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Aliases for PTGS2 Gene

Aliases for PTGS2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase) 2 3
  • Prostaglandin H2 Synthase 2 3 4
  • PGH Synthase 2 3 4
  • EC 1.14.99.1 4 63
  • PHS II 3 4
  • PGHS-2 3 4
  • COX-2 3 4
  • COX2 3 4
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 4
  • Cyclooxygenase 2b 3
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 4
  • EC 1.14.99 63
  • GRIPGHS 3
  • PGG/HS 3
  • HCox-2 3
  • PHS-2 3

External Ids for PTGS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGS2 Gene

  • GC01M184166
  • GC01M182068
  • GC01M183160
  • GC01M183879
  • GC01M183372
  • GC01M184907
  • GC01M157875

Summaries for PTGS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGS2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene

PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include colorectal adenoma and chronic pain. Among its related pathways are Pathways in cancer and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

  • Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.

Tocris Summary for PTGS2 Gene

  • Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGS2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGS2 Gene

Genomics for PTGS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTGS2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PTGS2 Gene

Chromosome:
1
Start:
186,671,791 bp from pter
End:
186,680,427 bp from pter
Size:
8,637 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGS2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PTGS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGS2 Gene

Proteins for PTGS2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P35354-PGH2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
    Protein Accession:
    P35354
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K802
    • Q16876

    Protein attributes for PTGS2 Gene

    Size:
    604 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68996 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=heme b; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:60344; Note=Binds 1 heme b (iron(II)-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is mediated by 2 different isozymes: the constitutive PTGS1 and the inducible PTGS2. PGHS1 is expressed constitutively and generally produces prostanoids acutely in response to hormonal stimuli to fine-tune physiological processes requiring instantaneous, continuous regulation (e.g. hemostasis). PGHS2 is inducible and typically produces prostanoids that mediate responses to physiological stresses such as infection and inflammation
    • PTGS1 and PTGS2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin and ibuprofen. Aspirin is able to produce an irreversible inactivation of the enzyme through a serine acetylation. Inhibition of the PGHSs with NSAIDs acutely reduces inflammation, pain, and fever, and long-term use of these drugs reduces fatal thrombotic events, as well as the development of colon cancer and Alzheimers disease. PTGS2 is the principal isozyme responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. New generation PTGSs inhibitors strive to be selective for PTGS2, to avoid side effects such as gastrointestinal complications and ulceration
    • The conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is a 2 step reaction: a cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction which converts arachidonate to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) and a peroxidase reaction in which PGG2 is reduced to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). The cyclooxygenase reaction occurs in a hydrophobic channel in the core of the enzyme. The peroxidase reaction occurs at a heme-containing active site located near the protein surface. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) binding site corresponds to the cyclooxygenase active site

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGS2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGS2 Gene

Proteomics data for PTGS2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTGS2 Gene

  • S-nitrosylation by NOS2 (iNOS) activates enzyme activity. S-nitrosylation may take place on different Cys residues in addition to Cys-526.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 53, Asn 130, Asn 396, and Asn 580
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PTGS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PTGS2 (COX-2)

Assay Products

  • Enzo Life Sciences assays for PTGS2
  • Cloud-Clone Corp Assay Kits for PTGS2

Domains & Families for PTGS2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGS2 Gene

IUPHAR :

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P35354

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PGH2_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 EGF-like domain.
  • Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 EGF-like domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGS2: view

Function for PTGS2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGS2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prostaglandin G/H synthase 2,mitogen and cytokine inducible form (lipocalin family,Kernel group),monomer,potent mediator of inflammation,playing a minor role in colorectal carcinogenesis,overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck,putatively involved in the tumor tissue response to necrosis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=16.2 uM for arachidonate (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578}; KM=17.0 uM for arachidonate (in presence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578}; Vmax=81.3 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578}; Vmax=132 nmol/min/mg enzyme (in absence of sodium nitroprusside NO donor) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16373578};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Arachidonate + AH(2) + 2 O(2) = prostaglandin H(2) + A + H(2)O.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By cytokines and mitogens

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity NAS 14511332
GO:0004666 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA 1380156
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 24089527
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
GO:0016702 oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGS2: view

Animal Models for PTGS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGS2:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PTGS2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGS2 Gene

Localization for PTGS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

Microsome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PTGS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus ISS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 24089527
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS 24089527
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGS2: view

