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Aliases for PTGDS Gene

Aliases for PTGDS Gene

  • Prostaglandin D2 Synthase 2 3 5
  • Lipocalin-Type Prostaglandin D Synthase 2 3
  • Prostaglandin D2 Synthase 21kDa (Brain) 2 3
  • Lipocalin-Type Prostaglandin-D Synthase 3 4
  • Glutathione-Independent PGD Synthase 3 4
  • Prostaglandin-D2 Synthase 3 4
  • Beta-Trace Protein 3 4
  • PGD2 Synthase 3 4
  • Cerebrin-28 3 4
  • EC 5.3.99.2 4 63
  • PGDS2 3 4
  • PGDS 3 4
  • PDS 3 4
  • Testis Tissue Sperm-Binding Protein Li 63n 3
  • Prostaglandin D2 Synthase (21kD, Brain) 2
  • Glutathione-Independent PGD Synthetase 3
  • Prostaglandin D Synthase 3
  • L-PGDS 3
  • LPGDS 3
  • PGD2 3

External Ids for PTGDS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGDS Gene

  • GC09M131178
  • GC09P131561
  • GC09P133310
  • GC09P135226
  • GC09P137145
  • GC09P138989
  • GC09P139871
  • GC09P109331

Summaries for PTGDS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGDS Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to postaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 functions as a neuromodulator as well as a trophic factor in the central nervous system. PGD2 is also involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. This gene is preferentially expressed in brain. Studies with transgenic mice overexpressing this gene suggest that this gene may be also involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PTGDS Gene

PTGDS (Prostaglandin D2 Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGDS include pendred syndrome and deafness, autosomal recessive 4, with enlarged vestibular aqueduct. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include transporter activity and retinoid binding. An important paralog of this gene is LCN15.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGDS Gene

  • Catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Involved in a variety of CNS functions, such as sedation, NREM sleep and PGE2-induced allodynia, and may have an anti-apoptotic role in oligodendrocytes. Binds small non-substrate lipophilic molecules, including biliverdin, bilirubin, retinal, retinoic acid and thyroid hormone, and may act as a scavenger for harmful hydrophopic molecules and as a secretory retinoid and thyroid hormone transporter. Possibly involved in development and maintenance of the blood-brain, blood-retina, blood-aqueous humor and blood-testis barrier. It is likely to play important roles in both maturation and maintenance of the central nervous system and male reproductive system.

Tocris Summary for PTGDS Gene

Gene Wiki entry for PTGDS Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGDS Gene

Genomics for PTGDS Gene

Regulatory Elements for PTGDS Gene

Promoters for PTGDS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PTGDS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PTGDS Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
136,977,504 bp from pter
End:
136,985,435 bp from pter
Size:
7,932 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PTGDS Gene

Genes around PTGDS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGDS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGDS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGDS Gene

Proteins for PTGDS Gene

  • Protein details for PTGDS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P41222-PTGDS_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase
    Protein Accession:
    P41222
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R727
    • Q5SQ10
    • Q7M4P3
    • Q9UC22
    • Q9UCC9
    • Q9UCD9

    Protein attributes for PTGDS Gene

    Size:
    190 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21029 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    Miscellaneous:
    • It has been proposed that the urinary and serum levels may provide a sensitive indicator of renal damage in diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Elevated levels in the coronary circulation may also be associated with angina. Changes in charge and molecular weight microheterogeneity, due to modification of the N-linked oligosaccharides, may be associated with neurodegenerative disease and multiple sclerosis. Detected in meningioma but not in other brain tumors and may be considered a specific cell marker for meningioma. Expression levels in amniotic fluid are altered in abnormal pregnancies. Levels are lower in pregnancies with trisomic fetuses and fetuses with renal abnormalities.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGDS Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGDS Gene

Proteomics data for PTGDS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PTGDS Gene

  • N- and O-glycosylated. Both N-glycosylation recognition sites are almost quantitatively occupied by N-glycans of the biantennary complex type, with a considerable proportion of structures bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycan at Asn-78: dHex1Hex5HexNAc4. Agalacto structure as well as sialylated and nonsialylated oligosaccharides bearing alpha2-3- and/or alpha2-6-linked NeuNAc are present.
  • Glycosylation at Ser 29, Asn 51, and Asn 78
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PTGDS Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PTGDS (PGD2 Synthase/PTGDS)

