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PTGS2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC01M186640

Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H...

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And
Cyclooxygenase)1 2
     PGG/HS2
Prostaglandin H2 Synthase 22 3     PHS-22
COX-22 3     Cyclooxygenase 2b2
COX22 3     hCox-22
PGHS-22 3     Prostaglandin G/H Synthase 22
PGH Synthase 22 3     Cyclooxygenase-23
PHS II2 3     Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 23
EC 1.14.99.13 8     EC 1.14.998
GRIPGHS2     

External Ids:    HGNC: 96051   Entrez Gene: 57432   Ensembl: ENSG000000737567   OMIM: 6002625   UniProtKB: P353543   

Export aliases for PTGS2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M184166 GC01M182068 GC01M183160 GC01M183879 GC01M183372 GC01M184907 GC01M157875


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PTGS2 Gene:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin
biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive
PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene
encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible
for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. (provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009)

GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene:
PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include bile duct cysts, and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and heme binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
Function: Critical component of colonic mucosal wound repair (By similarity). Mediates the formation of
prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of inflammation and/or a role for
prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity

summary for PTGS2 Gene:
Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is
expressed in cells in three isoforms: COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible)
isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production and are the targets of non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs. COX-3 does not appear to be involved in inflammatory processes, but seems to be
involved in pain and fever. COX-3 is thought to be derived through the retention of the highly structured G
+ C-rich intron 1 of the COX-1 gene.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGS2 Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" summary for PTGS2


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.11  NC_018912.2  NT_004487.20  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PTGS2 gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   POU6F1 (c2)   STAT5A   CREB   deltaCREB   FOXJ2 (long isoform)   c-Jun   FOXJ2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): PTGS2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PTGS2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PTGS2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1q25.2-q25.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1q31.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1q25.2-q25.3

PTGS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PTGS2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M186640:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
186,640,923 bp from pter      End:
186,649,559 bp from pter
Size:
8,637 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor  
Size: 604 amino acids; 68996 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 heme B (iron-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit (By similarity)
Subunit: Homodimer (By similarity)
Miscellaneous: This enzyme acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase
Miscellaneous: This enzyme is the target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for PTGS2:
1V0X (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K802 Q16876

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PTGS2: NX_P35354

Explore proteomics data for PTGS2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • S-nitrosylation by NOS2 (iNOS) activates enzyme activity. S-nitrosylation may take place on different Cys residues
    in addition to Cys-5611
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn53, Asn130, Asn396, Asn580
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PTGS2 (P35354) (see all 30)
     LYHWHPL  ASIDQSR  IINTASI  LGHGVDL 


    See PTGS2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000954.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000356438   ENSP00000454130  
    Reactome Protein details: P35354

    PTGS2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PTGS2
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PTGS2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PTGS2
    Novus Biologicals PTGS2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PTGS2 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PTGS2
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PTGS2
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PTGS2

    PTGS2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PTGS2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PTGS2 (COX-2)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PTGS2  (COX-2)
    OriGene Antibodies for PTGS2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PTGS2
    Novus Biologicals PTGS2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PTGS2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PTGS2
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PTGS2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PTGS2

    PTGS2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PTGS2
    R&D Systems ELISAs for PTGS2 (COX-2)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PTGS2
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for PTGS2 (COX-2)
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for PTGS2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PTGS2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PTGS2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: COX-2
    Cyclooxygenase

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000742 EG-like_dom
     IPR010255 Haem_peroxidase
     IPR019791 Haem_peroxidase_animal_subgr
     IPR002007 Haem_peroxidase_animal

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P35354

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P35354

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB002007 Animal haem peroxidase signature
    IPB006210 Type I EGF
    IPB010255 Haem peroxidase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
    Similarity: Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 EGF-like domain


    PTGS2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
    Function: Critical component of colonic mucosal wound repair (By similarity). Mediates the formation of
    prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of inflammation and/or a role for
    prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity
    Catalytic activity: Arachidonate + AH(2) + 2 O(2) = prostaglandin H(2) + A + H(2)O
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=16.2 uM for arachidonate (in absence of sodium nitroprusside
    NO donor); KM=17.0 uM for arachidonate (in presence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor); Vmax=81.3 nmol/min/mg
    enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor); Vmax=132 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium
    nitroprusside NO donor);
    Induction: By cytokines and mitogens

