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Aliases for PTGES Gene

Aliases for PTGES Gene

  • Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 3 5
  • Microsomal Glutathione S-Transferase 1-Like 1 2 3 4
  • Tumor Protein P53 Inducible Protein 12 2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 1-Like 1 2 3
  • P53-Induced Gene 12 Protein 3 4
  • MGST1-Like 1 2 3
  • MGST1-L1 3 4
  • MPGES-1 3 4
  • MGST1L1 3 4
  • PIG12 3 4
  • PGES 3 4
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase 1 4
  • P53-Induced Apoptosis Protein 12 3
  • P53-Induced Gene 12 2
  • EC 4
  • MGST-IV 3
  • TP53I12 3
  • PP1294 3
  • MPGES1 4
  • MPGES 3
  • PP102 3

External Ids for PTGES Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGES Gene

  • MGST1L1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGES Gene

  • GC09M123615
  • GC09M124147
  • GC09M125954
  • GC09M127876
  • GC09M129580
  • GC09M131540
  • GC09M132500
  • GC09M102099

Summaries for PTGES Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGES Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase. The expression of this gene has been shown to be induced by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1B). Its expression can also be induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53, and may be involved in TP53 induced apoptosis. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis and mediate acute pain during inflammatory responses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PTGES Gene

PTGES (Prostaglandin E Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGES include Arthritis and Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and DAG and IP3 signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include glutathione binding and prostaglandin-E synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MGST1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

  • Catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Gene Wiki entry for PTGES Gene

Additional gene information for PTGES Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGES Gene

Genomics for PTGES Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTGES Gene

Enhancers for PTGES Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH09H129748 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.5 +26.1 26083 5.4 SIN3A BRCA1 ZNF121 ZNF143 FOS DEK SP3 SMARCB1 ZNF623 MAFF PTGES TOR1A GC09M129739
GH09H129693 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 +77.7 77733 11.8 TBP ATF1 ARNT SIN3A GLIS2 RCOR1 FOS CREM EGR2 SMARCA5 PRRX2 ASB6 ENSG00000234789 PTGES TOR1A USP20 C9orf78 C9orf50 PIR44517 PRRX2-AS1
GH09H129724 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.3 +51.2 51194 2.7 HDAC1 RB1 ZNF2 BRCA1 RAD21 RFX5 GLIS2 ZNF143 RCOR1 ATF7 PRRX2 PTGES TOR1B ASB6 ENSG00000234789 TOR1A C9orf78 USP20 C9orf50 PRRX2-AS1
GH09H129760 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.5 +14.8 14847 3.1 PKNOX1 ARNT TCF12 GTF3C2 ZNF121 ATF7 FOS DEK NCOA1 MEF2D NUP188 LOC101929314 EXOSC2 PTGES GC09M129739
GH09H129742 1.3 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 7.5 +33.7 33717 1.5 HDAC1 LEF1 PKNOX1 ATF1 TBL1XR1 CCNT2 EGR1 ATF7 CREM SMARCE1 TOR1B ENSG00000234789 ASB6 PTGES GC09M129739
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PTGES on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGES gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for PTGES Gene

Genomic Locations for PTGES Gene
38,997 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGES Gene

Genes around PTGES on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGES Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGES Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGES Gene

Proteins for PTGES Gene

  • Protein details for PTGES Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin E synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O14900
    • Q5SZC0

    Protein attributes for PTGES Gene

    152 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17102 Da
    Name=glutathione; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57925;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGES Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGES Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTGES Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PTGES Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTGES Gene

Domains & Families for PTGES Gene

Gene Families for PTGES Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGES Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGES: view

Function for PTGES Gene

Molecular function for PTGES Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate = (5Z,13E)-(15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By p53/TP53.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGES Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTGES Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016853 isomerase activity IEA --
GO:0043295 glutathione binding IDA 18682561
GO:0050220 prostaglandin-E synthase activity IDA,EXP 18682561
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGES: view

