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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PTGS2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC01M186640

Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H...

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And
Cyclooxygenase)1 2
     PGG/HS2
Prostaglandin H2 Synthase 22 3     PHS-22
COX-22 3     Cyclooxygenase 2b2
COX22 3     hCox-22
PGHS-22 3     Prostaglandin G/H Synthase 22
PGH Synthase 22 3     Cyclooxygenase-23
PHS II2 3     Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 23
EC 1.14.99.13 8     EC 1.14.998
GRIPGHS2     

External Ids:    HGNC: 96051   Entrez Gene: 57432   Ensembl: ENSG000000737567   OMIM: 6002625   UniProtKB: P353543   

Export aliases for PTGS2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M184166 GC01M182068 GC01M183160 GC01M183879 GC01M183372 GC01M184907 GC01M157875


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PTGS2 Gene:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin
biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive
PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene
encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible
for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. (provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009)

GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene: 
PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include bile duct cysts, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and among its related super-pathways are Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM and Arachidonic acid metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and heme binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
Function: Mediates the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of
inflammation and/or a role for prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity

summary for PTGS2 Gene:
Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is
expressed in cells in three isoforms: COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible)
isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production and are the targets of non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs. COX-3 does not appear to be involved in inflammatory processes, but seems to be
involved in pain and fever. COX-3 is thought to be derived through the retention of the highly structured G
+ C-rich intron 1 of the COX-1 gene.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGS2 Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" summary for PTGS2


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.10  NC_018912.2  NT_004487.19  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PTGS2 gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   POU6F1 (c2)   STAT5A   CREB   deltaCREB   FOXJ2 (long isoform)   c-Jun   FOXJ2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): PTGS2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PTGS2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PTGS2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q25.2-q25.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q31.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q25.2-q25.3

PTGS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PTGS2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M186640:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
186,640,923 bp from pter      End:
186,649,559 bp from pter
Size:
8,637 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor  
Size: 604 amino acids; 68996 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 heme B (iron-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit (By similarity)
Subunit: Homodimer (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Microsome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral
membrane protein
Miscellaneous: This enzyme acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase
Miscellaneous: This enzyme is the target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for PTGS2:
1V0X (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K802 Q16876

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PTGS2: NX_P35354

Explore proteomics data for PTGS2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: S-nitrosylation by NOS2 (iNOS) activates enzyme activity. S-nitrosylation may take place on different Cys residues
    in addition to Cys-561
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P35354

  • 4/30 DME Specific Peptides for PTGS2 (P35354) (see all 30)
     LYHWHPL  ASIDQSR  IINTASI  LGHGVDL 

    PTGS2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PTGS2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000954.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000356438   ENSP00000454130  
    Reactome Protein details: P35354
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PTGS2: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PTGS2
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PTGS2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PTGS2
    Novus Biologicals PTGS2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PTGS2 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PTGS2
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PTGS2 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PTGS2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ISS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ISS--
    GO:0005789endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS--
    GO:0043005neuron projection IDA12355421
    GO:0043234protein complex IEA--

    PTGS2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PTGS2 Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PTGS2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PTGS2 (COX-2)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PTGS2  (COX-2)
    OriGene Antibodies for PTGS2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PTGS2
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for PTGS2
    Novus Biologicals PTGS2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PTGS2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PTGS2 
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PTGS2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PTGS2 

    Assay Products for PTGS2: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PTGS2
    R&D Systems ELISAs for PTGS2 (COX-2)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PTGS2
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for PTGS2 (COX-2)
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for PTGS2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PTGS2 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PTGS2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: COX-2  
    Cyclooxygenase

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000742 EG-like_dom
     IPR010255 Haem_peroxidase
     IPR019791 Haem_peroxidase_animal_subgr
     IPR002007 Haem_peroxidase_animal

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P35354

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P35354

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB002007 Animal haem peroxidase signature
    IPB006210 Type I EGF
    IPB010255 Haem peroxidase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
    Similarity: Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 EGF-like domain


    PTGS2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
    Function: Mediates the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of
    inflammation and/or a role for prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity
    Catalytic activity: Arachidonate + AH(2) + 2 O(2) = prostaglandin H(2) + A + H(2)O
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=16.2 uM for arachidonate (in absence of sodium nitroprusside
    NO donor); KM=17.0 uM for arachidonate (in presence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor); Vmax=81.3 nmol/min/mg
    enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor); Vmax=132 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium
    nitroprusside NO donor);
    Induction: By cytokines and mitogens

