Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PTN Gene

Aliases for PTN Gene

  • Pleiotrophin 2 3
  • NEGF1 3 4 6
  • Heparin-Binding Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Factor 1 3 4
  • Heparin-Binding Growth-Associated Molecule 3 4
  • Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 1 2 3
  • Heparin-Binding Growth Factor 8 3 4
  • Heparin Binding Growth Factor 8 2 3
  • Heparin-Binding Brain Mitogen 3 4
  • Osteoblast-Specific Factor 1 3 4
  • HBGF-8 3 4
  • HB-GAM 3 4
  • HBNF-1 3 4
  • OSF-1 3 4
  • HBBM 3 4
  • Pleiotrophin (Heparin Binding Growth Factor 8, Neurite Growth-Promoting Factor 1) 3
  • Heparin Affin Regulatory Protein 3
  • HBGF8 3
  • HBNF1 4
  • HARP 3
  • HBNF 3

External Ids for PTN Gene

Previous Symbols for PTN Gene

  • NEGF1

Summaries for PTN Gene

GeneCards Summary for PTN Gene

PTN (Pleiotrophin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTN include tetraploidy. Among its related pathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and NF-KappaB Family Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and protein phosphatase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is MDK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene

  • Secreted growth factor that induces neurite outgrowth and which is mitogenic for fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces MAPK pathway activation, an important step in the anti-apoptotic signaling of PTN and regulation of cell proliferation.

Gene Wiki entry for PTN Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTN Gene

Genomics for PTN Gene

Genomic Location for PTN Gene

137,227,341 bp from pter
137,343,865 bp from pter
116,525 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTN Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PTN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTN Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTN Gene

Proteins for PTN Gene

  • Protein details for PTN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5U0B0
    • Q6ICQ5
    • Q9UCC6

    Protein attributes for PTN Gene

    168 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18942 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with ALK and NEK6.

neXtProt entry for PTN Gene

Proteomics data for PTN Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTN Gene

Other Protein References for PTN Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTN Gene

Domains for PTN Gene

Gene Families for PTN Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the pleiotrophin family.:
    • P21246
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTN: view

Function for PTN Gene

Molecular function for PTN Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: pleiotrophin,18.9kDa,widely expressed and developmentally regulated,heparin-binding cytokine family,inducing neurite extension outgrow in osteoblasts and brain cells and in diverse other activities
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Secreted growth factor that induces neurite outgrowth and which is mitogenic for fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. Binds anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) which induces MAPK pathway activation, an important step in the anti-apoptotic signaling of PTN and regulation of cell proliferation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: By heparin and retinoic acid.

LifeMap Function Summary for PTN Gene

During embryonic development, PTN as signaling molecule is secreted from the following cells
PTN as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004864 protein phosphatase inhibitor activity TAS 10706604
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTN: view

Animal Models for PTN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTN:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PTN Gene

Localization for PTN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PTN Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTN gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 10706604
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view

Pathways for PTN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTN: view

Pathways by source for PTN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001503 ossification --
GO:0007185 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase signaling pathway TAS 10706604
GO:0007399 nervous system development TAS 2270483
GO:0007612 learning IEA --
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation TAS 2270483
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTN: view

Compounds for PTN Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for PTN Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Arteven

(23) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PTN Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
heparin 63.3 67
tyrosine 60.3 61
chondroitin sulfate 58.2 16
neurocan 51 4
dermatan sulfate 49.6 8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTN: view

Transcripts for PTN Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTN Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTN Gene

Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PTN Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTN Gene Hs.371249

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTN Gene

Tissue specificity: Osteoblast and brain
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PTN: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PTN Gene

Orthologs for PTN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTN 35
  • 99.6 (n)
  • 100 (a)
PTN 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTN 36
  • 97 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTN 35
  • 93.85 (n)
  • 98.21 (a)
PTN 36
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptn 35
  • 89.09 (n)
  • 97.62 (a)
Ptn 16
Ptn 36
  • 98 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTN 36
  • 96 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTN 36
  • 85 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptn 35
  • 90.08 (n)
  • 97.62 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTN 35
  • 85.75 (n)
  • 93.55 (a)
PTN 36
  • 84 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTN 36
  • 75 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.901 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptn 35
  • 78.82 (n)
  • 86.92 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10432 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
ptn 35
  • 73.1 (n)
  • 74.56 (a)
ptn 36
  • 63 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PTN:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTN Gene

Gene Tree for PTN (if available)
Gene Tree for PTN (if available)

Paralogs for PTN Gene

Paralogs for PTN Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PTN Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTN: view

Variants for PTN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs161093 -- 137,336,915(+) AGAGA(A/T)GAAAA intron-variant
rs161335 -- 137,345,599(+) gaagc(C/T)gggga upstream-variant-2KB
rs167718 -- 137,262,660(-) cttag(A/G)gttgt intron-variant
rs172816 -- 137,318,242(-) TGCCC(A/G)GTCTG intron-variant
rs188915 -- 137,277,348(+) attga(A/G)cacat intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv889235 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv831149 CNV Gain 17160897
dgv7497n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv33947 CNV Gain 17666407
esv2669214 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv24450 CNV Loss 19812545
dgv7498n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv524262 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2166281 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2668149 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2735205 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv889242 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for PTN Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene

Disorders for PTN Gene

(1) MalaCards Diseases for PTN Gene

Search for PTN Gene in MalaCards »

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PTN Gene

(37) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PTN Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glioblastoma 62.7 29
tumors 44.5 100
benign meningioma 42.6 2
lymphoma 42.2 17
glioma 35.7 15

Relevant External Links for PTN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTN Gene

Publications for PTN Gene

  1. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and chromosome localization of the human pleiotrophin gene. (PMID: 1457401) Milner P.G. … Kumar B.V. (Biochemistry 1992) 2 3 4 23
  2. Cloning, characterization and developmental regulation of two members of a novel human gene family of neurite outgrowth-promoting proteins. (PMID: 1768439) Kretschmer P.J. … Kovesdi I. (Growth Factors 1991) 2 3 4 23
  3. Cloning and expression of a developmentally regulated protein that induces mitogenic and neurite outgrowth activity. (PMID: 2270483) Li Y.-S. … Deuel T.F. (Science 1990) 3 4 23
  4. Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase as a receptor for the growth factor pleiotrophin. (PMID: 11278720) Stoica G.E. … Wellstein A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 23
  5. A heparin-binding growth factor secreted from breast cancer cells homologous to a developmentally regulated cytokine. (PMID: 1733956) Wellsein A. … Lippman M.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1992) 3 4 23

Products for PTN Gene

Sources for PTN Gene

Back to Top