Animal Models for PTGES Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGES:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PTGES

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGES Gene

Localization for PTGES Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGES gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 1
mitochondrion 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005641 nuclear envelope lumen IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane TAS 10377395
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IDA,IEA 18682561
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGES Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGES: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process IDA 18682561
GO:0002526 acute inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0002544 chronic inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGES Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGES Gene

(14) Drugs for PTGES Gene - From: PharmGKB, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor 449
Flurbiprofen Approved, Investigational Pharma Channel blocker 53
Suprofen Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 0
Glutathione Approved Nutra 0
Mesalamine Pharma 166

(14) Additional Compounds for PTGES Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Prostaglandin H2
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoate
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoic acid
  • (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9,11-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate

(3) ApexBio Compounds for PTGES Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Flurbiprofen 5104-49-4
Mesalamine 89-57-6
Suprofen 40828-46-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGES: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PTGES Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGES Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGES Gene

Prostaglandin E synthase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PTGES

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGES Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTGES Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTGES Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PTGES Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGES Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x4.6) and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGES Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (60.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTGES Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PTGES Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGES Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGES Gene

  • Pancreas(4.1)
  • Heart(3)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Nervous system(2.4)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Intestine(2.2)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGES: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGES Gene

Orthologs for PTGES Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PTGES Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGES 33 34
  • 99.12 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGES 33 34
  • 88.81 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGES 33 34
  • 88.38 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptges 33 16 34
  • 83.33 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptges 33
  • 82.46 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGES 34
  • 67 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGES 34
  • 63 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGES 33 34
  • 74.13 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGES 34
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptges 33
  • 69.01 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.19439 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptges 33 34
  • 66.17 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mgstl 34
  • 34 (a)
CG33178 34
  • 30 (a)
CG33177 34
  • 28 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PTGES was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGES Gene

Gene Tree for PTGES (if available)
Gene Tree for PTGES (if available)

Paralogs for PTGES Gene

Paralogs for PTGES Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTGES Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGES: view

Variants for PTGES Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGES Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000061343 -- 129,754,033(+) GGGAA(A/C)CAGCA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000089082 -- 129,740,978(+) GAGTG(A/G)GGACC intron-variant
rs1000134821 -- 129,754,180(+) GGGCG(C/T)GGTGG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000176886 -- 129,762,719(+) TCAAG(A/G)AGGAA intron-variant
rs1000198075 -- 129,776,529(+) CTCTT(-/CA)CAGAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGES Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv6728 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv1046477 CNV gain 25217958
esv3621839 CNV loss 21293372
dgv1511e214 CNV gain 21293372

Variation tolerance for PTGES Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 1.35; 26.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PTGES Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

Disorders for PTGES Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for PTGES Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • inflammatory disorder of joint
necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  • acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis
amphetamine abuse
bartter syndrome, type 3
  • bartter disease type 3
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTGES in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PTGES

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGES: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGES Gene

Publications for PTGES Gene

  1. Genetic variation in prostaglandin E2 synthesis and signaling, prostaglandin dehydrogenase, and the risk of colorectal adenoma. (PMID: 20086108) Poole EM … Ulrich CM (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 22 45 60
  2. Variation in eicosanoid genes, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. (PMID: 19046748) Lemaitre RN … Psaty BM (Atherosclerosis 2009) 3 22 45 60
  3. Common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin pathway genes and their association with breast cancer susceptibility and survival. (PMID: 19276290) Abraham JE … Pharoah PD (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2009) 3 22 45 60
  4. Joint effect between regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, variants in inflammatory genes and risk of lymphoma. (PMID: 18038187) Hoeft B … Nieters A (Cancer causes & control : CCC 2008) 3 22 45 60
  5. Genetic analysis of 22 candidate genes for hypertension in the Japanese population. (PMID: 15167446) Iwai N … Shioji K (Journal of hypertension 2004) 3 22 45 60

Products for PTGES Gene

Sources for PTGES Gene

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