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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PSPN Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 57
GCID: GC19M006375

Persephin

Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
persephin1 2
PSP2 3

External Ids:    HGNC: 95791   Entrez Gene: 56232   Ensembl: ENSG000001256507   OMIM: 6029215   UniProtKB: O605423   

Export aliases for PSPN gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC19M006469 GC19M006315 GC19M006326 GC19M006135


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PSPN Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a neurotrophic factor, belonging to the GDNF family. Neurotrophic factors are
important for the proper development and maintenance of the nervous system. These factors promote neuronal
survival and can prevent the neuronal degeneration associated with injury, toxin exposure, or neurodegenerative
disease. The encoded protein has amino acid similarity to its other family members, glial cell line-derived
neurotrophic factor and neurturin. This gene product promotes the survival of ventral midbrain dopaminergic
neurons in culture and prevents their degeneration after 6-hydroxydopamine treatment in vivo. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PSPN Gene: 
PSPN (persephin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PSPN include hirschsprung's disease, and multiple endocrine neoplasia, and among its related super-pathways are Development EGFR signaling pathway and Axon guidance. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is GDNF.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PSPN_HUMAN, O60542
Function: Exhibits neurotrophic activity on mesencephalic dopaminergic and motor neurons




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000019.9  NC_018930.2  NT_011255.14  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PSPN gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   AML1a   SREBP-1c   NRSF form 1   MyoD   NRSF form 2   SREBP-1b   SREBP-1a   NRF-2   AP-2alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPSPN promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PSPN

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PSPN


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 19p13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  19p13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 19p13.3

PSPN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PSPN gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 19         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC19M006375:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
6,375,159 bp from pter      End:
6,379,069 bp from pter
Size:
3,911 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PSPN_HUMAN, O60542 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Persephin precursor  
Size: 156 amino acids; 16600 Da
Subunit: Homodimer; disulfide-linked (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Secreted

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PSPN: NX_O60542

Explore proteomics data for PSPN at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_O60542

  • PSPN Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PSPN Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004149.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000469884   ENSP00000245810  
    Reactome Protein details: O60542
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PSPN: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PSPN (Persephin)
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    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PSPN
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
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    Novus Biologicals PSPN Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PSPN 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--

    PSPN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PSPN Antibody Products: 
    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PSPN 

    Assay Products for PSPN: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PSPN 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PSPN


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR001839 TGF-b_C

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O60542

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O60542

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001839 Transforming growth factor beta (TGFb)
    IPB002400 Growth factor cystine knot superfamily signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PSPN_HUMAN, O60542
    Similarity: Belongs to the TGF-beta family. GDNF subfamily


    PSPN for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PSPN_HUMAN, O60542
    Function: Exhibits neurotrophic activity on mesencephalic dopaminergic and motor neurons

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PSPN:
    persephin,neurotrophic factor,related to GDNF and neurturin,involved in the survival of several neuronal cell
    types from the central nervous system

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005102receptor binding TAS9491986
    GO:0008083growth factor activity IEA--
         
    PSPN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Pspn):
     homeostasis/metabolism  nervous system 

    PSPN for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Pspntm1Bjh for PSPN

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PSPN 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PSPN

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PSPN 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PSPN 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PSPN
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Clone
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    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PSPN About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Development EGFR signaling pathway
    Development GDNF family signaling0.45
    GDNF-Family Ligands and Receptor Interactions0.41
    2Axon guidance
    Axon guidance0.69
    Developmental Biology0.69
    3NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth
    NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth0.62
    NCAM1 interactions0.62

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for PSPN
        Development GDNF family signaling

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PSPN
        GDNF-Family Ligands and Receptor Interactions

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PSPN
        Development GDNF family signaling

    4        Reactome Pathways for PSPN
        Developmental Biology
    NCAM1 interactions
    NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth
    Axon guidance



    PSPN for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for PSPN

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 6)

    5/6 Interacting proteins for PSPN (O605423 ENSP000002458104) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 6)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GFRA4Q9GZZ73, ENSP000003134234I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000313423
    ARTNENSP000003919984STRING: ENSP00000391998
    GDNFENSP000003171454STRING: ENSP00000317145
    GFRA1ENSP000003937254STRING: ENSP00000393725
    NCAM1ENSP000003184724STRING: ENSP00000318472
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001658branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA--
    GO:0007399nervous system development TAS9491986
    GO:0007411axon guidance TAS--
    GO:0007417central nervous system development TAS9491986

    PSPN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PSPN for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for PSPN

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PSPN gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 51.8 5 9576965 (1), 9740802 (1), 10484767 (1), 11222636 (1) (see all 5)
    6-hydroxydopamine 44 2 9491986 (1), 11043566 (1)
    dopamine 14.2 2 12953054 (1)
    glutamate 0 2 10356295 (1), 10686085 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PSPN

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PSPN gene: 
    NM_004158.2  

    Unigene Cluster for PSPN:

    Persephin
    Hs.248159  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BE799721
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000597721 ENST00000245810(uc010xja.2)

    miRNA
    Products:
         
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    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PSPN
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    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PSPN
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PSPN
    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PSPN (NM_004158)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PSPN
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PSPN
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PSPN 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PSPN 
    Primer
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    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PSPN
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PSPN
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PSPN
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PSPN

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF040962.1 BC143894.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.92035523  DT.97861638  DT.95213128 

    24/302 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 302):