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PTGS2:
    prostaglandin G/H synthase 2,mitogen and cytokine inducible form (lipocalin family,Kernel group),monomer,potent
    mediator of inflammation,playing a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis,overexpressed in squamous cell
    carcinoma of the head and neck,putatively involved in the tumor tissue response to necrosis

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.14.99.11 2 EC 1.14.992

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/10 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004601peroxidase activity NAS14511332
    GO:0004666prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA1380156
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0008289lipid binding IEA--
    GO:0016702oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen ----
         
    PTGS2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         15/25 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 13 alleles(MGI details for Ptgs2) (see all 25):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary 
     embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle 

    PTGS2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PTGS2: Ptgs2tm1Unc Ptgs2tm2(Ptgs1)Fun Ptgs2tm3Fun Ptgs2tm1Jed

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PTGS2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PTGS2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PTGS2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PTGS2 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGS2:
    hsa-mir-101 (MIRT004297), hsa-let-7b (MIRT001603), hsa-mir-16 (MIRT001426), hsa-mir-26b (MIRT004659)

    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PTGS2
    8/23 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PTGS2 (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-576-3p hsa-miR-624* hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-144 hsa-miR-629* hsa-miR-558 hsa-miR-1827
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPTGS2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PTGS2
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PTGS2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PTGS2
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of PTGS2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PTGS2 (see all 8)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PTGS2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PTGS2 (NM_000963)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PTGS2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PTGS2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PTGS2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PTGS2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PTGS2 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PTGS2
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PTGS2
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PTGS2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PTGS2 About   (see all 46)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)0.42
    C20 prostanoid biosynthesis0.40
    Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM0.42
    2Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.44
    HETE and HPETE biosynthesis and metabolism0.35
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.44
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.34
    Metabolic pathways0.40
    4PEDF Induced Signaling
    MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation0.94
    all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain0.71
    MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells0.94
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway0.46
    5aspirin triggered resolvin E biosynthesis
    aspirin triggered resolvin E biosynthesis0.67
    aspirin triggered resolvin D biosynthesis0.67
    aspirin-triggered lipoxin biosynthesis0.67

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    5/9 EMD Millipore Pathways for PTGS2 (see all 9)
        Development HGF signaling pathway
    Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM
    Immune response MIF-mediated glucocorticoid regulation
    Immune response MIF in innate immunity response
    HETE and HPETE biosynthesis and metabolism

    5/13 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PTGS2 (see all 13)
        MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells
    Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
    HGF Pathway
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
    Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    3 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for PTGS2
        Angiogenesis
    Neuroscience
    NF-kappaB Signaling

    5/10 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PTGS2 (see all 10)
        HETE and HPETE biosynthesis and metabolism
    Immune response MIF-mediated glucocorticoid regulation
    Immune response MIF in innate immunity response
    Development VEGF signaling via VEGFR2 - generic cascades
    Transcription PPAR Pathway

    5/13 BioSystems Pathways for PTGS2 (see all 13)
        Eicosanoid Synthesis
    Selenium Pathway
    Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    C20 prostanoid biosynthesis
    aspirin triggered resolvin E biosynthesis


    5        Reactome Pathways for PTGS2
        Metabolism
    Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Synthesis of 15-eicosatetraenoic acid derivatives
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins

    3 PharmGKB Pathways for PTGS2
        Acetaminophen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Celecoxib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Etoposide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

    5/13         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PTGS2) (see all 13):
        Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway
    VEGF signaling pathway
    TNF signaling pathway

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
    Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis


    PTGS2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PTGS2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/85 Interacting proteins for PTGS2 (P353543 ENSP000003564384) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 85)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ABHD16AO958703, ENSP000003792824I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000379282
    ENSG00000206403O958703I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224552O958703I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000230475O958703I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000231488O958703I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/66 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 66):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001516prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS--
    GO:0001525angiogenesis IEA--
    GO:0006693prostaglandin metabolic process TAS9630216
    GO:0006928cellular component movement TAS9630216
    GO:0006954inflammatory response IEA--

    PTGS2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PTGS2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for PTGS2:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PTGS2

    Compounds for PTGS2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    CelecoxibSelective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor[169590-42-5]
    ResveratrolCyclooxygenase inhibitor[501-36-0]
    NS 398Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor[123653-11-2]
    SC 58125Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor[162054-19-5]
    IndomethacinCyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX-1 > COX-2)[53-86-1]