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PTGS2:
    prostaglandin G/H synthase 2,mitogen and cytokine inducible form (lipocalin family,Kernel group),monomer,potent
    mediator of inflammation,playing a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis,overexpressed in squamous cell
    carcinoma of the head and neck,putatively involved in the tumor tissue response to necrosis

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.14.99.11 2 EC 1.14.992

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004601peroxidase activity NAS14511332
    GO:0004666prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA1380156
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0008289lipid binding IEA--
    GO:0016702oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen ----
         
    PTGS2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         25 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 13 alleles(MGI details for Ptgs2) (see first 15):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary 
     embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle 
     nervous system  no phenotypic analysis  normal  other  renal/urinary system 
     reproductive system  respiratory system  skeleton  tumorigenesis  vision/eye 

    PTGS2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PTGS2: Ptgs2tm1Unc Ptgs2tm2(Ptgs1)Fun Ptgs2tm3Fun Ptgs2tm1Jed

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PTGS2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PTGS2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PTGS2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PTGS2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGS2:
    hsa-mir-181a-5p (MIRT025094), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT001426), hsa-mir-137 (MIRT006329), hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT022542), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT001603), hsa-mir-101-3p (MIRT004297), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT004659), hsa-mir-132-3p (MIRT021768), hsa-mir-128-3p (MIRT021956), hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017755)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PTGS2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PTGS2 (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-576-3p hsa-miR-624* hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-144 hsa-miR-629* hsa-miR-558 hsa-miR-1827
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPTGS2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PTGS2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PTGS2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PTGS2

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PTGS2 (see all 8)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PTGS2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PTGS2 (NM_000963)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PTGS2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PTGS2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PTGS2

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PTGS2
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PTGS2 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PTGS2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PGH2_HUMAN, P35354: Microsome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral
    membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    endoplasmic reticulum5
    nucleus4
    extracellular3
    cytoskeleton2
    cytosol2
    mitochondrion2
    peroxisome2
    plasma membrane2
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ISS--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ISS--
    GO:0005789endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS--
    GO:0043005neuron projection IDA12355421
    GO:0043234protein complex IEA--

    PTGS2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PTGS2 About   (see all 46)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.41
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)0.00
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.40
    C20 prostanoid biosynthesis0.00
    HETE and HPETE biosynthesis and metabolism0.33
    Synthesis of 15-eicosatetraenoic acid derivatives0.00
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Eicosanoid Synthesis
    Eicosanoid Synthesis
    aspirin triggered resolvin E biosynthesis0.00
    4PEDF Induced Signaling
    MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation0.94
    all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain0.71
    MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells0.94
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway0.46
    5Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes
    Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes0.38
    Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway0.38

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PTGS2 (see all 13)
        MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells
    Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons
    HGF Pathway
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
    Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    3 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for PTGS2
        Angiogenesis
    Neuroscience
    NF-kappaB Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PTGS2 (see all 10)
        HETE and HPETE biosynthesis and metabolism
    Immune response MIF-mediated glucocorticoid regulation
    Immune response MIF in innate immunity response
    Development VEGF signaling via VEGFR2 - generic cascades
    Transcription PPAR Pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for PTGS2 (see all 13)
        Eicosanoid Synthesis
    Selenium Pathway
    Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    C20 prostanoid biosynthesis
    aspirin triggered resolvin E biosynthesis


    2 Reactome Pathways for PTGS2
        Synthesis of 15-eicosatetraenoic acid derivatives
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)

    3 PharmGKB Pathways for PTGS2
        Acetaminophen Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Celecoxib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Etoposide Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PTGS2) (see all 14):
        Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway
    VEGF signaling pathway
    TNF signaling pathway

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGH2_HUMAN, P35354
    Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis


    PTGS2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PTGS2 (see all 25): 

              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PTGS2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PTGS2 (P353543 ENSP000003564384) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 90)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ABHD16AO958703, ENSP000003792824I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000379282
    ENSG00000206403O958703I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224552O958703I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000230475O958703I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000231488O958703I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 66):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001516prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS--
    GO:0001525angiogenesis IEA--
    GO:0006693prostaglandin metabolic process TAS9630216
    GO:0006928cellular component movement TAS9630216
    GO:0006954inflammatory response IEA--