    AL120157 BQ955277 BM818653 AA300338 H41752 BG762478 Z98464 AW007716 
    BM723723 BU849836 BE745736 BF081906 BM564339 AI784579 NM_004158 BQ894306 
    CK903018 BU619126 BQ638889 BI822877 BX488964 AA069400 BQ962892 BQ884087 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PSPN expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCCTGGCGCT
    PSPN Expression
    About this image


    See PSPN Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PSPN

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.248159
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PSPN: 
              Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Neurotrophins & Receptors in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PSPN

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PSPN gene from 2/7 species (see all 7)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pspn1 , 5 persephin1, 5 74.73(n)1
    66.01(a)1
      17 (29.62 cM)5
    191971  NM_008954.21  NP_032980.21 
     569994575 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PSPN6
    Uncharacterized protein
    51(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(76458837-76459112)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PSPN (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PSPN (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PSPN gene
    GDNF2  ARTN2  NRTN2  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for PSPN using alignment to 2 protein entries:     PSPN_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NRTN    ARTN

    PSPN for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/80 SNPs in PSPN are shown (see all 80)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 19 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1153672971,2
    C,F--6375785(+) ACGGGC/TATCGG 2 T A mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4474
    rs2006059331,2
    --6375789(+) GCATCA/GGGGCC 2 P syn10--------
    rs1426437861,2
    C,F--6375793(+) CGGGGC/ACCCAG 2 /G /V mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4466
    rs1997318841,2
    C--6375815(+) CTGCAG/AGGACA 2 /L syn11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00EU 1081
    rs23041981,2
    C,F,A,H--6375831(+) AGCAGG/AGAGCC 2 /S syn1 ese326Minor allele frequency- A:0.38EA NS WA NA CSA EU 10086
    rs2020157301,2
    --6375852(+) TTCCCG/TACGGC 2 V syn10--------
    rs1388269271,2
    C--6375854(+) CCCTAC/TGGCCA 2 I V mis10--------
    rs1873506321,2
    C--6375866(+) TGTGAC/TGGGCA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00EU 1127
    rs767578141,2
    F--6375996(+) CCCTCG/AAATCC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.12NA 120
    rs104016451,2
    C,F,H--6376014(+) TGCTCC/ATTCTG 1 -- us2k110Minor allele frequency- A:0.05NS NA WA 1322

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PSPN (6375159 - 6379069 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 6 variations for PSPN:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv513757CNV Insertion21212237
    dgv3699n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv910916CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3700n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv910911CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3698n71CNV Loss21882294


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PSPN
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PSPN
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PSPN

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 602921    OMIM disorders: --

    7 diseases for PSPN:    About MalaCards
    hirschsprung's disease    multiple endocrine neoplasia    parkinson's disease    neuronitis
    pancreatic cancer    thyroiditis    pancreatitis

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PSPN:
    Hirschsprung's disease

    PSPN for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    4 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PSPN gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hirschsprung disease 63.8 1 18970938 (1)
    neurodegenerative diseases 34.8 1 10652334 (1)
    parkinson disease 11.2 2 20350599 (2)
    tumors 5.27 1 12679485 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PSPN
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PSPN (1 document)

    Export disorders for PSPN gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PSPN gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 48):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PSPN)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Persephin, a novel neurotrophic factor related to GDNF and neurturin. (PubMed id 9491986)1, 2, 9 Milbrandt J.... Johnson E.M. (1998)
    2. Assignment of persephin (PSPN), a human neurotrophic factor, to chromosome 19p13.3 by radiation hybrid mapping and somatic cell hybrid PCR. (PubMed id 10072588)1, 3, 9 Chadwick B.P....Slaugenhaupt S.A. (1998)
    3. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the 4 RET ligands, GDNF, NTN, ARTN, PSPN, and susceptibility to Hirschsprung disease. (PubMed id 18970938)1, 4, 9 Fernandez R.M....Borrego S. (2008)
    4. GFR alpha-4 and the tyrosine kinase Ret form a functional receptor complex for persephin. (PubMed id 9740802)1, 9 Enokido Y....Davies A.M. (1998)
    5. Human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha4 is the receptor for persephin and is predomonantly expressed in normal and malignant thyroid medullary cells. (PubMed id 11116144)1, 9 Lindahl M.... Saarma M. (2001)
    6. Neurturin, persephin, and artemin in the human pre- and full-term newborn and adult hippocampus and fascia dentata. (PubMed id 15829225)1, 9 Quartu M....Del Fiacco M. (2005)
    7. Persephin signaling through GFRalpha1: the potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (PubMed id 20350599)1, 9 Sidorova Y.A....Bespalov M.M. (2010)
    8. GDNF, RET and GFRalpha-1-3 mRNA expression in the developing human spinal cord and ganglia. (PubMed id 10380959)1, 9 Widenfalk J....Spenger C. (1999)
    9. PSPN/GFRalpha4 has a significantly weaker capacity than GDNF/GFRalpha1 to recruit RET to rafts, but promotes neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. (PubMed id 15225646)1, 9 Yang J....Saarma M. (2004)
    10. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5623 HGNC: 9579 AceView: GTF2F1andPSPN Ensembl:ENSG00000125650 euGenes: HUgn5623
    ECgene: PSPN H-InvDB: PSPN

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
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    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PSPN Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    Patent Information for PSPN gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PSPN

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