    10/16 HMDB Compounds for PTGS2 (see all 16)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    11R-HEPE11(R)-hydroxyeicosa-5Z,8Z,12E,14Z,17Z-pentaenoate (see all 2)----
    Acetaminophen4'-Hydroxyacetanilide (see all 629)103-90-2--
    Arachidonic acid5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid (see all 16)506-32-1--
    Aspirin2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid (see all 59)50-78-2--
    CelecoxibCelebrex (see all 3)169590-42-5--
    Heme(protoporphyrinato)iron (see all 19)14875-96-8--
    Ibuprofenalpha-(4-Isobutylphenyl)propionate (see all 9)15687-27-1--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--
    Naproxen(+)-(S)-Naproxen (see all 49)22204-53-1--
    OxygenOxygen (see all 5)7782-44-7--

    10/72 DrugBank Compounds for PTGS2 (see all 72)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    RofecoxibMK 966 (see all 2)162011-90-7targetinhibitor10566562 20724158 10555907 10693877 11752352 18922570 20166930 11398914 10643177 10580458
    FlurbiprofenFLP (see all 5)5104-49-4targetinhibitor19066416 17562170 10091674 10773011 10977131 11006278 11405284
    IbuprofenIbuprophen (see all 3)15687-27-1targetinhibitor15494133 15556152 14510637 11752352 12852704 15481334
    enzymeinhibitor15494133 15556152 14510637 11752352 12852704 15481334 22668799
    Valdecoxib-- 181695-72-7targetinhibitor11060833 12564662 12167567 10715145 11752352 12644588 15494548
    Acetylsalicylic acid2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid (see all 24)50-78-2targetinhibitor17033106 17301265 17258197 11752352 17037745 17181859
    Antrafenine-- 55300-30-6targetinhibitor17604186 17612049 17607546 11752352 17532719 17521299
    Carprofen2-(6-Chloro-9H-carbazol-2-yl)propanoic acid (see all 6)53716-49-7targetinhibitor15198222 11703020 10895904 17181139 15939622 11752352
    Celecoxib-- 169590-42-5targetinhibitor12055598 12093311 12104042 11752352 12086402 12086292
    Diflunisal-- 22494-42-4targetinhibitor8737748 11673972 10825891 11752352 11315375 12852483
    Etodolac-- 41340-25-4targetinhibitor15198222 11009046 11752352 12824918 10594327 11275997

    7 IUPHAR Ligands for PTGS2 (COX-2 )    About this table 
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    diclofenac
    InhibitorInhibition6.7--
    celecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition5.1--
    rofecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    etoricoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    lumiracoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    parecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    valdecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--

    10/117 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PTGS2 gene (see all 117)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    celecoxib 97 1888 18230053 (7), 18766003 (7), 15014359 (6), 16230415 (6) (see all 99)
    rofecoxib 96 933 20110006 (10), 10411562 (6), 17620346 (5), 17636557 (4) (see all 99)
    pge2 94.8 3923 18727513 (9), 19452719 (9), 12493746 (8), 16585602 (7) (see all 99)
    prostaglandin 92.7 1317 10735591 (5), 10692251 (4), 9016346 (4), 8063757 (3) (see all 99)
    ns 398 92.2 312 14630280 (5), 15703831 (4), 15382039 (4), 19956533 (4) (see all 99)
    valdecoxib 91.6 196 15494548 (6), 17605893 (3), 18171312 (3), 17429597 (3) (see all 99)
    etoricoxib 89.3 163 11160644 (5), 12817520 (4), 15827069 (3), 19392653 (3) (see all 99)
    arachidonic acid 88.4 747 9373167 (6), 9461572 (5), 9973312 (4), 9031736 (4) (see all 99)
    nimesulide 88.3 372 18333314 (5), 18288985 (5), 19152549 (4), 14977856 (4) (see all 99)
    meloxicam 87.8 275 16245223 (4), 12911075 (3), 19078323 (3), 10812057 (3) (see all 99)

    3 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PTGS2 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    aspirinCA  
    ibuprofenCA  
    rofecoxibCA  

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PTGS2 / PGH2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PTGS2 gene: 
    NM_000963.2  

    Unigene Cluster for PTGS2:

    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
    Hs.196384  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000963
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000367468(uc001gsb.3 uc009wyo.3) ENST00000490885 ENST00000559627
    ENST00000466691 ENST00000559800
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-576-3p hsa-miR-624* hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-144 hsa-miR-629* hsa-miR-558 hsa-miR-1827
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPTGS2 3' UTR sequence
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AJ634912.1 AK292167.1 AY151286.1 AY462100.1 BC013734.1 HM473188.1 L15326.1 M90100.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.413375  DT.91935010  DT.121406567 