    PTGS2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PTGS2
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for PTGS2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    CelecoxibSelective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor[169590-42-5]
    ResveratrolCyclooxygenase inhibitor[501-36-0]
    NS 398Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor[123653-11-2]
    SC 58125Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor[162054-19-5]
    IndomethacinCyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX-1 > COX-2)[53-86-1]

    Selected HMDB Compounds for PTGS2 (see all 16)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    11R-HEPE11(R)-hydroxyeicosa-5Z,8Z,12E,14Z,17Z-pentaenoate (see all 2)----
    Acetaminophen4'-Hydroxyacetanilide (see all 629)103-90-2--
    Arachidonic acid5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid (see all 16)506-32-1--
    Aspirin2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid (see all 59)50-78-2--
    CelecoxibCelebrex (see all 3)169590-42-5--
    Heme(protoporphyrinato)iron (see all 19)14875-96-8--
    Ibuprofenalpha-(4-Isobutylphenyl)propionate (see all 9)15687-27-1--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--
    Naproxen(+)-(S)-Naproxen (see all 49)22204-53-1--
    OxygenOxygen (see all 5)7782-44-7--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for PTGS2 (see all 72)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    RofecoxibMK 966 (see all 2)162011-90-7targetinhibitor10566562 20724158 10555907 10693877 11752352 18922570 20166930 11398914 10643177 10580458
    FlurbiprofenFLP (see all 5)5104-49-4targetinhibitor19066416 17562170 10091674 10773011 10977131 11006278 11405284
    IbuprofenIbuprophen (see all 3)15687-27-1targetinhibitor15494133 15556152 14510637 11752352 12852704 15481334
    enzymeinhibitor15494133 15556152 14510637 11752352 12852704 15481334 22668799
    Valdecoxib-- 181695-72-7targetinhibitor11060833 12564662 12167567 10715145 11752352 12644588 15494548
    Acetylsalicylic acid2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid (see all 24)50-78-2targetinhibitor17033106 17301265 17258197 11752352 17037745 17181859
    Antrafenine-- 55300-30-6targetinhibitor17604186 17612049 17607546 11752352 17532719 17521299
    Carprofen2-(6-Chloro-9H-carbazol-2-yl)propanoic acid (see all 6)53716-49-7targetinhibitor15198222 11703020 10895904 17181139 15939622 11752352
    Celecoxib-- 169590-42-5targetinhibitor12055598 12093311 12104042 11752352 12086402 12086292
    Diflunisal-- 22494-42-4targetinhibitor8737748 11673972 10825891 11752352 11315375 12852483
    Etodolac-- 41340-25-4targetinhibitor15198222 11009046 11752352 12824918 10594327 11275997

    7 IUPHAR Ligands for PTGS2 (COX-2 )    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    diclofenac
    InhibitorInhibition6.7--
    celecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition5.1--
    rofecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    etoricoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    lumiracoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    parecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--
    valdecoxib
    InhibitorInhibition4.3--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PTGS2 gene (see all 117)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    celecoxib 97 1888 18230053 (7), 18766003 (7), 15014359 (6), 16230415 (6) (see all 99)
    rofecoxib 96 933 20110006 (10), 10411562 (6), 17620346 (5), 17636557 (4) (see all 99)
    pge2 94.8 3923 18727513 (9), 19452719 (9), 12493746 (8), 16585602 (7) (see all 99)
    prostaglandin 92.7 1317 10735591 (5), 10692251 (4), 9016346 (4), 8063757 (3) (see all 99)
    ns 398 92.2 312 14630280 (5), 15703831 (4), 15382039 (4), 19956533 (4) (see all 99)
    valdecoxib 91.6 196 15494548 (6), 17605893 (3), 18171312 (3), 17429597 (3) (see all 99)
    etoricoxib 89.3 163 11160644 (5), 12817520 (4), 15827069 (3), 19392653 (3) (see all 99)
    arachidonic acid 88.4 747 9373167 (6), 9461572 (5), 9973312 (4), 9031736 (4) (see all 99)
    nimesulide 88.3 372 18333314 (5), 18288985 (5), 19152549 (4), 14977856 (4) (see all 99)
    meloxicam 87.8 275 16245223 (4), 12911075 (3), 19078323 (3), 10812057 (3) (see all 99)

    3 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PTGS2 gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    aspirinCA  
    ibuprofenCA  
    rofecoxibCA  



