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Aliases for PYGB Gene

Aliases for PYGB Gene

  • Phosphorylase, Glycogen; Brain 2 3
  • EC 4 63
  • Phosphorylase, Glycogen Brain 5
  • Glycogen Phosphorylase B 3
  • Glycogen Phosphorylase 2
  • Brain Form 2
  • GPBB 3

External Ids for PYGB Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PYGB Gene

  • GC20P025216
  • GC20P025223
  • GC20P025176
  • GC20P025228
  • GC20P025186

Summaries for PYGB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PYGB Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glycogen phosphorylase found predominantly in the brain. The encoded protein forms homodimers which can associate into homotetramers, the enzymatically active form of glycogen phosphorylase. The activity of this enzyme is positively regulated by AMP and negatively regulated by ATP, ADP, and glucose-6-phosphate. This enzyme catalyzes the rate-determining step in glycogen degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PYGB Gene

PYGB (Phosphorylase, Glycogen; Brain) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PYGB include Glycogen Storage Disease Vi and Cutaneous Adenocystic Carcinoma. Among its related pathways are Glycosaminoglycan metabolism and Glucagon signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include pyridoxal phosphate binding and glycogen phosphorylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PYGL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PYGB Gene

  • Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PYGB Gene

Genomics for PYGB Gene

Regulatory Elements for PYGB Gene

Enhancers for PYGB Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PYGB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PYGB Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PYGB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PYGB Gene

25,248,069 bp from pter
25,298,014 bp from pter
49,946 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PYGB Gene

Genes around PYGB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PYGB Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PYGB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PYGB Gene

Proteins for PYGB Gene

  • Protein details for PYGB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q96AK1
    • Q9NPX8

    Protein attributes for PYGB Gene

    843 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    96696 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Dimers associate into a tetramer to form the enzymatically active phosphorylase A.

neXtProt entry for PYGB Gene

Proteomics data for PYGB Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PYGB Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Ser-15 converts phosphorylase B (unphosphorylated) to phosphorylase A.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 371 and Lys 521
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PYGB Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PYGB (Glycogen Phosphorylase BB/GPBB)
  • Abcam antibodies for GPBB

Domains & Families for PYGB Gene

Gene Families for PYGB Gene

Protein Domains for PYGB Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PYGB Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glycogen phosphorylase family.
  • Belongs to the glycogen phosphorylase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PYGB: view

Function for PYGB Gene

Molecular function for PYGB Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phosphorylase,glycogen catabolism,brain
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
((1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n) + phosphate = ((1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n-1) + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activity of phosphorylase is controlled both by allosteric means (through the non-covalent binding of metabolites) and by covalent modification. Thus AMP allosterically activates, whereas ATP, ADP, and glucose-6-phosphate allosterically inhibit, phosphorylase B.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PYGB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding IEA,IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PYGB: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PYGB: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PYGB

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PYGB Gene

Localization for PYGB Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PYGB Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PYGB gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 3
chloroplast 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 10638593
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PYGB: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PYGB Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PYGB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PYGB: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PYGB: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PYGB Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PYGB Gene

(11) Drugs for PYGB Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Glucose 6-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Gluconolactone Experimental Pharma 0
Glucose 1-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Inosinic acid Experimental Pharma 0

(17) Additional Compounds for PYGB Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Animal starch
  • Glycogen
  • Liver starch
  • Lyoglycogen
  • Phytoglycogen
  • (1,4-alpha-D-Glucosyl)N
  • (1,4-alpha-D-Glucosyl)N+1
  • (1,4-alpha-D-Glucosyl)N-1
  • (1,4-alpha-delta-Glucosyl)N
  • (1,4-alpha-delta-Glucosyl)N+1
  • NFB Orthophosphate
  • O-Phosphoric acid
  • Ortho-phosphate
  • Orthophosphate (PO43-)
  • Orthophosphate(3-)
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PYGB: view

Transcripts for PYGB Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PYGB Gene

Unigene Clusters for PYGB Gene

Phosphorylase, glycogen; brain:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PYGB Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PYGB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PYGB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PYGB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PYGB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Salivary gland (8.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PYGB Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PYGB Gene Hs.368157

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PYGB: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PYGB Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PYGB Gene

Orthologs for PYGB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PYGB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PYGB 35
  • 89.68 (n)
  • 93.59 (a)
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PYGB 35
  • 89.92 (n)
  • 95.02 (a)
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pygb 35
  • 88.61 (n)
  • 95.61 (a)
Pygb 16
Pygb 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PYGB 35
  • 96.65 (n)
  • 96 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pygb 35
  • 88.53 (n)
  • 95.37 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PYGB 36
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PYGB 36
  • 99 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PYGB 35
  • 82.68 (n)
  • 90.98 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PYGB 36
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pygm 35
  • 77.74 (n)
  • 87.54 (a)
Str.6167 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia pygm-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pygb 35
  • 76.63 (n)
  • 86.83 (a)
pygb 36
  • 87 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.4316 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta GlyP 37
  • 72 (a)
GlyP 36
  • 71 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T22F3.3 36
  • 64 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GPH1 36
  • 45 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4721 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 62 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PYGB:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PYGB Gene

Gene Tree for PYGB (if available)
Gene Tree for PYGB (if available)

Paralogs for PYGB Gene

Paralogs for PYGB Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PYGB Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PYGB: view

Variants for PYGB Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PYGB Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2227891 - 25,282,133(+) TGGCC(A/G)ATACC reference, missense
rs2228976 - 25,278,370(+) TGGCC(A/G/T)CCACG reference, missense
rs1077889 -- 25,287,257(+) GACAC(A/G)AGGTC intron-variant
rs753009 -- 25,288,025(-) CCCCT(A/G)TACAT intron-variant
rs1118963 -- 25,266,813(+) acgcc(A/G)ctgta intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PYGB Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv522873 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv828708 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv833948 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv912827 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for PYGB Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 10.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.72; 91.53% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for PYGB Gene

Disorders for PYGB Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for PYGB Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
glycogen storage disease vi
  • glycogen storage disease type vi
cutaneous adenocystic carcinoma
  • adenoid cystic carcinoma of the skin
glycogen storage disease iiia
  • glycogen storage disease iiib
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
  • fructose 1 phosphate aldolase deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PYGB in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PYGB

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PYGB: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PYGB Gene

Publications for PYGB Gene

  1. Association of genetic variants with hemorrhagic stroke in Japanese individuals. (PMID: 20198315) Yoshida T. … Yamada Y. (Int. J. Mol. Med. 2010) 3 48 67
  2. Clinicopathological significance of BGP expression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: relationship with histological type, microvessel density and patients' survival. (PMID: 17393985) Lee M.K. … Sol M.Y. (Pathology 2006) 3 23
  3. Expression of brain-type glycogen phosphorylase is a potentially novel early biomarker in the carcinogenesis of human colorectal carcinomas. (PMID: 10638593) Tashima S. … Ogawa M. (Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2000) 3 23
  4. Nuclear localization of brain-type glycogen phosphorylase in some gastrointestinal carcinoma. (PMID: 9792273) Uno K. … Ogawa M. (Histochem. J. 1998) 3 23
  5. Primate rod and cone photoreceptors may differ in glucose accessibility. (PMID: 7775103) Nihira M. … Burns M.S. (Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1995) 3 23

Products for PYGB Gene

Sources for PYGB Gene