    24/101 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 101):

    D58162 AA296431 AA644211 BG236304 CB143773 AY462100 BC013734 BG152882 
    BQ100700 CK823043 CD365731 CK823042 BP335244 CB960307 BM978796 BQ722004 
    BQ100978 AL710813 AJ634912 BX363285 AA371396 BM128780 AA593850 BQ002136 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGS2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
    SP1:                                                                                -                     
    SP2:                                                  -                             -                     
    SP3:                                                                                -                     
    SP4:                                                                                                      
    SP5:                                                                                                      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PTGS2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PTGS2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PTGS2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTGTTCCTTT
    PTGS2 Expression
    About this image


    PTGS2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/21 selected tissues (see all 21) fully expand
     
     Epithelium (Uncategorized)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (HBEpiC)   
     
     Umbilical Cord (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Wharton's jelly-derived stem cells
             Human Umbillical Artery Smooth Muscle Cells (HUASMC)   
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Human corneal endothelial cells
             Human Keratocyte (HK)   
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (HBEpiC)   
     
     Smooth Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Human Umbillical Artery Smooth Muscle Cells (HUASMC)   

    See PTGS2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PTGS2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.196384
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PTGS2 (see first 5): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Notch Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              Estrogen Receptor Signaling in human mouse rat
              Endothelial Cell Biology in human mouse rat
              WNT Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Breast Cancer in human mouse rat
              TGFB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              T-Cell Anergy & Immune Tolerance in human mouse rat
              G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              NFKB Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              VEGF Signaling in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity in human mouse rat
              Liver Cancer in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat
              Hypertension in human mouse rat
              Antifungal Response in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PTGS2 gene from 5/15 species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ptgs21 , 5 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 21, 5 84.77(n)1
    86.75(a)1
      1 (63.84 cM)5
    192251  NM_011198.31  NP_035328.21 
     1501001245 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PTGS21 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin more 77.61(n)
    81.76(a)
      396451  NM_001167719.1  NP_001161191.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PTGS26
    Uncharacterized protein
    79(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343203.1(2256271-2268823)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.333292 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with moderate similarity more 75.65(n)    CA988090.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ptgs22 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 75.55(n)   246227  AY028585.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PTGS2 gene
    PTGS12  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for PTGS2 using alignment to 3 protein entries:     PGH2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    COX-2    PTGS1

    PTGS2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/516 SNPs in PTGS2 are shown (see all 516)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs664859391,2
    C--186646588(+) TGTGT-/GTATAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs6894631,2
    C--186650999(-) AGACTT/-CTACA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- -:0.01NS 172
    rs46483101,2
    C,F,H--193187485(-) cctctA/Gtcctt 1 -- ds500122Minor allele frequency- G:0.02NS EA NA 2134
    rs1465786051,2
    --193187526(+) ATGATC/TTGCCC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1806724161,2
    --193187545(+) ATAATA/TTCCTC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs46483091,2
    C,F--193187574(-) GGGGGC/GACAAA 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- G:0.01NS 180
    rs46483081,2
    C,F,A,H--193187577(-) GAAGGG/AGGCAC 1 -- ds500119Minor allele frequency- A:0.29NS NA WA CSA EA 1302
    rs1907489191,2
    --193187598(+) TCTTAC/TTCTTT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1391268741,2
    --193187633(+) TTCTTC/GTAGAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1499358971,2
    --193187652(+) GAAAAC/TAAGCT 1 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PTGS2 (186640923 - 186649559 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for PTGS2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv413n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv470750CNV Loss18288195
    dgv412n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv414n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv872590CNV Gain21882294


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PTGS2
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PTGS2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PTGS2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 600262    OMIM disorders: --

    20/328 diseases for PTGS2 (see all 328):    About MalaCards
    bile duct cysts    acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis    protoplasmic astrocytoma    teratoma with malignant transformation
    malignant mesenchymal tumor    uterine carcinosarcoma    adiponectin deficiency    bursitis
    bartter syndrome, type 2    small bowel adenocarcinoma    asthma and nasal polyps    esophagus adenocarcinoma
    atrophy of prostate    hemophilic arthropathy    bowenoid papulosis    familial adenomatous polyposis
    juvenile polyposis syndrome    colonic disease    intestinal neoplasm    cystoid macular edema

