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PRRG1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 49
GCID: GC0XP037209

Proline Rich Gla (G-Carboxyglutamic Acid) 1

(Previous name: proline-rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) polypeptide 1)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Proline Rich Gla (G-Carboxyglutamic Acid) 11 2     TMG13
Proline-Rich Gla (G-Carboxyglutamic Acid) Polypeptide 11 2     Proline-Rich Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein 13
PRGP12 3     Proline-Rich Gla Protein 13
Transmembrane Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein 12     

External Ids:    HGNC: 94691   Entrez Gene: 56382   Ensembl: ENSG000001309627   OMIM: 6044285   UniProtKB: O146683   

Export aliases for PRRG1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XP035313 GC0XP035496 GC0XP036053 GC0XP036239 GC0XP036964 GC0XP037093 GC0XP034955


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PRRG1 Gene:
This gene encodes a vitamin K-dependent, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing, single-pass transmembrane
protein. This protein contains a Gla domain at the N-terminus, preceded by a propeptide sequence required for
post-translational gamma-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues by a vitamin K-dependent
gamma-carboxylase. The C-terminus is proline-rich containing PPXY and PXXP motifs found in a variety of signaling
and cytoskeletal proteins. This gene is highly expressed in the spinal cord. Several alternatively spliced
transcript variants have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PRRG1 Gene:
PRRG1 (proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRRG4.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000023.10  NC_018934.2  NT_079573.5  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRRG1 gene promoter:
         Elk-1   CUTL1   E4BP4   POU2F1   HFH-1   POU2F1a   Meis-1a   Hlf   Meis-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRRG1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PRRG1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PRRG1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xp21.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xp21.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xp21.1

PRRG1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRRG1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XP037209:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
37,208,528 bp from pter      End:
37,316,548 bp from pter
Size:
108,021 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMG1_HUMAN, O14668 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 1 precursor  
Size: 218 amino acids; 24947 Da
Secondary accessions: B2R7A3 C9JXL7 D3DWA9 Q5JT66
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  O14668-1   O14668-2   (No experimental confirmation available. Ref.5 (BC041591) sequence is in conflict in position: 75:Q->R)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRRG1: NX_O14668

Explore proteomics data for PRRG1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Gla residues are produced after subsequent post-translational modifications of glutamate by a vitamin K-dependent
    gamma-carboxylase1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys10, Lys66
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PRRG1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000941.1  NP_001135867.1  NP_001166957.1  NP_001166960.1  NP_001166961.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000367894   ENSP00000418384   ENSP00000420353   ENSP00000390332   ENSP00000419999  
     ENSP00000444278   ENSP00000443271  

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR017857 Coagulation_fac_subgr_Gla_dom
     IPR000294 GLA_domain

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O14668

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O14668

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000294 Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain
    IPB002383 Coagulation factor GLA domain signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMG1_HUMAN, O14668
    Similarity: Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain


    Find genes that share domains with PRRG1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PRRG1           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
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    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRRG1:
    hsa-mir-106b-5p (MIRT020483), hsa-mir-93-5p (MIRT028084)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PRRG1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRRG1 (see all 82):
    hsa-miR-140-5p hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-3653 hsa-miR-138-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRRG1 3' UTR sequence
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TMG1_HUMAN, O14668: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein (Potential)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane4
    extracellular2
    cytosol1
    mitochondrion1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane TAS9256434

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRRG1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PRRG1
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PRRG1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    1 Interacting protein for PRRG1 (ENSP000003678944) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ELAVL1ENSP000003852694STRING: ENSP00000385269
    About this table

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PRRG1 (TMG1)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRRG1 gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000950.2  NM_001142395.1  NM_001173486.1  NM_001173489.1  NM_001173490.1  

    Unigene Cluster for PRRG1:

    Proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1
    Hs.190341  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001173489
    9 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000378628(uc004ddo.3) ENST00000491253 ENST00000466533 ENST00000484460
    ENST00000449135 ENST00000463135(uc022but.1 uc010ngx.2) ENST00000470290
    ENST00000542554(uc004ddn.3 uc022buu.1) ENST00000543642(uc022buv.1)

