Aliases for PTGS2 Gene
External Ids for PTGS2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGS2 Gene
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
GeneCards Summary for PTGS2 Gene
PTGS2 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 (Prostaglandin G/H Synthase And Cyclooxygenase)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS2 include bile duct cysts and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Among its related pathways are Pathways in cancer and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and heme binding. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGS2 Gene
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.
Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms: COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production and are the targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. COX-3 does not appear to be involved in inflammatory processes, but seems to be involved in pain and fever. COX-3 is thought to be derived through the retention of the highly structured G + C-rich intron 1 of the COX-1 gene.