    PTGS2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PTGS2 gene: 
    NM_000963.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PTGS2:

    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
    Hs.196384  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000963
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000367468(uc001gsb.3 uc009wyo.3) ENST00000490885 ENST00000559627
    ENST00000466691 ENST00000559800
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PTGS2 (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-576-3p hsa-miR-624* hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-144 hsa-miR-629* hsa-miR-558 hsa-miR-1827
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPTGS2 3' UTR sequence
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PTGS2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AJ634912.1 AK292167.1 AY151286.1 AY462100.1 BC013734.1 HM473188.1 L15326.1 M90100.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.413375  DT.91935010  DT.121406567 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 101):

    AA296431 AY462100 AA644211 CB960307 CB143773 D58162 BM978796 BG236304 
    BQ100978 BQ722004 CD365731 BQ100700 CK823042 CK823043 AL710813 BP335244 
    AJ634912 BG152882 BC013734 BP337788 T29235 BV199193 BM128780 AL710848 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGS2    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
    SP1:                                                                                -                     
    SP2:                                                  -                             -                     
    SP3:                                                                                -                     
    SP4:                                                                                                      
    SP5:                                                                                                      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PTGS2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PTGS2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTGTTCCTTT
    PTGS2 Expression
    About this image


    PTGS2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 13) fully expand
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Mural Granulosa Cells Antral Follicle
             Oviduct
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Monocytes Peripheral Blood
     
     Fibroblasts
             Cardiac Fibroblasts Myocardium
             Detroit 551
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Outer Root Sheath Cells Outer Root Sheath
     
     Peripheral Nervous System (Nervous System)
             Schwann Precursor Cells Peripheral Nerve Domain
    PTGS2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PTGS2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.196384
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PTGS2 (see all 25): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat
              Prostate Cancer in human mouse rat
              Drug Metabolism: Phase I Enzymes in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PTGS2 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ptgs21 , 5 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 21, 5 84.92(n)1
    87.12(a)1
      1 (63.84 cM)5
    192251  NM_011198.31  NP_035328.21 
     1501001245 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PTGS21 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin more 78.23(n)
    82.65(a)
      396451  NM_001167719.1  NP_001161191.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PTGS26
    prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostagland...
    79(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343203.1(2256271-2268823)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.333292 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with moderate similarity more 75.65(n)    CA988090.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ptgs22 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 75.55(n)   246227  AY028585.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PTGS2 gene
    PTGS12  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for PTGS2 using alignment to 3 protein entries:     PGH2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    COX-2    PTGS1

    PTGS2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PTGS2 (see all 516)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs664859391,2
    C--186646588(+) TGTGT-/GTATAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs6894631,2
    C--186650999(-) AGACTT/-CTACA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- -:0.01NS 172
    rs46483101,2
    C,F,H--193187485(-) cctctA/Gtcctt 1 -- ds500122Minor allele frequency- G:0.02NS EA NA 2134
    rs1465786051,2
    --193187526(+) ATGATC/TTGCCC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1806724161,2
    --193187545(+) ATAATA/TTCCTC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs46483091,2
    C,F--193187574(-) GGGGGC/GACAAA 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- G:0.01NS 180
    rs46483081,2
    C,F,A,H--193187577(-) GAAGGG/AGGCAC 1 -- ds500119Minor allele frequency- A:0.29NS NA WA CSA EA 1302
    rs1907489191,2
    --193187598(+) TCTTAC/TTCTTT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1391268741,2
    --193187633(+) TTCTTC/GTAGAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1499358971,2
    --193187652(+) GAAAAC/TAAGCT 1 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PTGS2 (186640923 - 186649559 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for PTGS2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv413n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv470750CNV Loss18288195
    dgv412n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv414n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv872590CNV Gain21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PTGS2
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PTGS2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PTGS2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 600262    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for PTGS2 (see all 328):    
    About MalaCards
    bile duct cysts    acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis    protoplasmic astrocytoma    teratoma with malignant transformation
    malignant mesenchymal tumor    uterine carcinosarcoma    adiponectin deficiency    bursitis
    bartter syndrome, type 2    small bowel adenocarcinoma    asthma and nasal polyps    familial adenomatous polyposis
    esophagus adenocarcinoma    atrophy of prostate    bowenoid papulosis    colonic disease
    intestinal neoplasm    choledochal cyst    juvenile polyposis syndrome    thoracic cancer