    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRRG1 (see all 82):
    hsa-miR-140-5p hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-374a hsa-miR-3653 hsa-miR-138-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRRG1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRRG1
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PRRG1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PRRG1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PRRG1
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PRRG1
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRRG1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF009242.1 AK312904.1 BC012608.1 BC030786.2 BC041591.1 BC060833.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.95129956  DT.455265  DT.121290096  DT.40273175  DT.75144771  DT.121290085  DT.95186567 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 83):

    AI240648 AL701805 CD676756 AA256980 AA344400 AA242904 BF592039 AV727707 
    AV727857 AI219275 BC030786 AW471237 AA242905 BX097465 BM987478 BC060833 
    BM992770 BQ022565 AI220731 BU732703 H94431 BX475150 AA885385 AF009242 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PRRG1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGCAGTAGTT
    PRRG1 Expression
    About this image

    PRRG1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PRRG1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.190341

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMG1_HUMAN, O14668
    Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the spinal cord

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRRG1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PRRG1 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prrg11 , 5 proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 11, 5 90.37(n)1
    92.66(a)1
      X (38.34 cM)5
    5463361  NM_027322.11  NP_081598.11 
     784496135 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRRG11 proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1 70.37(n)
    63.89(a)
      418582  NM_001277736.1  NP_001264665.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRRG16
    proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1
    56(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3(132048024-132050053)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia LOC3983822 mitotic phosphoprotein 77 73.15(n)    AF419154.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc:1036571 zgc:103657 47.38(n)
    41.12(a)
      449775  NM_001005948.1  NP_001005948.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRRG1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRRG1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PRRG1 gene
    PRRG42  PRRG22  PRRG32  
    9 SIMAP similar genes for PRRG1 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     TMG1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PROS1    F10    PRRG3    F9    F9 p22    factor IX F9
    PROC    F2    PRRG2

    Find genes that share paralogs with PRRG1           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PRRG1 (see all 1350)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0362684
    A breast cancer sample4--see VAR_0362682 F I mis40--------
    rs1430070951,2
    C--37123262(+) GGCTAC/TGGTGC 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1447132461,2
    --37123269(+) GTGCCA/GAACCA 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1807716781,2
    --37123406(+) CACAAC/TTTGGG 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1485394541,2
    --37123442(+) CTGATC/GTACTT 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1864929371,2
    --37123581(+) TTAGCC/TTAGCA 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs734662041,2
    C,F--37123690(+) TTGTGC/TCTACA 5 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1510855001,2
    --37123800(+) AATATA/GTGAAT 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1918266561,2
    --37123910(+) GCTTGC/TTAGGA 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1401506371,2
    --37123949(+) TCTTTC/TATTCT 5 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRRG1 (37208528 - 37316548 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PRRG1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv6863CNV Insertion18451855

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): PRRG1

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PRRG1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PRRG1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 604428    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PRRG1           About GenesLikeMe


    Export disorders for PRRG1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PRRG1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 15):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRRG1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Primary structure and tissue distribution of two novel proline-rich gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins. (PubMed id 9256434)1, 2, 3, 9 Kulman J.D.... Davie E.W. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997)
    2. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. (PubMed id 15772651)1, 2 Ross M.T.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2005)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    4. The F-box protein FBXO25 promotes the proteasome-dependent degradation of ELK-1 protein. (PubMed id 23940030)1 Teixeira F.R....Gomes M.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    5. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    6. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis. (PubMed id 20068231)2 Olsen J.V....Mann M. (Sci. Signal. 2010)
    7. Comparison of substrate specificity of the ubiquitin ligases Nedd4 and Nedd4-2 using proteome arrays. (PubMed id 19953087)1 Persaud A....Rotin D. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2009)
    8. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of HuR by heat shock. (PubMed id 19322201)1 Abdelmohsen K....Gorospe M. (EMBO J. 2009)
    9. hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes. (PubMed id 17207965)1 Lamesch P.... Vidal M. (Genomics 2007)
    10. Identification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma related genes by comparison with normal liver tissues using expressed sequence tags. (PubMed id 16712791)1 Wang A.G....Kim N.S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2006)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5638 HGNC: 9469 AceView: PRRG1 Ensembl:ENSG00000130962 euGenes: HUgn5638
    ECgene: PRRG1 H-InvDB: PRRG1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRRG1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PRRG1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRRG1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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