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Aliases for PYGB Gene

Aliases for PYGB Gene

  • Phosphorylase, Glycogen; Brain 2 3
  • EC 4 64
  • Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain Form 3
  • Glycogen Phosphorylase B 3
  • Glycogen Phosphorylase 2
  • Brain Form 2
  • GPBB 3

External Ids for PYGB Gene

Summaries for PYGB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PYGB Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glycogen phosphorylase found predominantly in the brain. The encoded protein forms homodimers which can associate into homotetramers, the enzymatically active form of glycogen phosphorylase. The activity of this enzyme is positively regulated by AMP and negatively regulated by ATP, ADP, and glucose-6-phosphate. This enzyme catalyzes the rate-determining step in glycogen degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PYGB Gene

PYGB (Phosphorylase, Glycogen; Brain) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA and Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA. GO annotations related to this gene include pyridoxal phosphate binding and glycogen phosphorylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PYGL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PYGB Gene

  • Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PYGB Gene

Genomics for PYGB Gene

Genomic Location for PYGB Gene

25,248,058 bp from pter
25,298,014 bp from pter
49,957 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PYGB Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PYGB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PYGB Gene

Regulatory Elements for PYGB Gene

Proteins for PYGB Gene

  • Protein details for PYGB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glycogen phosphorylase, brain form
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q96AK1
    • Q9NPX8

    Protein attributes for PYGB Gene

    843 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    96696 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Dimers associate into a tetramer to form the enzymatically active phosphorylase A

neXtProt entry for PYGB Gene

Proteomics data for PYGB Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PYGB Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Ser-15 converts phosphorylase B (unphosphorylated) to phosphorylase A.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys371, Lys483, and Lys521

Other Protein References for PYGB Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for PYGB Gene

Gene Families for PYGB Gene

  • PYG :Glycogen phosphorylases

Protein Domains for PYGB Gene


  • Belongs to the glycogen phosphorylase family.:
    • P11216
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PYGB: view

Function for PYGB Gene

Molecular function for PYGB Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: phosphorylase,glycogen catabolism,brain
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ((1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n) + phosphate = ((1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl)(n-1) + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Activity of phosphorylase is controlled both by allosteric means (through the non-covalent binding of metabolites) and by covalent modification. Thus AMP allosterically activates, whereas ATP, ADP, and glucose-6-phosphate allosterically inhibit, phosphorylase B
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PYGB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004645 phosphorylase activity --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008184 glycogen phosphorylase activity NAS 3346228
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PYGB: view

No data available for Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PYGB Gene

Localization for PYGB Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PYGB Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PYGB gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 3
chloroplast 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 10638593
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 19946888
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PYGB: view

Pathways for PYGB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PYGB: view

Pathways by source for PYGB Gene

2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters Life Sciences Research) pathways for PYGB Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for PYGB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0005980 glycogen catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PYGB: view

Compounds for PYGB Gene

(9) HMDB Compounds for PYGB Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine monophosphate
  • 5'-AMP
  • 4-{(1,4)-alpha-D-Glucosyl}(n-1)-D-glucose
  • 1,5-Gluconolactone
Glucose 1-phosphate
  • Cori ester
Glucose 6-phosphate
  • D(+)-Glucopyranose 6-phosphate

(1) Drugbank Compounds for PYGB Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Pyridoxal Phosphate
  • Codecarboxylase
54-47-7 target cofactor

(19) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PYGB Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
1-glcnac 94.2 1
heptulose-2-p 92.3 1
glycogen 87.9 90
galactose-1-phosphate 77.5 3
pyridoxal 5-phosphate 68.7 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PYGB: view

Transcripts for PYGB Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PYGB Gene

Unigene Clusters for PYGB Gene

Phosphorylase, glycogen; brain:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PYGB Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PYGB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PYGB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PYGB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PYGB Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PYGB Gene Hs.368157

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PYGB: view

Orthologs for PYGB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PYGB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PYGB 36
  • 96.65 (n)
  • 96 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PYGB 36
  • 89.68 (n)
  • 93.59 (a)
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PYGB 36
  • 89.92 (n)
  • 95.02 (a)
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pygb 36
  • 88.61 (n)
  • 95.61 (a)
Pygb 16
Pygb 37
  • 96 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PYGB 37
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PYGB 37
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pygb 36
  • 88.53 (n)
  • 95.37 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PYGB 36
  • 82.68 (n)
  • 90.98 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PYGB 37
  • 89 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia pygm-prov 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pygm 36
  • 77.74 (n)
  • 87.54 (a)
Str.6167 36
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.4316 36
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pygb 36
  • 76.63 (n)
  • 86.83 (a)
pygb 37
  • 87 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta GlyP 37
  • 71 (a)
GlyP 38
  • 72 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T22F3.3 37
  • 64 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GPH1 37
  • 45 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4721 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 62 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PYGB:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PYGB Gene

Gene Tree for PYGB (if available)
Gene Tree for PYGB (if available)

Paralogs for PYGB Gene

Paralogs for PYGB Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PYGB Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PYGB: view

Variants for PYGB Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PYGB Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs753009 -- 25,288,025(-) CCCCT(A/G)TACAT intron-variant
rs910996 -- 25,283,560(+) GCCAC(A/G)GGTCA intron-variant
rs910997 -- 25,286,665(+) TCTCC(A/G)GGTCT intron-variant
rs1077889 -- 25,287,257(+) GACAC(A/G)AGGTC intron-variant
rs1118963 -- 25,266,813(+) acgcc(A/G)ctgta intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PYGB Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv522873 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv828708 CNV Gain 20364138
nsv833948 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv912827 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for PYGB Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

Disorders for PYGB Gene

(5) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PYGB Gene

(4) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PYGB Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
gastric carcinoma 29.1 1
cancer 4.89 1
myocardial infarction 0 1
carcinoma 0 2

Relevant External Links for PYGB

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PYGB: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PYGB Gene

Publications for PYGB Gene

  1. Human somatostatin receptor genes: localization of SSTR5 to human chromosome 20p11.2. (PMID: 8244401) Yasuda K. … Bell G.I. (Genomics 1993) 3 23
  2. Expression of brain-type glycogen phosphorylase is a potentially novel early biomarker in the carcinogenesis of human colorectal carcinomas. (PMID: 10638593) Tashima S. … Ogawa M. (Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2000) 3 23
  3. Primate rod and cone photoreceptors may differ in glucose accessibility. (PMID: 7775103) Nihira M. … Burns M.S. (Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1995) 3 23
  4. Nuclear localization of brain-type glycogen phosphorylase in some gastrointestinal carcinoma. (PMID: 9792273) Uno K. … Ogawa M. (Histochem. J. 1998) 3 23
  5. Clinicopathological significance of BGP expression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma: relationship with histological type, microvessel density and patients' survival. (PMID: 17393985) Lee M.K. … Sol M.Y. (Pathology 2006) 3 23

Products for PYGB Gene

Sources for PYGB Gene

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