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PTGDS Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC09P139871

Prostaglandin D2 Synthase 21kDa (Brain)

(Previous names: prostaglandin D2 synthase (21kD, brain))
  See PTGDS-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Prostaglandin D2 Synthase 21kDa (Brain)1 2     EC 5.3.99.23 8
Lipocalin-Type Prostaglandin D Synthase1 2     Prostaglandin D2 Synthase (21kD, Brain)1
Beta-Trace Protein2 3     L-PGDS2
Glutathione-Independent PGD Synthase2 3     LPGDS2
Lipocalin-Type Prostaglandin-D Synthase2 3     PGD22
Prostaglandin-D2 Synthase2 3     cerebrin-282
PDS2 3     Glutathione-Independent PGD Synthetase2
PGDS2 3     Prostaglandin D Synthase2
PGDS22 3     Prostaglandin-H2 D-Isomerase2
PGD2 Synthase2 3     Cerebrin-283

External Ids:    HGNC: 95921   Entrez Gene: 57302   Ensembl: ENSG000001073177   OMIM: 1768035   UniProtKB: P412223   

Export aliases for PTGDS gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC09M131178 GC09P131561 GC09P133310 GC09P135226 GC09P137145 GC09P138989 GC09P109331


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PTGDS Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the
conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to postaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 functions as a neuromodulator as well as a
trophic factor in the central nervous system. PGD2 is also involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and
is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. This gene is preferentially expressed in brain. Studies with
transgenic mice overexpressing this gene suggest that this gene may be also involved in the regulation of
non-rapid eye movement sleep. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PTGDS Gene:
PTGDS (prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGDS include cerebrospinal fluid leak, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. GO annotations related to this gene include retinoid binding and transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is LCNL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PTGDS_HUMAN, P41222
Function: Catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle
contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Involved in a variety of CNS functions,
such as sedation, NREM sleep and PGE2-induced allodynia, and may have an anti-apoptotic role in oligodendrocytes.
Binds small non-substrate lipophilic molecules, including biliverdin, bilirubin, retinal, retinoic acid and
thyroid hormone, and may act as a scavenger for harmful hydrophopic molecules and as a secretory retinoid and
thyroid hormone transporter. Possibly involved in development and maintenance of the blood-brain, blood-retina,
blood-aqueous humor and blood-testis barrier. It is likely to play important roles in both maturation and
maintenance of the central nervous system and male reproductive system

Gene Wiki entry for PTGDS (Prostaglandin D2 synthase) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000009.12  NC_018920.2  NT_008470.20  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PTGDS gene promoter:
         c-Fos   CREB   AP-1   deltaCREB   ATF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPTGDS promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PTGDS

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PTGDS


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 9q34.2-q34.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  9q34.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 9q34.2-q34.3

PTGDS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PTGDS gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 9         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC09P139871:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
139,871,956 bp from pter      End:
139,879,887 bp from pter
Size:
7,932 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PTGDS_HUMAN, P41222 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase precursor  
Size: 190 amino acids; 21029 Da
Subunit: Monomer
Developmental stage: Expression in the amniotic fluid increases dramatically during weeks 12 to 25 of pregnancy.
Levels decrease slowly after 25 weeks
Miscellaneous: It has been proposed that the urinary and serum levels may provide a sensitive indicator of renal
damage in diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Elevated levels in the coronary circulation may also be associated
with angina. Changes in charge and molecular weight microheterogeneity, due to modification of the N-linked
oligosaccharides, may be associated with neurodegenerative disease and multiple sclerosis. Detected in meningioma
but not in other brain tumors and may be considered a specific cell marker for meningioma. Expression levels in
amniotic fluid are altered in abnormal pregnancies. Levels are lower in pregnancies with trisomic fetuses and
fetuses with renal abnormalities
6 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PTGDS:
2WWP (3D)        3O19 (3D)        3O22 (3D)        3O2Y (3D)        4IMN (3D)        4IMO (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2R727 Q5SQ10 Q7M4P3 Q9UC22 Q9UCC9 Q9UCD9

