Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PTGES Gene

Aliases for PTGES Gene

  • Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 3 5
  • Microsomal Glutathione S-Transferase 1-Like 1 2 3 4
  • Tumor Protein P53 Inducible Protein 12 2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase 1 3 4
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 1-Like 1 2 3
  • P53-Induced Gene 12 Protein 3 4
  • MGST1-Like 1 2 3
  • MGST1-L1 3 4
  • MPGES-1 3 4
  • MGST1L1 3 4
  • PIG12 3 4
  • PGES 3 4
  • P53-Induced Apoptosis Protein 12 3
  • P53-Induced Gene 12 2
  • EC 4
  • MGST-IV 3
  • TP53I12 3
  • PP1294 3
  • MPGES1 4
  • MPGES 3
  • PP102 3

External Ids for PTGES Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGES Gene

  • MGST1L1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGES Gene

  • GC09M123615
  • GC09M124147
  • GC09M125954
  • GC09M127876
  • GC09M129580
  • GC09M131540
  • GC09M132500
  • GC09M102099

Summaries for PTGES Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGES Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase. The expression of this gene has been shown to be induced by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1B). Its expression can also be induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53, and may be involved in TP53 induced apoptosis. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis and mediate acute pain during inflammatory responses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PTGES Gene

PTGES (Prostaglandin E Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGES include Arthritis and Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis. Among its related pathways are Arachidonic acid metabolism and PEDF Induced Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include glutathione binding and prostaglandin-E synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MGST1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

  • Catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Gene Wiki entry for PTGES Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGES Gene

Genomics for PTGES Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTGES Gene

Enhancers for PTGES Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PTGES on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGES gene promoter:

Genomic Location for PTGES Gene

129,738,331 bp from pter
129,777,327 bp from pter
38,997 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGES Gene

Genes around PTGES on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGES Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGES Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGES Gene

Proteins for PTGES Gene

  • Protein details for PTGES Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin E synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O14900
    • Q5SZC0

    Protein attributes for PTGES Gene

    152 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17102 Da
    Name=glutathione; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57925;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGES Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGES Gene

Proteomics data for PTGES Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTGES Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PTGES Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTGES Gene

Domains & Families for PTGES Gene

Gene Families for PTGES Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGES Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGES: view

Function for PTGES Gene

Molecular function for PTGES Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate = (5Z,13E)-(15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By p53/TP53.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGES Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGES: view

Animal Models for PTGES Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGES:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PTGES

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGES Gene

Localization for PTGES Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PTGES Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGES gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 3
extracellular 3
nucleus 3
peroxisome 2
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
plasma membrane 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005641 nuclear envelope lumen IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IDA 18682561
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGES Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGES: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002526 acute inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0002544 chronic inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0014070 response to organic cyclic compound IEA --
GO:0019369 arachidonic acid metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGES Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGES Gene

(13) Drugs for PTGES Gene - From: PharmGKB, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor 423
Flurbiprofen Approved, Investigational Pharma Channel blocker 45
Suprofen Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 0
Dinoprostone Approved Pharma Major endogenous prostanoid 78
Glutathione Approved Nutra 0

(15) Additional Compounds for PTGES Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Prostaglandin H2
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoate
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoic acid
  • (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9,11-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate

(3) ApexBio Compounds for PTGES Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Flurbiprofen 5104-49-4
Mesalamine 89-57-6
Suprofen 40828-46-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGES: view

Transcripts for PTGES Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGES Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGES Gene

Prostaglandin E synthase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGES Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTGES Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTGES Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTGES Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGES Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x4.6) and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGES Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (60.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PTGES Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGES Gene Hs.146688

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGES: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGES Gene

Orthologs for PTGES Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PTGES Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGES 35
  • 88.38 (n)
  • 85.53 (a)
  • 84 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGES 35
  • 88.81 (n)
  • 85.62 (a)
  • 82 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptges 35
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 79.61 (a)
Ptges 16
Ptges 36
  • 76 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGES 35
  • 99.12 (n)
  • 98.03 (a)
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptges 35
  • 82.46 (n)
  • 80.26 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGES 36
  • 67 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGES 36
  • 63 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGES 35
  • 74.13 (n)
  • 71.33 (a)
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGES 36
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptges 35
  • 69.01 (n)
  • 64.08 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.19439 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptges 35
  • 66.17 (n)
  • 66.42 (a)
ptges 36
  • 62 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG33177 36
  • 28 (a)
CG33178 36
  • 30 (a)
Mgstl 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PTGES:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGES Gene

Gene Tree for PTGES (if available)
Gene Tree for PTGES (if available)

Paralogs for PTGES Gene

Paralogs for PTGES Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTGES Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGES: view

Variants for PTGES Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGES Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs920658 -- 129,749,956(-) TCAGC(A/G)CGGAG intron-variant
rs1017508 -- 129,776,268(+) CAGGC(A/G)TGAGC intron-variant
rs1017509 -- 129,776,640(+) AGATT(C/T)CAATT intron-variant
rs1134679 -- 129,739,433(-) TGTGT(A/G)TGTGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1134680 -- 129,739,427(-) TGTGT(A/G)TGTGT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGES Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv893919 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv893924 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv893925 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv893926 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv893927 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv6728 CNV Loss 18451855

Variation tolerance for PTGES Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 1.35; 26.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for PTGES Gene

Disorders for PTGES Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PTGES Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • inflammatory disorder of joint
necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  • acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTGES in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PTGES

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGES: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGES Gene

Publications for PTGES Gene

  1. A model for p53-induced apoptosis. (PMID: 9305847) Polyak K. … Vogelstein B. (Nature 1997) 2 3 4 67
  2. Hypoxia activates the cyclooxygenase-2-prostaglandin E synthase axis. (PMID: 20042640) Lee J.J. … Nakagawa H. (Carcinogenesis 2010) 3 23
  3. Genetic variation in prostaglandin E2 synthesis and signaling, prostaglandin dehydrogenase, and the risk of colorectal adenoma. (PMID: 20086108) Poole E.M. … Ulrich C.M. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2010) 3 23
  4. Variation in eicosanoid genes, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. (PMID: 19046748) Lemaitre R.N. … Psaty B.M. (Atherosclerosis 2009) 3 23
  5. Common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin pathway genes and their association with breast cancer susceptibility and survival. (PMID: 19276290) Abraham J.E. … Pharoah P.D. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23

Products for PTGES Gene

Sources for PTGES Gene