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PTGS2 (see all 22):
    Colorectal cancer     Arthritis     Carcinoma     Vascular disease
    Familial adenomatous polyposis     Gastrointestinal system disease     Adenoma     Lung cancer
    Pain agnosia     Breast cancer     Brain disease     Esophageal cancer
    Myocardial infarction     Prostate cancer     Skin cancer     Alzheimer's disease
    Urinary bladder cancer     Kidney disease     Endometriosis     Pancreatic cancer

    PTGS2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PTGS2 gene (see all 98)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    inflammation 82.3 1159 16580899 (5), 11437671 (4), 10414396 (4), 12669881 (4) (see all 99)
    colon cancer 78.8 585 19437564 (7), 12432918 (6), 20046424 (5), 18320325 (5) (see all 99)
    osteoarthritis 78.6 261 15974939 (4), 10560596 (3), 19602530 (3), 19807303 (3) (see all 99)
    tumors 76.5 3567 15200266 (8), 20192574 (8), 19329856 (7), 16139560 (7) (see all 99)
    colorectal cancer 76.2 748 19671325 (9), 16324362 (7), 16551850 (7), 19132985 (6) (see all 99)
    gastrointestinal complications 75.5 50 15475342 (3), 19947799 (2), 15190384 (2), 17552414 (2) (see all 33)
    cancer 75 1766 16124396 (6), 12692419 (6), 17428102 (5), 16007171 (5) (see all 99)
    familial adenomatous polyposis 72.3 128 14581346 (3), 10874062 (3), 16622748 (2), 11495083 (2) (see all 86)
    gastrointestinal ulcers 71.7 19 17611980 (1), 12208114 (1), 18356636 (1), 11961974 (1) (see all 14)
    rheumatoid arthritis 69.3 196 15974939 (3), 18261308 (3), 11087881 (2), 15775145 (2) (see all 99)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PTGS2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PTGS2 (284 documents)

    Export disorders for PTGS2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PTGS2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 6739):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PTGS2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk. (PubMed id 17181859)1, 4, 7, 9 Shen J....Santella R.M. (Breast Cancer Res. 2006)
    2. Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA. (PubMed id 1380156)1, 2, 3 Hla T. and Neilson K. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1992)
    3. No association between cyclooxygenase-2 and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 genetic polymorphisms and colon cancer risk. (PubMed id 19437564)1, 4, 9 Thompson C.L....Li L. (World J. Gastroenterol. 2009)
    4. COX2 genetic variation, NSAIDs, and advanced prostate cancer risk. (PubMed id 17609663)1, 4, 9 Cheng I....Witte J.S. (Br. J. Cancer 2007)
    5. Association of polymorphisms of PTGS2 and CYP8A1 with myocardial infarction. (PubMed id 19327107)1, 4, 9 Xie X....Liu F. (Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2009)
    6. Cyclooxygenase-2 polymorphisms, aspirin treatment, and risk for colorectal adenoma recurrence--data from a randomized clinical trial. (PubMed id 19755647)1, 4, 9 Barry E.L....Baron J.A. (amp 2009)
    7. The COX-2 promoter polymorphism -765 G&gt;C is associated with early-onset, conventional and stump gastric cancers. (PubMed id 18311113)1, 4, 9 Sitarz R....Milne A.N. (Mod. Pathol. 2008)
    8. COX1 and COX2 polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk in a Polish population. (PubMed id 18214026)1, 4, 9 Hou L....Chow W.H. (Anticancer Res. 2007)
    9. Functional polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene and risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population. (PubMed id 17479405)1, 4, 9 Gao J....Shen H.B. (J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A 2007)
    10. The cyclooxygenase 2 genetic variant -765G&gt;C does not modulate the effects of celecoxib on prostaglandin E2 production. (PubMed id 17178263)1, 4, 9 Skarke C....LAPtsch J. (Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2006)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5743 HGNC: 9605 AceView: PTGS2 Ensembl:ENSG00000073756 euGenes: HUgn5743
    ECgene: PTGS2 Kegg: 5743 H-InvDB: PTGS2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PTGS2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PTGS2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/ptgs2/
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/ptgs2/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PTGS2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PTGS2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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