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PTGDS: NX_P41222

Explore proteomics data for PTGDS at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • N- and O-glycosylated. Both N-glycosylation recognition sites are almost quantitatively occupied by N-glycans of
    the biantennary complex type, with a considerable proportion of structures bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycan
    at Asn-78: dHex1Hex5HexNAc4. Agalacto structure as well as sialylated and nonsialylated oligosaccharides bearing
    alpha2-3- and/or alpha2-6-linked NeuNAc are present1
  • Glycosylation2 at Ser29, Asn51, Asn78
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PTGDS (P41222) (see all 8)
     HTLWMGL  SLGSYSY  MATLYSR  IVFLPQTDKC 


    See PTGDS Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000945.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000392633   ENSP00000360687   ENSP00000360685   ENSP00000435033   ENSP00000397468  
     ENSP00000392692   ENSP00000224167  
    Reactome Protein details: P41222

    PTGDS Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals PTGDS Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PTGDS Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PTGDS
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PTGDS
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PTGDS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PTGDS

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PTGDS 

    PTGDS Antibody Products:

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    R&D Systems Antibodies for PTGDS (PGD2 Synthase/PTGDS)
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    Abcam antibodies for PTGDS
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    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PTGDS
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PTGDS

    PTGDS Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PTGDS
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PTGDS
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PTGDS 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    LCN: Lipocalins

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: L-PGDS
    Prostaglandin synthases

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR012674 Calycin
     IPR011038 Calycin-like
     IPR002345 Lipocalin
     IPR022272 Lipocalin_CS
     IPR000566 Lipocln_cytosolic_FA-bd_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P41222

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P41222

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB002345 Lipocalin signature
    IPB002972 Prostaglandin D synthase signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PTGDS_HUMAN, P41222
    Domain: Forms a beta-barrel structure that accommodates hydrophobic ligands in its interior
    Similarity: Belongs to the calycin superfamily. Lipocalin family


    Find genes that share domains with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PTGDS_HUMAN, P41222
    Function: Catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle
    contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Involved in a variety of CNS functions,
    such as sedation, NREM sleep and PGE2-induced allodynia, and may have an anti-apoptotic role in oligodendrocytes.
    Binds small non-substrate lipophilic molecules, including biliverdin, bilirubin, retinal, retinoic acid and
    thyroid hormone, and may act as a scavenger for harmful hydrophopic molecules and as a secretory retinoid and
    thyroid hormone transporter. Possibly involved in development and maintenance of the blood-brain, blood-retina,
    blood-aqueous humor and blood-testis barrier. It is likely to play important roles in both maturation and
    maintenance of the central nervous system and male reproductive system
    Catalytic activity: (5Z,13E,15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate =
    (5Z,13E,15S)-9-alpha,15-dihydroxy-11-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate
    Induction: By IL1B/interleukin-1 beta and thyroid hormone. Probably induced by dexamethasone, dihydrotestosterone
    (DHT), progesterone, retinoic acid and retinal. Repressed by the Notch-Hes signaling pathway

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PTGDS:
    prostaglandin D2 synthase,glutathione independent,21kDa,brain-specific,membrane associated lipocalcin family

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 5.3.99.21 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004667prostaglandin-D synthase activity ISS--
    GO:0005215transporter activity ISS--
    GO:0005501retinoid binding ISS--
    GO:0005504fatty acid binding IDA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         8 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Ptgds):
     behavior/neurological  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument 
     mortality/aging  no phenotypic analysis  tumorigenesis 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PTGDS: Ptgdstm1Mfg Ptgdstm1Ohy

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PTGDS
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PTGDS

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PTGDS
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PTGDS

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGDS:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017585)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PTGDS using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PTGDS
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPTGDS 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PTGDS

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PTGDS (NM_000954)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PTGDS
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PTGDS
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PTGDS

