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Aliases for PTGS2 Gene

Aliases for PTGS2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase) 2 3
  • Prostaglandin H2 Synthase 2 3 4
  • PGH Synthase 2 3 4
  • EC 1.14.99.1 4 63
  • PHS II 3 4
  • PGHS-2 3 4
  • COX-2 3 4
  • COX2 3 4
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 4
  • Prostaglandin G/H Synthase 2 3
  • Cyclooxygenase 2b 3
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 4
  • EC 1.14.99 63
  • GRIPGHS 3
  • PGG/HS 3
  • HCox-2 3
  • PHS-2 3

External Ids for PTGS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGS2 Gene

  • GC01M184166
  • GC01M182068
  • GC01M183160
  • GC01M183879
  • GC01M183372
  • GC01M184907
  • GC01M157875

Summaries for PTGS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGS2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene

PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include bile duct cysts and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Among its related pathways are Pathways in cancer and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and heme binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

  • Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.

Tocris Summary for PTGS2 Gene

  • Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms: COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production and are the targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. COX-3 does not appear to be involved in inflammatory processes, but seems to be involved in pain and fever. COX-3 is thought to be derived through the retention of the highly structured G + C-rich intron 1 of the COX-1 gene.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGS2 Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for PTGS2 Gene

No data available for fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGS2 Gene

Genomics for PTGS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTGS2 Gene

Genomic Location for PTGS2 Gene

Start:
186,671,791 bp from pter
End:
186,680,427 bp from pter
Size:
8,637 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGS2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PTGS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGS2 Gene

Proteins for PTGS2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P35354-PGH2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
    Protein Accession:
    P35354
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K802
    • Q16876

    Protein attributes for PTGS2 Gene

    Size:
    604 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68996 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=heme b; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:60344; Note=Binds 1 heme b (iron(II)-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is mediated by 2 different isozymes: the constitutive PTGS1 and the inducible PTGS2. PGHS1 is expressed constitutively and generally produces prostanoids acutely in response to hormonal stimuli to fine-tune physiological processes requiring instantaneous, continuous regulation (e.g. hemostasis). PGHS2 is inducible and typically produces prostanoids that mediate responses to physiological stresses such as infection and inflammation
    • PTGS1 and PTGS2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin and ibuprofen. Aspirin is able to produce an irreversible inactivation of the enzyme through a serine acetylation. Inhibition of the PGHSs with NSAIDs acutely reduces inflammation, pain, and fever, and long-term use of these drugs reduces fatal thrombotic events, as well as the development of colon cancer and Alzheimers disease. PTGS2 is the principal isozyme responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. New generation PTGSs inhibitors strive to be selective for PTGS2, to avoid side effects such as gastrointestinal complications and ulceration
    • The conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is a 2 step reaction: a cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction which converts arachidonate to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) and a peroxidase reaction in which PGG2 is reduced to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). The cyclooxygenase reaction occurs in a hydrophobic channel in the core of the enzyme. The peroxidase reaction occurs at a heme-containing active site located near the protein surface. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) binding site corresponds to the cyclooxygenase active site

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGS2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGS2 Gene

Proteomics data for PTGS2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTGS2 Gene

  • S-nitrosylation by NOS2 (iNOS) activates enzyme activity. S-nitrosylation may take place on different Cys residues in addition to Cys-526.
  • Glycosylation at Asn53, Asn130, Asn396, and Asn580
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PTGS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for PTGS2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGS2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGS2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P35354

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PGH2_HUMAN :
  • P35354
Domain:
  • Contains 1 EGF-like domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGS2: view

Function for PTGS2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGS2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: prostaglandin G/H synthase 2,mitogen and cytokine inducible form (lipocalin family,Kernel group),monomer,potent mediator of inflammation,playing a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis,overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,putatively involved in the tumor tissue response to necrosis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=16.2 uM for arachidonate (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578}; KM=17.0 uM for arachidonate (in presence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578}; Vmax=81.3 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578}; Vmax=132 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Arachidonate + AH(2) + 2 O(2) = prostaglandin H(2) + A + H(2)O.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: By cytokines and mitogens

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity NAS 14511332
GO:0004666 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA 1380156
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
GO:0016702 oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGS2: view

Animal Models for PTGS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGS2:

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PTGS2 Gene

Localization for PTGS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

Microsome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PTGS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
nucleus 4
extracellular 3
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus ISS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0005901 caveola IEA --
GO:0043005 neuron projection IDA 12355421
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view

Pathways for PTGS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGS2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P35354-PGH2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS 20448152
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process TAS 9630216
GO:0006766 vitamin metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006767 water-soluble vitamin metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view

Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Celecoxib Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [169590-42-5]
Indomethacin Cyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX-1 > COX-2) [53-86-1]
NS 398 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor [123653-11-2]
Resveratrol Cyclooxygenase inhibitor [501-36-0]
SC 560 Cyclooxygenase (COX-1) inhibitor [188817-13-2]

(16) HMDB Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
11R-HEPE
  • 11(R)-hydroxyeicosa-5Z,8Z,12E,14Z,17Z-pentaenoate
Not Available
Acetaminophen
  • 4'-Hydroxyacetanilide
103-90-2
Arachidonic acid
  • 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid
506-32-1
Aspirin
  • 2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid
50-78-2
Celecoxib
  • Celebrex
169590-42-5

(75) Drugbank Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
1-Phenylsulfonamide-3-Trifluoromethyl-5-Parabromophenylpyrazole
target
Acetaminophen
  • Acetaminofen
103-90-2 target inhibitor
Acetylsalicylic acid
  • 2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid
50-78-2 target inhibitor
Aldesleukin
  • IL-2
85898-30-2 enzyme inducer
Aminosalicylic Acid
  • 4-aminosalicylic acid
65-49-6 target inhibitor

(7) IUPHAR Ligand for PTGS2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
celecoxib Inhibitor Inhibition 5.1
rofecoxib Inhibitor Inhibition 4.3
diclofenac Channel blocker None 4
etoricoxib Inhibitor Inhibition
lumiracoxib Inhibitor Inhibition
parecoxib Inhibitor Inhibition
valdecoxib Inhibitor Inhibition

(117) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PTGS2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
celecoxib 97 338
rofecoxib 96 236
pge2 94.8 459
prostaglandin 92.7 216
ns 398 92.2 153

(3) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PTGS2 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
aspirin CA
ibuprofen CA
rofecoxib CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGS2: view

Transcripts for PTGS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGS2 Gene

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:

Relevant External Links for PTGS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGS2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PTGS2

Expression for PTGS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTGS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (5.5) and Stomach (4.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PTGS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGS2 Gene Hs.196384

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PTGS2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGS2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTGS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGS2 35
  • 99.56 (n)
  • 99.67 (a)
PTGS2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PGHS-2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
PTGS2 35
  • 87.74 (n)
  • 88.98 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia COX-2 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
PTGS2 35
  • 88.36 (n)
  • 90.07 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptgs2 35
  • 84.92 (n)
  • 87.12 (a)
Ptgs2 16
Ptgs2 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGS2 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGS2 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgs2 35
  • 84.07 (n)
  • 86.61 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGS2 35
  • 78.23 (n)
  • 82.65 (a)
PTGS2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGS2 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.33329 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptgs2 35
  • 71.19 (n)
  • 75.89 (a)
Str.16299 35
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11687 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptgs2 35
ptgs2a 36
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
ptgs2b 35
  • 70.93 (n)
  • 75.26 (a)
ptgs2b 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.3689 36
  • 45 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for PTGS2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGS2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)

Paralogs for PTGS2 Gene

Paralogs for PTGS2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PTGS2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGS2: view

Variants for PTGS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs5272 - 186,674,705(-) TGTGG(A/G)GCTGT reference, missense
rs5273 - 186,674,636(-) AGAAG(C/T)TGGAG missense, reference
rs5274 -- 186,674,413(-) TCCCG(A/C)TCCGG synonymous-codon, reference
rs5275 -- 186,673,926(-) TTGGT(C/T)ATTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs5276 -- 186,673,855(-) TACCA(A/G)TAATT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv872590 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv412n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv413n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv470750 CNV Loss 18288195
dgv414n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for PTGS2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PTGS2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTGS2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

Disorders for PTGS2 Gene

(98) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PTGS2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
inflammation 82.3 220
colon cancer 78.8 253
osteoarthritis 78.6 128
tumors 76.5 474
colorectal cancer 76.2 312

Relevant External Links for PTGS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PTGS2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PTGS2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

Publications for PTGS2 Gene

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk. (PMID: 17181859) Shen J. … Santella R.M. (Breast Cancer Res. 2006) 3 23 25 48
  2. Molecular cloning of human prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase type II and demonstration of expression in response to cytokines. (PMID: 8473346) Jones D.A. … Prescott S.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1993) 3 4 23
  3. Testing for colon neoplasia susceptibility variants at the human COX2 locus. (PMID: 11309440) Wiesner G.L. … Markowitz S.D. (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2001) 3 23 48
  4. Association of a common polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase 2 gene with risk of non-small cell lung cancer. (PMID: 14604894) Campa D. … Canzian F. (Carcinogenesis 2004) 3 23 48
  5. COX-2 gene promoter haplotypes and prostate cancer risk. (PMID: 14754878) Panguluri R.C. … Kittles R.A. (Carcinogenesis 2004) 3 23 48

Products for PTGS2 Gene

Sources for PTGS2 Gene

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