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Aliases for PTHLH Gene

Aliases for PTHLH Gene

  • Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone 2 3
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone Preproprotein 2 3
  • Osteostatin 2 3
  • PTH-RP 3 4
  • PTHRP 3 4
  • BDE2 3 6
  • PLP 3 4
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Preproprotein 2
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Like Related Protein 3
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein 3
  • Parathyroid Hormone-Like Protein 4
  • PTH-Related Protein 3
  • PTHR 3
  • HHM 3

External Ids for PTHLH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTHLH Gene

  • GC12M028487
  • GC12M028138
  • GC12M028011
  • GC12M028006
  • GC12M028002
  • GC12M027880
  • GC12M028111

Summaries for PTHLH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTHLH Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the parathyroid hormone family. This hormone, via its receptor, PTHR1, regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. It is responsible for most cases of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, and mutations in this gene are associated with brachydactyly type E2 (BDE2). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from non-AUG (CUG and GUG) start sites, downstream of the initiator AUG codon, resulting in nuclear forms of this hormone. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

GeneCards Summary for PTHLH Gene

PTHLH (Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTHLH include brachydactyly, type e2 and brachydactyly, type e. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and peptide hormone receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTHLH Gene

  • Neuroendocrine peptide which is a critical regulator of cellular and organ growth, development, migration, differentiation and survival and of epithelial calcium ion transport. Regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. Required for skeletal homeostasis. Promotes mammary mesenchyme differentiation and bud outgrowth by modulating mesenchymal cell responsiveness to BMPs. Upregulates BMPR1A expression in the mammary mesenchyme and this increases the sensitivity of these cells to BMPs and allows them to respond to BMP4 in a paracrine and/or autocrine fashion. BMP4 signaling in the mesenchyme, in turn, triggers epithelial outgrowth and augments MSX2 expression, which causes the mammary mesenchyme to inhibit hair follicle formation within the nipple sheath (By similarity). Promotes colon cancer cell migration and invasion in an integrin alpha-6/beta-1-dependent manner through activation of Rac1.

  • Osteostatin is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption.

Gene Wiki entry for PTHLH Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTHLH Gene

Genomics for PTHLH Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTHLH Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTHLH gene promoter:

Genomic Location for PTHLH Gene

Start:
27,958,084 bp from pter
End:
27,972,705 bp from pter
Size:
14,622 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTHLH Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PTHLH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTHLH Gene

Proteins for PTHLH Gene

  • Protein details for PTHLH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P12272-PTHR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein
    Protein Accession:
    P12272
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15251
    • Q6FH74

    Protein attributes for PTHLH Gene

    Size:
    177 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    20194 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • PTHrP interacts with PTH1R (via N-terminal extracellular domain).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTHLH Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PTHLH Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PTHLH Gene

Proteomics data for PTHLH Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTHLH Gene

  • There are 3 principal secretory forms, called PTHrP[1-36], PTHrP[38-94], and osteostatin (PTHrP[107-139]) arising from endoproteolytic cleavage of the initial translation product. Each of these secretory forms is believed to have one or more of its own receptors that mediates the normal paracrine, autocrine and endocrine actions
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTHLH Gene

Domains for PTHLH Gene

Gene Families for PTHLH Gene

HGNC:

Protein Domains for PTHLH Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P12272

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PTHR_HUMAN :
  • P12272
Family:
  • Belongs to the parathyroid hormone family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTHLH: view

Function for PTHLH Gene

Molecular function for PTHLH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: parathyroid hormone-like hormone,expressed by pancreatic islet cells,putatively involved in the regulation of insulin secretion
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Neuroendocrine peptide which is a critical regulator of cellular and organ growth, development, migration, differentiation and survival and of epithelial calcium ion transport. Regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. Required for skeletal homeostasis. Promotes mammary mesenchyme differentiation and bud outgrowth by modulating mesenchymal cell responsiveness to BMPs. Upregulates BMPR1A expression in the mammary mesenchyme and this increases the sensitivity of these cells to BMPs and allows them to respond to BMP4 in a paracrine and/or autocrine fashion. BMP4 signaling in the mesenchyme, in turn, triggers epithelial outgrowth and augments MSX2 expression, which causes the mammary mesenchyme to inhibit hair follicle formation within the nipple sheath (By similarity). Promotes colon cancer cell migration and invasion in an integrin alpha-6/beta-1-dependent manner through activation of Rac1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Osteostatin is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTHLH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0051428 peptide hormone receptor binding IDA 19674967
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTHLH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTHLH: view