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PTGDS


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PTGDS_HUMAN, P41222: Rough endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleus membrane. Golgi apparatus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear
    region. Secreted. Note=Detected on rough endoplasmic reticulum of arachnoid and menigioma cells. Localized to the
    nuclear envelope, Golgi apparatus, secretory vesicles and spherical cytoplasmic structures in arachnoid
    trabecular cells, and to circular cytoplasmic structures in meningeal macrophages and perivascular microglial
    cells. In oligodendrocytes, localized to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. In retinal pigment
    epithelial cells, localized to distinct cytoplasmic domains including the perinuclear region. Also secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    endoplasmic reticulum5
    extracellular5
    golgi apparatus5
    nucleus5
    cytosol2
    plasma membrane2
    lysosome1
    peroxisome1
    vacuole1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IDA7692978
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA19878301
    GO:0005789endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS--
    GO:0005791rough endoplasmic reticulum IDA9065498
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PTGDS About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.41
    Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)0.00
    Arachidonic acid metabolism0.40
    C20 prostanoid biosynthesis0.00
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    4Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM
    Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM
    5Eicosanoid Synthesis
    Eicosanoid Synthesis


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PTGDS
        Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM

    3 BioSystems Pathways for PTGDS
        Eicosanoid Synthesis
    Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    C20 prostanoid biosynthesis


    1 Reactome Pathway for PTGDS
        Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)


    2 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PTGDS):
        Arachidonic acid metabolism
    Metabolic pathways

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PTGDS: 
              Circadian Rhythms in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PTGDS

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 18)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PTGDS (P412222, 3 ENSP000003606874) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 23)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ATXN1P542532, 3, ENSP000002447694MINT-2862313 MINT-2862294 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000244769
    CAPN1P073843, ENSP000002792474I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000279247
    HK2P527893, ENSP000002905734I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000290573
    PTGER1P349953, ENSP000002925134I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000292513
    PTGER2P431163, ENSP000002454574I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000245457
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001516prostaglandin biosynthetic process ISS--
    GO:0006629lipid metabolic process ----
    GO:0006810transport ISS--
    GO:0019369arachidonic acid metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0019371cyclooxygenase pathway TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for PTGDS available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    RisedronateFarnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase inhibitor[115436-72-1]
    BorrelidinAntiangiogenic; inhibits threonyl-tRNA synthetase[7184-60-3]
    AT 56L-PGDS inhibitor[162640-98-4]
    TrifluorothymidineThymidylate synthase inhibitor; induces DNA fragmentation[70-00-8]
    HQL 79Human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) inhibitor[162641-16-9]

    1 HMDB Compound for PTGDS    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Prostaglandin H2Prostaglandin-H2 (see all 27)42935-17-1--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PTGDS gene (see all 22)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    pgd2 94 144 16154157 (8), 16986732 (5), 1588043 (5), 20080921 (5) (see all 60)
    prostaglandin 78.2 26 12020781 (2), 14695453 (1), 16986732 (1), 16842938 (1) (see all 15)
    prostaglandin-h2 78.1 8 8599604 (1), 8761996 (1), 11339279 (1), 20386697 (1) (see all 7)
    pgh2 67.3 5 16986732 (1), 12432930 (1), 20122226 (1), 9844724 (1)
    bw245c 67.2 1 12494276 (1)
    15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin j2 62.2 1 12623786 (1)
    ltc4 51.3 3 9821474 (1), 19364335 (1), 1588043 (1)
    retinoid 30.9 3 9188476 (1), 10650953 (1)
    retinoic acid 28 5 12842099 (1), 10650953 (1), 18812854 (1)
    ctp 27.4 4 10819784 (2), 16431015 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PTGDS gene: 
    NM_000954.5  

    Unigene Cluster for PTGDS:

    Prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)
    Hs.446429  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BM805807
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000457950 ENST00000371625 ENST00000371623 ENST00000471521 ENST00000446677
    ENST00000460340 ENST00000492068 ENST00000462514 ENST00000444903 ENST00000467871
    ENST00000224167(uc004ckd.3 uc004cke.3)
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PTGDS

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK075333.1 AK312817.1 AY026356.1 BC005939.1 BT019921.1 BT019922.1 M61900.2 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 25):