Domains & Families for PTGDS Gene

Gene Families for PTGDS Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGDS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P41222

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PTGDS_HUMAN :
  • Forms a beta-barrel structure that accommodates hydrophobic ligands in its interior.
  • Belongs to the calycin superfamily. Lipocalin family.
Domain:
  • Forms a beta-barrel structure that accommodates hydrophobic ligands in its interior.
Family:
  • Belongs to the calycin superfamily. Lipocalin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGDS: view

Function for PTGDS Gene

Molecular function for PTGDS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prostaglandin D2 synthase,glutathione independent,21kDa,brain-specific,membrane associated lipocalcin family
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(5Z,13E,15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate = (5Z,13E,15S)-9-alpha,15-dihydroxy-11-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Involved in a variety of CNS functions, such as sedation, NREM sleep and PGE2-induced allodynia, and may have an anti-apoptotic role in oligodendrocytes. Binds small non-substrate lipophilic molecules, including biliverdin, bilirubin, retinal, retinoic acid and thyroid hormone, and may act as a scavenger for harmful hydrophopic molecules and as a secretory retinoid and thyroid hormone transporter. Possibly involved in development and maintenance of the blood-brain, blood-retina, blood-aqueous humor and blood-testis barrier. It is likely to play important roles in both maturation and maintenance of the central nervous system and male reproductive system.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By IL1B/interleukin-1 beta and thyroid hormone. Probably induced by dexamethasone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), progesterone, retinoic acid and retinal. Repressed by the Notch-Hes signaling pathway.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGDS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGDS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005501 retinoid binding ISS --
GO:0005504 fatty acid binding IDA 20667974
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGDS: view

Animal Models for PTGDS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGDS:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PTGDS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGDS

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGDS Gene

Localization for PTGDS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGDS Gene

Rough endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleus membrane. Golgi apparatus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Secreted. Note=Detected on rough endoplasmic reticulum of arachnoid and menigioma cells. Localized to the nuclear envelope, Golgi apparatus, secretory vesicles and spherical cytoplasmic structures in arachnoid trabecular cells, and to circular cytoplasmic structures in meningeal macrophages and perivascular microglial cells. In oligodendrocytes, localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. In retinal pigment epithelial cells, localized to distinct cytoplasmic domains including the perinuclear region. Also secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PTGDS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGDS gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 4
nucleus 4
cytosol 1
lysosome 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGDS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005791 rough endoplasmic reticulum IDA 9065498
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDS: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGDS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGDS: view

Pathways by source for PTGDS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGDS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006810 transport IEA,ISS --
GO:0019369 arachidonic acid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0045187 regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep ISS --
GO:0051384 response to glucocorticoid IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGDS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGDS Gene

(9) Drugs for PTGDS Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Risedronate Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase inhibitor 0
Prostaglandin D2 Experimental Pharma 0

(20) Additional Compounds for PTGDS Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Prostaglandin H2
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (15S)Hydroxy-9alpha,11alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic acid
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoate
  • (5Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R,6R)-6-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-yl}hept-5-enoic acid
  • (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9,11-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
42935-17-1
5-Fluorouracil
51-21-8
N1,N12-Diethylspermine tetrahydrochloride
113812-15-0
Ozagrel hydrochloride
74003-18-2
Triacsin C
76896-80-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGDS: view

Transcripts for PTGDS Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGDS Gene

Prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGDS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTGDS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGDS
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PTGDS

Expression for PTGDS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PTGDS Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGDS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Atrial Appendage (x5.0) and Heart - Left Ventricle (x5.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGDS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cerebrospinal fluid (39.8), Vitreous humor (17.5), and Urine (9.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PTGDS Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGDS Gene Hs.446429