PCR Array Products

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P35354-PGH2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS 20448152
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process TAS 9630216
GO:0006766 vitamin metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006767 water-soluble vitamin metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGS2 Gene

(153) Drugs for PTGS2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, HMDB, DGIdb, DrugBank, ApexBio, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, Tocris, and FDA Approved Drugs

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ibuprofen Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, inhibitor, Target, Enzyme 429
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, inhibitor, Target Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor 395
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, inhibitor, Target 17
Aspirin Approved Pharma Channel blocker, inhibitor, Target 971
Bromfenac Approved July 1997 Pharma inhibitor, Target, Enzyme 40

(59) Additional Compounds for PTGS2 Gene - From: NovoSeek, Tocris, and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Dup 697
88149-94-4
NS 398
123653-11-2
3-Hydroxymethylantipyrine
18125-49-0
4'-Hydroxydiclofenac
  • (O-(2,6-Dichloro-4-hydroxyanilino)phenyl)acetic acid
  • 4'-Hydroxy diclofenac
  • 4'-OH DCF
  • {2-[(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)amino]phenyl}acetic acid
64118-84-9
5'-Hydroxylornoxicam
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGS2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PTGS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGS2 Gene

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PTGS2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5:

Relevant External Links for PTGS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGS2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PTGS2

Expression for PTGS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTGS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x5.5) and Stomach (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (26.6), Islet of Langerhans (21.1), and Seminal vesicle (16.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PTGS2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGS2 Gene Hs.196384

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGS2 Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGS2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTGS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGS2 35
  • 87.74 (n)
  • 88.98 (a)
PGHS-2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGS2 35
  • 88.36 (n)
  • 90.07 (a)
COX-2 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptgs2 35
  • 84.92 (n)
  • 87.12 (a)
Ptgs2 16
Ptgs2 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGS2 35
  • 99.56 (n)
  • 99.67 (a)
PTGS2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgs2 35
  • 84.07 (n)
  • 86.61 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGS2 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGS2 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGS2 35
  • 78.23 (n)
  • 82.65 (a)
PTGS2 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGS2 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptgs2 35
  • 71.19 (n)
  • 75.89 (a)
Str.16299 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.33329 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptgs2 35
ptgs2b 35
  • 70.93 (n)
  • 75.26 (a)
ptgs2a 36
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
ptgs2b 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11687 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
CSA.3689 36
  • 45 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for PTGS2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGS2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGS2 (if available)

Paralogs for PTGS2 Gene

Paralogs for PTGS2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PTGS2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGS2: view

Variants for PTGS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs5272 - 186,674,705(-) TGTGG(A/G)GCTGT reference, missense
rs5273 - 186,674,636(-) AGAAG(C/G/T)TGGAG missense, reference
rs5274 -- 186,674,413(-) TCCCG(A/C)TCCGG synonymous-codon, reference
rs5275 -- 186,673,926(-) TTGGT(C/T)ATTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs5276 -- 186,673,855(-) TACCA(A/G)TAATT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv872590 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv412n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv413n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv470750 CNV Loss 18288195
dgv414n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for PTGS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.39; 42.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PTGS2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PTGS2
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTGS2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene

Disorders for PTGS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(96) MalaCards diseases for PTGS2 Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
colorectal adenoma
  • adenoma of large intestine
chronic pain
  • pain - chronic
hemophilic arthropathy
acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
  • agep
bursitis
  • bursitis nos
- elite association
Search PTGS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PTGS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PTGS2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PTGS2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PTGS2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGS2 Gene

Publications for PTGS2 Gene

  1. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in man. (PMID: 17884974) Hinz B. … Brune K. (FASEB J. 2008) 23 25 26 67
  2. Acetaminophen selectively suppresses peripheral prostaglandin E2 release and increases COX-2 gene expression in a clinical model of acute inflammation. (PMID: 17175104) Lee Y.S. … Dionne R.A. (Pain 2007) 23 25 26 67
  3. Pharmacodynamic of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in humans. (PMID: 17164136) Capone M.L. … Patrignani P. (Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007) 23 25 26 67
  4. Resistance exercise and cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in human skeletal muscle: implications for COX-inhibiting drugs and protein synthesis. (PMID: 17322116) Weinheimer E.M. … Trappe T.A. (Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 2007) 23 25 26 67
  5. n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce the expression of COX-2 via PPARgamma activation in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. (PMID: 17459764) ChA-ne G. … Pipy B. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2007) 23 25 26 67

Products for PTGS2 Gene

Sources for PTGS2 Gene

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