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PRRG4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 49
GCID: GC11P032851

Proline Rich Gla (G-Carboxyglutamic Acid) 4 (Transmembrane)

  See PRRG4-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Proline Rich Gla (G-Carboxyglutamic Acid) 4 (Transmembrane)1 2
PRGP42 3 5
TMG42 3 5
Proline-Rich Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein 42 3
Proline-Rich Gla Protein 42 3
Transmembrane Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein 42

External Ids:    HGNC: 307991   Entrez Gene: 790562   Ensembl: ENSG000001353787   OMIM: 6116905   UniProtKB: Q9BZD63   

Export aliases for PRRG4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC11P032808 GC11P032545


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for PRRG4 Gene:
PRRG4 (proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PRRG4 include wagr syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRRG1.


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000011.9  NT_009237.19  NC_018922.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRRG4 gene promoter:
         AML1a   GATA-3   POU3F1   AP-2gamma   GATA-2   GATA-1   AP-2beta   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRRG4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PRRG4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PRRG4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 11p13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  11p13   HGNC cytogenetic band: 11p13

PRRG4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRRG4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 11         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC11P032851:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
32,851,481 bp from pter      End:
32,879,669 bp from pter
Size:
28,189 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMG4_HUMAN, Q9BZD6 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4 precursor  
Size: 226 amino acids; 25403 Da

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRRG4: NX_Q9BZD6

Explore proteomics data for PRRG4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Gla residues are produced after subsequent post-translational modifications of glutamate by a vitamin K-dependent
    gamma-carboxylase1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PRRG4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_076986.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000257836  

    PRRG4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PRRG4
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PRRG4 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR017857 Coagulation_fac_subgr_Gla_dom
     IPR000294 GLA_domain

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9BZD6

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9BZD6

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000294 Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain
    IPB002383 Coagulation factor GLA domain signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMG4_HUMAN, Q9BZD6
    Similarity: Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain


    Find genes that share domains with PRRG4           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003674molecular_function ND--
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PRRG4           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRRG4:
    hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT026866)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PRRG4 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRRG4 (see all 47):
    hsa-miR-142-5p hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-371-5p hsa-miR-548l hsa-miR-93
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRRG4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PRRG4
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRRG4

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TMG4_HUMAN, Q9BZD6: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    golgi apparatus4
    extracellular2
    plasma membrane2
    cytosol1
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    lysosome1
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus ----
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane NAS11171957

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRRG4           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PRRG4
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PRRG4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 7)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PRRG4 (Q9BZD63 ENSP000002578364) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 8)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    APPBP2Q926243I2D: score=1 
    AOC3ENSP000003123264STRING: ENSP00000312326
    ENSG00000228299ENSP000003978674STRING: ENSP00000397867
    HDAC1ENSP000003626494STRING: ENSP00000362649
    RBBP8ENSP000003230504STRING: ENSP00000323050
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008150biological_process ND--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRRG4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PRRG4 (TMG4)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRRG4 gene: 
    NM_024081.5  

    Unigene Cluster for PRRG4:

    Proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane)
    Hs.471695  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_024081
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000257836(uc001mtx.3)
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PRRG4 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRRG4 (see all 47):
    hsa-miR-142-5p hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-371-5p hsa-miR-548l hsa-miR-93
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRRG4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRRG4
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    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PRRG4
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PRRG4
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PRRG4
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PRRG4
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRRG4

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF326351.1 BC010052.2 BC063393.1 BC063641.1 

    5 DOTS entries:

    DT.91658742  DT.65285731  DT.40210034  DT.75154120  DT.100697610 

    16 AceView cDNA sequences:

    NM_024081 BC010052 BC063393 BX283870 AF326351 CD631894 BE732028 CF146386 
    AI475201 AA169396 CD631891 BG533045 AA225023 CF146146 BX414772 CD631895 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PRRG4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    PRRG4 Expression
    About this image


    PRRG4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Epiblast (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Epiblast Stem Cell line 5
             Epiblast-like cells
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Granulocytes Peripheral Blood
    PRRG4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PRRG4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.471695

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMG4_HUMAN, Q9BZD6
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in lung, liver, kidney, pancreas and placenta

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRRG4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PRRG4 gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prrg41 , 5 proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane)1, 5 80.59(n)1
    75.11(a)1
      2 (54.98 cM)5
    2284131  NM_178695.51  NP_848810.31 
     1048307415 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRRG41 proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane) 61.21(n)
    53.18(a)
      421600  NM_001199415.1  NP_001186344.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRRG46
    proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (trans...
    57(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(61371743-61387513)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia LOC1004860921 transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4-like 57.09(n)
    54.79(a)
      100486092  XM_002938713.2  XP_002938759.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prrg41 proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane) 56.63(n)
    53.76(a)
      550330  NM_001017637.1  NP_001017637.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRRG4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRRG4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PRRG4 gene
    PRRG12  PRRG22  PRRG32  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for PRRG4 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     TMG4_HUMAN:
    PRRG2

    Find genes that share paralogs with PRRG4           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PRRG4 (see all 566)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 11 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1807124151,2
    --32849561(+) AGTTTA/CGACCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1504075811,2
    C--32849567(+) GACCAC/TGAGGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs122774871,2
    C,F--32849752(+) AAAAAT/CTGAAT 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.06CSA WA 120
    rs127884811,2
    C,F--32849777(+) AggccG/Aggcac 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.09NA WA 242
    rs1853373041,2
    --32849849(+) CAGGAA/GTTTGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs79424221,2
    C--32849860(+) GAACAG/ACCTGG 1 -- us2k18Minor allele frequency- A:0.07NA WA CSA 14
    rs1491591931,2
    --32849912(+) TTAGCC/TGGGCG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs110320111,2
    C,F--32849970(+) agaatC/Tgcttg 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1392356691,2
    --32849971(+) GAATCG/TCTTGA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1120587051,2
    C--32850181(+) ATAAAG/AAAGGA 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.06CSA WA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRRG4 (32851481 - 32879669 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 8 variations for PRRG4:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2659576CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv825818CNV Loss20364138
    nsv897191CNV Gain21882294
    nsv897190CNV Gain21882294
    esv34742CNV Gain17911159
    dgv1064n71CNV Gain21882294
    essv7540CNV CNV17122850
    essv6421CNV CNV17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 611690    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for PRRG4:    
    About MalaCards
    wagr syndrome

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PRRG4:
    WAGR syndrome

    Find genes that share disorders with PRRG4           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PRRG4

    Export disorders for PRRG4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PRRG4 gene integrated from 10 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRRG4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Identification of two novel transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins expressed broadly in fetal and adult tissues. (PubMed id 11171957)1, 2, 3, 9 Kulman J.D.... Davie E.W. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001)
    2. Genomewide association study for onset age in Parkinson disease. (PubMed id 19772629)1, 4 Latourelle J.C.... . (BMC Med. Genet. 2009)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. Cellular localization and characterization of cytosolic binding partners for Gla domain-containing proteins PRRG4 and PRRG2. (PubMed id 23873930)1 Yazicioglu M.N....High K.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    5. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2011)
    6. Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome. (PubMed id 18029348)1 Barbe L....Andersson-Svahn H. (amp 2008)
    7. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    8. Characterization of 11p14-p12 deletion in WAGR syndrome by array CGH for identifying genes contributing to mental retardation and autism. (PubMed id 19096215)9 Xu S....Fan Y.S. (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 79056 HGNC: 30799 AceView: PRRG4 Ensembl:ENSG00000135378 euGenes: HUgn79056
    ECgene: PRRG4 H-InvDB: PRRG4

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRRG4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PRRG4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRRG4

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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