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Aliases for PTGES2 Gene

Aliases for PTGES2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 2 3 5
  • Membrane-Associated Prostaglandin E Synthase-2 3 4
  • Prostaglandin-H(2) E-Isomerase 3 4
  • MPGE Synthase-2 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • C9orf15 3 4
  • MPGES-2 3 4
  • PGES2 3 4
  • Gamma-Interferon-Activated Transcriptional Element-Binding Factor 1 3
  • Membrane-Associated Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 4
  • Chromosome 9 Open Reading Frame 15 2
  • GATE-Binding Factor 1 3
  • GBF-1 3
  • GBF1 3

External Ids for PTGES2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGES2 Gene

  • C9orf15

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGES2 Gene

  • GC09M121997
  • GC09M122529
  • GC09M124336
  • GC09M126259
  • GC09M127962
  • GC09M129922
  • GC09M130882
  • GC09M100497

Summaries for PTGES2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGES2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin E2. This protein also has been shown to activate the transcription regulated by a gamma-interferon-activated transcription element (GATE). Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PTGES2 Gene

PTGES2 (Prostaglandin E Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGES2 include Bladder Papillary Transitional Cell Neoplasm and Urinary Tract Papillary Transitional Cell Benign Neoplasm. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Ibuprofen Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. GO annotations related to this gene include heme binding and lyase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

  • Isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 into the more stable prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Gene Wiki entry for PTGES2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGES2 Gene

Genomics for PTGES2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTGES2 Gene

Enhancers for PTGES2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PTGES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PTGES2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PTGES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PTGES2 Gene

128,120,693 bp from pter
128,128,462 bp from pter
7,770 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGES2 Gene

Genes around PTGES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGES2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGES2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGES2 Gene

Proteins for PTGES2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGES2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin E synthase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53EW9
    • Q5SYV6
    • Q96GI0
    • Q96GL2

    Protein attributes for PTGES2 Gene

    377 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41943 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. May interact with CEBPB (By similarity). Interacts with EXOSC10.
    • Sequence=CAI13822.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PTGES2 Gene

Proteomics data for PTGES2 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PTGES2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTGES2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 141
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PTGES2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PTGES2 (Prostaglandin E Synthase 2/PTGES2)
  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PTGES2

Domains & Families for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGES2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGES2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily.
  • Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGES2: view

Function for PTGES2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate = (5Z,13E)-(15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isomerase activity is increased by sulfhydril compounds. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is most effective, followed by dihydrolipoic acid, glutathione (GSH) and 2-mercaptoethanol.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 into the more stable prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 25416956
GO:0020037 heme binding ISS --
GO:0043295 glutathione binding ISS --
GO:0050220 prostaglandin-E synthase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGES2: view

Animal Models for PTGES2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGES2:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGES2 Gene

Localization for PTGES2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

Golgi apparatus membrane; Single-pass membrane protein.
Prostaglandin E synthase 2 truncated form: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Note=Synthesized as a Golgi membrane-bound protein, which is further cleaved into the predominant soluble truncated form. The truncated form is cytoplasmic and is enriched in the perinuclear region. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12835322}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PTGES2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGES2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 4
golgi apparatus 4
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGES2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGES2: view

Pathways by source for PTGES2 Gene

1 PharmGKB pathway for PTGES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9H7Z7-PGES2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGES2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGES2 Gene

(2) Drugs for PTGES2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Dinoprostone Approved Pharma Major endogenous prostanoid 78

(3) Additional Compounds for PTGES2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Prostaglandin H2
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoate
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoic acid
  • (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9,11-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGES2: view

Transcripts for PTGES2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGES2 Gene

Prostaglandin E synthase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGES2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: -
SP11: - - -
SP13: - - -

ExUns: 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for PTGES2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTGES2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTGES2 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PTGES2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGES2 Gene Hs.495219

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGES2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Expressed in the heart, including apex, inter-ventricular septum, both atria and ventricles, but not in the aorta. Also expressed in fetal heart. Detected in various regions of the brain: cerebellum; occipital, frontal and parietal lobes. Also expressed in the lymph nodes, skeletal muscle, kidney and trachea, but not in the thymus or lung. Overexpressed in colorectal cancer.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGES2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGES2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein differential expression in normal tissues for PTGES2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGES2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PTGES2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGES2 35
  • 86.9 (n)
  • 88.08 (a)
  • 87 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGES2 35
  • 88.26 (n)
  • 89.97 (a)
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptges2 35
  • 83.07 (n)
  • 83.51 (a)
Ptges2 16
Ptges2 36
  • 81 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGES2 35
  • 99.12 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptges2 35
  • 83.07 (n)
  • 84.04 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGES2 36
  • 77 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGES2 36
  • 53 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGES2 35
  • 71.7 (n)
  • 75.44 (a)
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGES2 36
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptges2 35
  • 69.31 (n)
  • 72.92 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24945 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptgesl 35
  • 63.36 (n)
  • 65.41 (a)
zgc56527 35
ptgesl 36
  • 57 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5924 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004992 35
  • 53.68 (n)
  • 47.02 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Su(P) 35
  • 54.06 (n)
  • 44 (a)
Su(P) 36
  • 32 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R11A8.5 35
  • 52.54 (n)
  • 47.71 (a)
R11A8.5 36
  • 39 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G42150 35
  • 54.91 (n)
  • 51.04 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0244400 35
  • 56.99 (n)
  • 56.7 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.5225 36
  • 44 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PTGES2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Tree for PTGES2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PTGES2 (if available)

Paralogs for PTGES2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PTGES2 Gene

Variants for PTGES2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGES2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs13283456 - 128,122,474(+) GGAGG(A/C/T)GGTGC reference, missense
rs884115 -- 128,125,577(+) GGGGG(C/T)GGTAG intron-variant
rs1047453 -- 128,121,040(-) TCATT(C/T)TGCCC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1047460 -- 128,121,001(-) CGCTT(C/T)TAACA utr-variant-3-prime
rs7859008 -- 128,121,862(+) GAGCC(A/G)AGACT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGES2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv893859 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv471324 CNV Gain 18288195
nsv893890 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv818724 CNV Loss 17921354
nsv893891 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8294n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv6723 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv893893 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv893894 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for PTGES2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.67; 65.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PTGES2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

Disorders for PTGES2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PTGES2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
bladder papillary transitional cell neoplasm
  • urinary bladder papillary urothelial neoplasm
urinary tract papillary transitional cell benign neoplasm
  • inverted papilloma of urinary tract
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for PTGES2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGES2 Gene

Publications for PTGES2 Gene

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel type of membrane- associated prostaglandin E synthase. (PMID: 11866447) Tanikawa N. … Watanabe K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002) 2 3 4 67
  2. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2: cellular distribution and expression in Alzheimer's disease. (PMID: 19664621) Chaudhry U. … DorAc S. (Exp. Neurol. 2010) 3 23
  3. Influence of a type 2 diabetes associated prostaglandin E synthase 2 polymorphism on blood prostaglandin E2 levels. (PMID: 19268562) Boomgaarden I. … DAPring F. (Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 2009) 3 23
  4. The terminal prostaglandin synthases mPGES-1, mPGES-2, and cPGES are all overexpressed in human gliomas. (PMID: 19347995) Mattila S. … StenbAock F. (Neuropathology 2009) 3 23
  5. Association analysis between the prostaglandin E synthase 2 R298H polymorphism and body mass index in 8079 participants of the KORA study cohort. (PMID: 19371221) Fischer A. … Illig T. (Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2009) 3 23

Products for PTGES2 Gene

Sources for PTGES2 Gene