    DT.419709  DT.75169245  DT.100031548  DT.438690  DT.91798653  DT.91798752  DT.95278750  DT.121164037 
    DT.95278758  DT.95278767  DT.100031549  DT.97791735  DT.92058707  DT.92005211  DT.92017473  DT.95139548 
    DT.95278763  DT.100817884  DT.121164021  DT.121164049  DT.95278695  DT.95278765  DT.95278769  DT.97855711 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 821):

    CA389079 AA325421 AA318579 BM690894 BM688894 CA389221 BM691524 C05072 
    BM686108 CR612267 CR614437 CR594734 BQ876483 AA318109 BM686168 AL044876 
    BM705162 AJ710229 BM696486 BQ880030 BM694186 BM704712 BU728067 AL044730 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PTGDS expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACGGAACAAT
    PTGDS Expression
    About this image


    PTGDS expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 25) fully expand
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             XY Germ Cells Testis Cord
             Testis Interstitium
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Forebrain White Matter
             Cerebellum
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mature Endothelial Cells Corneal Endothelium
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mature Endothelial Cells Corneal Endothelium
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Plasmacytoid Dendritic cells Peripheral Blood
    PTGDS Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PTGDS Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.446429

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PTGDS_HUMAN, P41222
    Tissue specificity: Abundant in the brain and CNS, where it is expressed in tissues of the blood-brain barrier and
    secreted into the cerebro-spinal fluid. Abundantly expressed in the heart. In the male reproductive system, it is
    expressed in the testis, epididymis and prostate, and is secreted into the seminal fluid. Expressed in the eye
    and secreted into the aqueous humor. Lower levels detected in various tissue fluids such as serum, normal urine,
    ascitic fluid and tear fluid. Also found in a number of other organs including ovary, fimbriae of the fallopian
    tubes, kidney, leukocytes

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PTGDS: 
              Circadian Rhythms in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PTGDS gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ptgds1 , 5 prostaglandin D2 synthase (brain)1, 5 80.78(n)1
    72.49(a)1
      2 (17.28 cM)5
    192151  NM_008963.21  NP_032989.21 
     254667095 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PTGDS1 prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain) 60.38(n)
    46.86(a)
      374110  NM_204259.1  NP_989590.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PTGDS6
    prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)
    41(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(111665236-111669244)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ptgdsb6
    PTGDS (2 of 3)6
    (see all 3)
    prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)
    (see all 3)
    29(a)
    24(a)
    (see all 3)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    (see all 3)
    24(17576415-17578479) ENSDARG00000027088
    5(4406639-4417553) ENSDARG00000045979


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PTGDS (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PTGDS (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PTGDS gene
    LCNL12  LCN152  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for PTGDS using alignment to 6 protein entries:     PTGDS_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    AMBP    NGAL

    Find genes that share paralogs with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PTGDS (see all 168)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 9 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1470812241,2
    --139869964(+) TGGGAC/TCTGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs38145001,2
    C,F,A,H--139870090(+) GGACCT/CGGCCC 1 -- us2k119Minor allele frequency- C:0.26NS EA NA WA CSA 887
    rs38145011,2
    C,F,A,H--139870113(+) GAGTCT/CCTCCC 1 -- us2k117Minor allele frequency- C:0.30NS EA NA WA CSA 886
    rs617414691,2
    F--139870160(+) TCAGAC/TCCAGA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NS 74
    rs1855043071,2
    --139870272(+) GTTGGG/TACCTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs353811851,2
    C,F--139870346(+) GCAGCG/AGGCAG 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.02NS NA 172
    rs1409689731,2
    --139870367(+) TTGTGC/GTGATA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs343575641,2
    C,F--139870382(+) AGCCGC/TAACTC 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NS NA 98
    rs8672501,2
    C,F,A,H--139870445(+) CAGGCT/CTGCGG 1 -- us2k111Minor allele frequency- C:0.21NA NS CSA WA EA 465
    rs1896085981,2
    --139870458(+) CACGCA/GGGGTC 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PTGDS (139871956 - 139879887 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for PTGDS (see all 36):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2422220CNV Deletion17116639
    nsv894513CNV Loss21882294
    nsv894483CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8431n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv894526CNV Loss21882294
    nsv894521CNV Loss21882294
    nsv894503CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8423n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv894469CNV Loss21882294
    nsv894535CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PTGDS
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PTGDS
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PTGDS

