 6.1.1 63
  • PRO2195 3
  • MSCCA 3

External Ids for QARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for QARS Gene

  • GC03P046968
  • GC03P048503
  • GC03M048987
  • GC03M049092

Summaries for QARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for QARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. In metazoans, 9 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases specific for glutamine (gln), glutamic acid (glu), and 7 other amino acids are associated within a multienzyme complex. Although present in eukaryotes, glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QARS) is absent from many prokaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts, in which Gln-tRNA(Gln) is formed by transamidation of the misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln). Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

GeneCards Summary for QARS Gene

QARS (Glutaminyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with QARS include Microcephaly, Progressive, Seizures, And Cerebral And Cerebellar Atrophy and Diffuse Cerebral And Cerebellar Atrophy-Intractable Seizures-Progressive Microcephaly Syndrome. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for QARS Gene

  • Plays a critical role in brain development.

Gene Wiki entry for QARS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for QARS Gene

Genomics for QARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for QARS Gene

Enhancers for QARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around QARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for QARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around QARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for QARS Gene

Chromosome:
3
Start:
49,095,932 bp from pter
End:
49,105,135 bp from pter
Size:
9,204 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for QARS Gene

Genes around QARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
QARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for QARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for QARS Gene

Proteins for QARS Gene

  • Protein details for QARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P47897-SYQ_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutamine--tRNA ligase
    Protein Accession:
    P47897
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DWJ2

    Protein attributes for QARS Gene

    Size:
    775 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    87799 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Part of a multisubunit complex that groups tRNA ligases for Arg, Asp, Glu, Gln, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met and Pro. Interacts with RARS.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for QARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for QARS Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for QARS Gene

Proteomics data for QARS Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for QARS Gene

Post-translational modifications for QARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 394, Lys 586, Lys 601, and Lys 628
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for QARS Gene

Gene Families for QARS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P47897

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYQ_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with QARS: view

Function for QARS Gene

Molecular function for QARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutamine-tRNA synthetase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-glutamine + tRNA(Gln) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plays a critical role in brain development.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for QARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for QARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0016876 ligase activity, forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with QARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with QARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for QARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for QARS Gene

Localization for QARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for QARS Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for QARS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for QARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for QARS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for QARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with QARS: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for QARS Gene

None

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for QARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for QARS Gene

(6) Drugs for QARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(7) Additional Compounds for QARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
7664-38-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with QARS: view

Transcripts for QARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for QARS Gene

Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for QARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d · 3e · 3f · 3g · 3h · 3i ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP14: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP15: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP16:
SP17: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP18: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP19: - - - - - - - - - -
SP20: - - - - - - -
SP21: - - -
SP22: - - - -
SP23: -
SP24:
SP25:

ExUns: 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b · 15c ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23 ^ 24 ^ 25 ^ 26 ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - -
SP11: - - -
SP12: - - -
SP13: - - -
SP14: -
SP15:
SP16: - - -
SP17: - - - - - -
SP18: - - -
SP19:
SP20:
SP21:
SP22: - - -
SP23:
SP24: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP25:

ExUns: 27a · 27b ^ 28a · 28b ^ 29
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:
SP17:
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:
SP21:
SP22:
SP23:
SP24: - - -
SP25:

Relevant External Links for QARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
QARS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
QARS

Expression for QARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for QARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for QARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (9.1), Lymph node (8.9), and Salivary gland (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for QARS Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for QARS Gene Hs.79322

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for QARS Gene

P47897-SYQ_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in fetal cerebral cortex, particularly in the ventricular zone, inner subventricular zone, outer subventricular zone, and cortical plate.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with QARS: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for QARS Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for QARS Gene

Orthologs for QARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for QARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia QARS 35
  • 88.99 (n)
  • 92.77 (a)
QARS 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia QARS 35
  • 90.67 (n)
  • 92.77 (a)
QARS 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia QARS 35
  • 99.57 (n)
  • 99.61 (a)
QARS 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100911132 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia QARS 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Qars 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia QARS 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves QARS 35
  • 74.86 (n)
  • 78.54 (a)
QARS 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia QARS 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia qars 35
  • 70.26 (n)
  • 77.95 (a)
Str.745 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC69128 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii qars 35
  • 65.8 (n)
  • 72.41 (a)
zgc56395 35
qars 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-gln 37
  • 57 (a)
Aats-gln 35
  • 61.21 (n)
  • 58.31 (a)
Aats-gln 36
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010267 35
  • 57.14 (n)
  • 56.48 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea qrs-5 37
  • 56 (a)
qars-1 35
  • 57.19 (n)
  • 57.67 (a)
qars-1 36
  • 56 (a)
OneToOne
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR259C 35
  • 50.94 (n)
  • 43.8 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F20449g 35
  • 48.13 (n)
  • 43.2 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLN4 35
  • 47.52 (n)
  • 42.44 (a)
GLN4 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
GLN4 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons OVA9 35
  • 51.47 (n)
  • 44.42 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0185200 35
  • 52.37 (n)
  • 47.27 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07926 35
  • 55.01 (n)
  • 48.81 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes qrs1 35
  • 50.45 (n)
  • 46.77 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2986 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for QARS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for QARS Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for QARS (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for QARS (if available)

Paralogs for QARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with QARS: view

No data available for Paralogs for QARS Gene

Variants for QARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for QARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_071189 Microcephaly, progressive, with seizures and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (MSCCA)
VAR_071190 Microcephaly, progressive, with seizures and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (MSCCA)
VAR_071191 Microcephaly, progressive, with seizures and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (MSCCA)
VAR_071192 Microcephaly, progressive, with seizures and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (MSCCA)
rs1131331 -- 49,098,022(-) TATTT(C/T)TCCGT nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for QARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv876764 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv834686 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv876765 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for QARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.13; 51.41% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for QARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
QARS

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for QARS Gene

Disorders for QARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for QARS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
microcephaly, progressive, seizures, and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy
  • microcephaly, progressive, with seizures and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy
diffuse cerebral and cerebellar atrophy-intractable seizures-progressive microcephaly syndrome
microcephaly
  • microcephalus
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search QARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

SYQ_HUMAN
  • Microcephaly, progressive, with seizures and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy (MSCCA) [MIM:615760]: A severe, autosomal recessive, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, severe seizures in infancy, atrophy of the cerebral cortex and cerebellar vermis, and mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres, resulting in profoundly delayed development and hypotonia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:24656866}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for QARS

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
QARS
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with QARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for QARS Gene

Publications for QARS Gene

  1. Evolution of the Glx-tRNA synthetase family: the glutaminyl enzyme as a case of horizontal gene transfer. (PMID: 8078941) Lamour V. … Mirande M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Mechanism of the difference in the binding affinity of E. coli tRNAGln to glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase caused by noninterface nucleotides in variable loop. (PMID: 17028132) Yamasaki S. … Shimizu K. (Biophys. J. 2007) 25 26
  3. Synthesis of beta-ketophosphonate analogs of glutamyl and glutaminyl adenylate, and selective inhibition of the corresponding bacterial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (PMID: 17049867) Balg C. … ChA-nevert R. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2007) 25 26
  4. Stressing out over survival: glutamine as an apoptotic modulator. (PMID: 16154153) Fuchs B.C. … Bode B.P. (J. Surg. Res. 2006) 25 26
  5. Active-site assembly in glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase by tRNA-mediated induced fit. (PMID: 16734422) Uter N.T. … Perona J.J. (Biochemistry 2006) 25 26

Products for QARS Gene

Sources for QARS Gene

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