    20/22 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PTGS2 (see all 22):
    Colorectal cancer     Arthritis     Carcinoma     Vascular disease
    Familial adenomatous polyposis     Gastrointestinal system disease     Adenoma     Lung cancer
    Pain agnosia     Breast cancer     Brain disease     Esophageal cancer
    Myocardial infarction     Prostate cancer     Skin cancer     Alzheimer's disease
    Urinary bladder cancer     Kidney disease     Endometriosis     Pancreatic cancer

    PTGS2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/98 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PTGS2 gene (see all 98)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    inflammation 82.3 1159 16580899 (5), 11437671 (4), 10414396 (4), 12669881 (4) (see all 99)
    colon cancer 78.8 585 19437564 (7), 12432918 (6), 20046424 (5), 18320325 (5) (see all 99)
    osteoarthritis 78.6 261 15974939 (4), 10560596 (3), 19602530 (3), 19807303 (3) (see all 99)
    tumors 76.5 3567 15200266 (8), 20192574 (8), 19329856 (7), 16139560 (7) (see all 99)
    colorectal cancer 76.2 748 19671325 (9), 16324362 (7), 16551850 (7), 19132985 (6) (see all 99)
    gastrointestinal complications 75.5 50 15475342 (3), 19947799 (2), 15190384 (2), 17552414 (2) (see all 33)
    cancer 75 1766 16124396 (6), 12692419 (6), 17428102 (5), 16007171 (5) (see all 99)
    familial adenomatous polyposis 72.3 128 14581346 (3), 10874062 (3), 16622748 (2), 11495083 (2) (see all 86)
    gastrointestinal ulcers 71.7 19 17611980 (1), 12208114 (1), 18356636 (1), 11961974 (1) (see all 14)
    rheumatoid arthritis 69.3 196 15974939 (3), 18261308 (3), 11087881 (2), 15775145 (2) (see all 99)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PTGS2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PTGS2 (284 documents)

    Export disorders for PTGS2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PTGS2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 6683):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PTGS2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk. (PubMed id 17181859)1, 4, 7, 9 Shen J....Santella R.M. (2006)
    2. Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA. (PubMed id 1380156)1, 2, 3 Hla T. and Neilson K. (1992)
    3. No association between cyclooxygenase-2 and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 genetic polymorphisms and colon cancer risk. (PubMed id 19437564)1, 4, 9 Thompson C.L....Li L. (2009)
    4. COX2 genetic variation, NSAIDs, and advanced prostate cancer risk. (PubMed id 17609663)1, 4, 9 Cheng I....Witte J.S. (2007)
    5. Association of polymorphisms of PTGS2 and CYP8A1 with myocardial infarction. (PubMed id 19327107)1, 4, 9 Xie X....Liu F. (2009)
    6. Cyclooxygenase-2 polymorphisms, aspirin treatment, an d risk for colorectal adenoma recurrence--data from a randomized clinical trial . (PubMed id 19755647)1, 4, 9 Barry E.L....Baron J.A. (2009)
    7. The COX-2 promoter polymorphism -765 G>C is associated with early-onset, conventional and stump gastric cancers. (PubMed id 18311113)1, 4, 9 Sitarz R....Milne A.N. (2008)
    8. COX1 and COX2 polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk in a Polish population. (PubMed id 18214026)1, 4, 9 Hou L....Chow W.H. (2007)
    9. Functional polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene and risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population. (PubMed id 17479405)1, 4, 9 Gao J....Shen H.B. (2007)
    10. The cyclooxygenase 2 genetic variant -765G>C does not modulate the effects of celecoxib on prostaglandin E2 production. (PubMed id 17178263)1, 4, 9 Skarke C....Lotsch J. (2006)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5743 HGNC: 9605 AceView: PTGS2 Ensembl:ENSG00000073756 euGenes: HUgn5743
    ECgene: PTGS2 Kegg: 5743 H-InvDB: PTGS2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PTGS2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PTGS2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/ptgs2/
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/ptgs2/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PTGS2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PTGS2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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     Antibodies for PTGS2
     ELISAs for PTGS2
     CLIAs for PTGS2
     Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PTGS2
     Gene Synthesis
     Protein Engineering
     Variant Library Synthesis
     Codon Optimization
     Protein Production and Purification
     Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PTGS2
     SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for PTGS2
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for PTGS2
     ThermoFisher Antibodies for PTGS2
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PTGS2
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PTGS2
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PTGS2
    Customized:
     lentivirus for stable overexpression of PTGS2
     lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PTGS2
     adenovirus for overexpression of PTGS2
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PTGS2
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 3 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
    GIFtS Group
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