Animal Models for PTHLH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTHLH:

miRNA for PTHLH Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTHLH

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PTHLH Gene

Localization for PTHLH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTHLH Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PTHLH Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTHLH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
golgi apparatus 4
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTHLH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 8641188
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTHLH: view

Pathways for PTHLH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTHLH: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTHLH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001501 skeletal system development IDA 9008714
GO:0001958 endochondral ossification IEA --
GO:0002076 osteoblast development IEA --
GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 9832460
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 2549037
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTHLH: view

Compounds for PTHLH Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for PTHLH Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Calcium
  • Ca
7440-70-2

(115) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PTHLH Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
calcium 76.4 268
pamidronate 76 20
calcitriol 69.2 39
pck-3145 66.6 4
eb 1089 65.3 16
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTHLH: view

Transcripts for PTHLH Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTHLH Gene

Parathyroid hormone-like hormone:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTHLH Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for PTHLH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTHLH
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PTHLH

Expression for PTHLH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTHLH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PTHLH Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTHLH Gene Hs.591159

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTHLH Gene

P12272-PTHR_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous. Also expressed in the mammary gland
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PTHLH: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PTHLH Gene

Orthologs for PTHLH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTHLH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTHLH 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
PTHLH 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTHLH 35
  • 89.27 (n)
  • 89.83 (a)
PTHLH 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTHLH 35
  • 90.77 (n)
  • 91.53 (a)
PTHLH 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pthlh 35
  • 83.43 (n)
  • 86.86 (a)
Pthlh 16
Pthlh 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTHLH 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTHLH 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pthlh 35
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 90.8 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTHLH 35
  • 72.19 (n)
  • 75.15 (a)
PTHRP 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTHLH 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pthlh 35
  • 59.39 (n)
  • 46.36 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pthlha 35
  • 57.89 (n)
  • 50.88 (a)
pthlha 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
pthlhb 36
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
pthlhb 36
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PTHLH:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTHLH Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTHLH (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTHLH (if available)

Paralogs for PTHLH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PTHLH Gene

Variants for PTHLH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTHLH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs967 -- 27,961,710(-) TAGAA(A/T)AATCT intron-variant
rs986 -- 27,961,717(-) GTGGC(A/T)CTAGA intron-variant
rs2796 -- 27,963,178(-) AAGCA(A/G)TACCC utr-variant-3-prime, intron-variant
rs6241 -- 27,958,161(-) GATTT(C/T)CCTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs6242 -- 27,969,552(-) AGTCC(A/T)GACTG intron-variant

Relevant External Links for PTHLH Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PTHLH
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTHLH

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTHLH Gene

Disorders for PTHLH Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for PTHLH Gene (168470)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

PTHR_HUMAN
  • Brachydactyly E2 (BDE2) [MIM:613382]: A form of brachydactyly. Brachydactyly defines a group of inherited malformations characterized by shortening of the digits due to abnormal development of the phalanges and/or the metacarpals. Brachydactyly type E is characterized by shortening of the fingers mainly in the metacarpals and metatarsals. Wide variability in the number of digits affected occurs from person to person, even in the same family. Some individuals are moderately short of stature. In brachydactyly type E2 variable combinations of metacarpals are involved, with shortening also of the first and third distal and the second and fifth middle phalanges. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20170896}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(94) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PTHLH Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hypercalcemia 96.7 357
osteolytic 84.2 72
bone metastases 81.1 96
paraneoplastic syndromes 78.5 18
hyperparathyroidism primary 72.1 24

Relevant External Links for PTHLH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PTHLH
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PTHLH
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTHLH: view

Publications for PTHLH Gene

  1. Molecular dissection of the importin beta1-recognized nuclear targeting signal of parathyroid hormone-related protein. (PMID: 11401507) Lam M.H. … Jans D.A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2001) 3 4 23
  2. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP): a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein with distinct paracrine and intracrine roles. (PMID: 12852260) Jans D.A. … Gillespie M.T. (Vitam. Horm. 2003) 3 4 23
  3. Characterization of the human parathyroid hormone-like peptide gene. Functional and evolutionary aspects. (PMID: 2708388) Yasuda T. … Goltzman D. (J. Biol. Chem. 1989) 2 3 4
  4. Structure of the 5' flanking region of the gene encoding human parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP). (PMID: 2744490) Suva L.J. … Hudson P.J. (Gene 1989) 3 4
  5. Identification of a cDNA encoding a parathyroid hormone-like peptide from a human tumor associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. (PMID: 2829195) Mangin M. … Broadus A.E. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1988) 3 4

Products for PTHLH Gene

Sources for PTHLH Gene

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