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Aliases for PTN Gene

Aliases for PTN Gene

  • Pleiotrophin 2 3 5
  • Heparin-Binding Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Factor 1 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Growth-Associated Molecule 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Growth Factor 8 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Brain Mitogen 3 4
  • Osteoblast-Specific Factor 1 3 4
  • HBGF-8 3 4
  • HB-GAM 3 4
  • HBNF-1 3 4
  • NEGF1 3 4
  • OSF-1 3 4
  • HBBM 3 4
  • Pleiotrophin (Heparin Binding Growth Factor 8, Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 1) 3
  • Heparin-Binding Neurite Outgrowth Promoting Factor 3
  • Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 1 2
  • Heparin Affin Regulatory Protein 3
  • Heparin Binding Growth Factor 8 2
  • HBGF8 3
  • HBNF1 4
  • HARP 3
  • HBNF 3

External Ids for PTN Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTN Gene

  • NEGF1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTN Gene

  • GC07M135254
  • GC07M136314
  • GC07M136328
  • GC07M136369
  • GC07M136562
  • GC07M136912
  • GC07M131217

Summaries for PTN Gene

GeneCards Summary for PTN Gene

PTN (Pleiotrophin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTN include bronchus cancer and toxic diffuse goiter. Among its related pathways are Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and protein phosphatase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is MDK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene

  • Secreted growth factor that induces neurite outgrowth and which is mitogenic for fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces MAPK pathway activation, an important step in the anti-apoptotic signaling of PTN and regulation of cell proliferation.

Gene Wiki entry for PTN Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTN Gene

Genomics for PTN Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTN Gene

Promoters for PTN Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PTN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PTN Gene

Chromosome:
7
Start:
137,227,341 bp from pter
End:
137,343,865 bp from pter
Size:
116,525 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTN Gene

Genes around PTN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTN Gene

Proteins for PTN Gene

  • Protein details for PTN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P21246-PTN_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Pleiotrophin
    Protein Accession:
    P21246
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5U0B0
    • Q6ICQ5
    • Q9UCC6

    Protein attributes for PTN Gene

    Size:
    168 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18942 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ALK and NEK6.

neXtProt entry for PTN Gene

Proteomics data for PTN Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTN Gene

Other Protein References for PTN Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PTN (Pleiotrophin/PTN)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTN Gene

Domains & Families for PTN Gene

Gene Families for PTN Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P21246

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PTN_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTN: view

Function for PTN Gene

Molecular function for PTN Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
pleiotrophin,18.9kDa,widely expressed and developmentally regulated,heparin-binding cytokine family,inducing neurite extension outgrow in osteoblasts and brain cells and in diverse other activities
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Secreted growth factor that induces neurite outgrowth and which is mitogenic for fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces MAPK pathway activation, an important step in the anti-apoptotic signaling of PTN and regulation of cell proliferation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By heparin and retinoic acid.

LifeMap Function Summary for PTN Gene

PTN as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0038085 vascular endothelial growth factor binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTN: view

Animal Models for PTN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTN:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PTN Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTN

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTN Gene

Localization for PTN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PTN Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTN gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTN: view

Pathways by source for PTN Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PTN Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001889 liver development IEA --
GO:0007507 heart development IEA --
GO:0007612 learning IEA --
GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape IEA --
GO:0010811 positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view

Drugs & Compounds for PTN Gene

(9) Drugs for PTN Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Heparin Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist 719,239

(14) Additional Compounds for PTN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTN: view

Transcripts for PTN Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTN Gene

Pleiotrophin:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTN
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PTN

Expression for PTN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (32.5), Spinal cord (10.2), and Cerebrospinal fluid (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PTN Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTN Gene Hs.371249

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTN Gene

P21246-PTN_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Osteoblast and brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTN: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTN Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PTN Gene

Orthologs for PTN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTN 35
  • 99.6 (n)
  • 100 (a)
PTN 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTN 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTN 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
PTN 35
  • 93.85 (n)
  • 98.21 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptn 35
  • 89.09 (n)
  • 97.62 (a)
Ptn 16
Ptn 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTN 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTN 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptn 35
  • 90.08 (n)
  • 97.62 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTN 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
PTN 35
  • 85.75 (n)
  • 93.55 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTN 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.901 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptn 35
  • 78.82 (n)
  • 86.92 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10432 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptn 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
-- 35
ptn 35
  • 73.1 (n)
  • 74.56 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PTN:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTN (if available)

Paralogs for PTN Gene

Paralogs for PTN Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTN Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTN: view

Variants for PTN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs161093 -- 137,336,915(+) AGAGA(A/T)GAAAA intron-variant
rs161335 -- 137,345,599(+) gaagc(C/T)gggga upstream-variant-2KB
rs167718 -- 137,262,660(-) cttag(A/G)gttgt intron-variant
rs225137 -- 137,262,159(-) TTTTT(C/T)AGGAA intron-variant
rs320715 -- 137,336,739(+) TTCAG(A/G)AGGGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv889235 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv831149 CNV Gain 17160897
dgv7497n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv33947 CNV Gain 17666407
esv2669214 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv24450 CNV Loss 19812545
dgv7498n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv524262 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2166281 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2668149 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2735205 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv889242 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for PTN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 42.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.64; 13.63% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PTN Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PTN

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene

Disorders for PTN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for PTN Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
bronchus cancer
  • malignant neoplasm of bronchus and lung, unspecified
toxic diffuse goiter
tetraploidy
  • tetraploidy syndrome
breast cancer
  • breast cancer, invasive ductal
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PTN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PTN
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PTN
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PTN
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTN Gene

Publications for PTN Gene

  1. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and chromosome localization of the human pleiotrophin gene. (PMID: 1457401) Milner P.G. … Kumar B.V. (Biochemistry 1992) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins. (PMID: 1768439) Kretschmer P.J. … Kovesdi I. (Growth Factors 1991) 2 3 23
  3. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is expressed in vascularized human atherosclerotic plaques: IFN-{gamma}/JAK/STAT1 signaling is critical for the expression of PTN in macrophages. (PMID: 19917672) Li F. … Shah P.K. (FASEB J. 2010) 3 23
  4. Pleiotrophin expression in human pancreatic cancer and its correlation with clinicopathological features, perineural invasion, and prognosis. (PMID: 18716876) Yao J. … Zhang M. (Dig. Dis. Sci. 2009) 3 23
  5. Nitric oxide stimulates migration of human endothelial and prostate cancer cells through up-regulation of pleiotrophin expression and its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta. (PMID: 19058221) Polytarchou C. … Papadimitriou E. (Int. J. Cancer 2009) 3 23

Products for PTN Gene

Sources for PTN Gene

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