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGDS Gene

P41222-PTGDS_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Abundant in the brain and CNS, where it is expressed in tissues of the blood-brain barrier and secreted into the cerebro-spinal fluid. Abundantly expressed in the heart. In the male reproductive system, it is expressed in the testis, epididymis and prostate, and is secreted into the seminal fluid. Expressed in the eye and secreted into the aqueous humor. Lower levels detected in various tissue fluids such as serum, normal urine, ascitic fluid and tear fluid. Also found in a number of other organs including ovary, fimbriae of the fallopian tubes, kidney, leukocytes.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGDS: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGDS Gene

Orthologs for PTGDS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTGDS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGDS 35
  • 97.97 (n)
  • 97.3 (a)
PTGDS 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGDS 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
PTGDS 35
  • 78.77 (n)
  • 72.11 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGDS 35
  • 82.75 (n)
  • 75.88 (a)
PTGDS 36
  • 51 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptgds 16
Ptgds 35
  • 80.78 (n)
  • 72.49 (a)
Ptgds 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGDS 36
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGDS 36
  • 33 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgds 35
  • 77.25 (n)
  • 69.31 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGDS 35
  • 60.38 (n)
  • 46.86 (a)
PTGDS 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGDS 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii PTGDS (2 of 3) 36
  • 24 (a)
OneToMany
PTGDS (3 of 3) 36
  • 22 (a)
OneToMany
ptgdsb 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PTGDS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGDS Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGDS (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGDS (if available)

Paralogs for PTGDS Gene

Paralogs for PTGDS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PTGDS Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGDS: view

Variants for PTGDS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGDS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs11552179 - 136,979,045(+) GCTCC(A/G)GGAGA reference, missense
rs7862008 -- 136,978,116(+) GCCGG(A/C)GACGC intron-variant
rs8192608 -- 136,980,135(+) GGGCA(A/C/T)ACAGC intron-variant
rs8192609 -- 136,980,213(+) GTTAA(A/C/T)GGAGA reference, missense
rs8192610 -- 136,980,846(+) ATGAC(A/C/G)GAACA reference, synonymous-codon

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGDS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv469918 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv894387 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2422220 CNV Deletion 17116639
dgv8412n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8415n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8416n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv818738 CNV Gain 17921354
nsv524322 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv894469 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894483 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8423n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894500 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894502 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894503 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894506 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv8425n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8426n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894510 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv8427n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv894513 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894514 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8428n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894521 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8429n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894526 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894527 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv8430n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv894529 CNV Gain+Loss 21882294
dgv8431n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8432n71 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv8433n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv894535 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8434n71 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv8435n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv894543 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv8436n71 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for PTGDS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.63; 13.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PTGDS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PTGDS
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTGDS

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGDS Gene

Disorders for PTGDS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(19) MalaCards diseases for PTGDS Gene - From: OMIM, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pendred syndrome
  • autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing impairment and goiter
deafness, autosomal recessive 4, with enlarged vestibular aqueduct
  • enlarged vestibular aqueduct, digenic
egg allergy
  • allergy to eggs
cerebrospinal fluid leak
  • csf leak
normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • low pressure hydrocephalus
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTGDS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PTGDS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PTGDS
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PTGDS
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PTGDS
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGDS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGDS Gene

Publications for PTGDS Gene

  1. Human brain prostaglandin D synthase has been evolutionarily differentiated from lipophilic-ligand carrier proteins. (PMID: 1902577) Nagata A. … Hayaishi O. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 2 3 4 67
  2. Expression and characterization of PGD2 receptors in chronic rhinosinusitis: modulation of DP and CRTH2 by PGD2. (PMID: 18802357) Yamamoto M. … Nishizaki K. (Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 2009) 3 23
  3. Biochemical, functional, and pharmacological characterization of AT-56, an orally active and selective inhibitor of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. (PMID: 19131342) Irikura D. … Urade Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 23
  4. Common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin pathway genes and their association with breast cancer susceptibility and survival. (PMID: 19276290) Abraham J.E. … Pharoah P.D. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23
  5. De novo synthesis, uptake and proteolytic processing of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase, beta-trace, in the kidneys. (PMID: 19878301) Nagata N. … Urade Y. (FEBS J. 2009) 3 23

Products for PTGDS Gene

Sources for PTGDS Gene

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