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 176803    OMIM disorders: --

    11 diseases for PTGDS:    
    About MalaCards
    cerebrospinal fluid leak    normal pressure hydrocephalus    complete androgen insensitivity syndrome    ocular hypotension
    egg allergy    macular holes    proliferative diabetic retinopathy    hemangiopericytoma
    sandhoff disease    breast cyst    hydrocephalus

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PTGDS:
    Asthma     Allergic rhinitis     Ocular hypotension     Vascular disease

    Find genes that share disorders with PTGDS           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PTGDS gene (see all 30)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome 57.6 1 9455908 (1)
    hydrocephalus normal pressure 38.6 2 14630351 (2)
    nasal polyps 32.7 6 16911359 (4), 17638783 (1)
    neurological disorders 32.1 5 16259013 (2), 11669522 (2), 11058767 (1)
    azoospermia 30.9 2 18206953 (1), 15748601 (1)
    proliferative diabetic retinopathy 27.2 1 16531280 (1)
    macular holes 25.5 1 16531280 (1)
    multiple sclerosis 22 2 16409554 (1), 16410653 (1)
    aqueous humor 16.8 2 8599604 (1), 12020781 (1)
    renal disease 14.1 2 12194921 (1), 11058767 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PTGDS
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PTGDS (9 documents)

    Export disorders for PTGDS gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PTGDS gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 231):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PTGDS)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human brain prostaglandin D synthase has been evolutionarily differentiated from lipophilic-ligand carrier proteins. (PubMed id 1902577)1, 2, 3 Nagata A....Hayaishi O. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991)
    2. Astrocytes synthesize and secrete prostaglandin D synthetase in vitro. (PubMed id 8599604)1, 2, 9 Giacomelli S.... Cheng C.Y. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1996)
    3. Prostaglandin D synthase (beta-trace) in human arachnoid and meningioma cells: roles as a cell marker or in cerebrospinal fluid absorption, tumorigenesis, and calcification process. (PubMed id 9065498)1, 2, 9 Yamashima T.... Hayaishi O. (J. Neurosci. 1997)
    4. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in human male reproductive organs and seminal plasma. (PubMed id 9475419)1, 2, 9 Tokugawa Y....Hayaishi O. (Biol. Reprod. 1998)
    5. Quantification of prostaglandin D synthetase in cerebrospinal fluid: a potential marker for brain tumor. (PubMed id 9844724)1, 2, 9 Saso L.... Cheng C.Y. (Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 1998)
    6. Family-based and case-control studies reveal no association of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase with schizophrenia. (PubMed id 17230501)1, 4, 9 Ruano D....Palha J.A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007)
    7. Common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin pathway genes and their association with breast cancer susceptibility and survival. (PubMed id 19276290)1, 4, 9 Abraham J.E....Pharoah P.D. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2009)
    8. Identification of gene polymorphism in lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase and its association with carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese hypertensive patients. (PubMed id 15325247)1, 4, 9 Miwa Y....Kawano Y. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2004)
    9. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in essential hypertension. (PubMed id 11882588)1, 2, 9 Hirawa N.... Umemura S. (Hypertension 2002)
    10. Charge microheterogeneity of the beta-trace proteins (lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological disorders analyzed by capillary isoelectrofocusing. (PubMed id 11669522)1, 2, 9 Hiraoka A....Baba K. (Electrophoresis 2001)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5730 HGNC: 9592 AceView: PTGDSandFLJ45224 Ensembl:ENSG00000107317 euGenes: HUgn5730
    ECgene: PTGDS Kegg: 5730 H-InvDB: PTGDS

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PTGDS Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/ptgds/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PTGDS gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PTGDS

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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