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Aliases for PROKR2 Gene

Aliases for PROKR2 Gene

  • Prokineticin Receptor 2 2 3
  • GPR73L1 3 4 6
  • PKR2 3 4 6
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 73-Like 1 2 3
  • GPR73b 3 4
  • GPRg2 3 4
  • PK-R2 3 4
  • HH3 3 6
  • Kallmann Syndrome 3 (Autosomal Dominant) 2
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 73-Like 1 4
  • DJ680N4.3 3
  • KAL3 3

External Ids for PROKR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PROKR2 Gene

  • GPR73L1
  • KAL3

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PROKR2 Gene

  • GC20M005231
  • GC20M005282
  • GC20M005238

Summaries for PROKR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PROKR2 Gene

  • Prokineticins are secreted proteins that can promote angiogenesis and induce strong gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and G protein-coupled receptor for prokineticins. The encoded protein is similar in sequence to GPR73, another G protein-coupled receptor for prokineticins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PROKR2 Gene

PROKR2 (Prokineticin Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PROKR2 include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 3 with or without anosmia and kallmann syndrome 3. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide Y receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PROKR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROKR2 Gene

  • Receptor for prokineticin 2. Exclusively coupled to the G(q) subclass of heteromeric G proteins. Activation leads to mobilization of calcium, stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover and activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase

Gene Wiki entry for PROKR2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PROKR2 Gene

Genomics for PROKR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PROKR2 Gene

Genomic Location for PROKR2 Gene

5,301,065 bp from pter
5,316,732 bp from pter
15,668 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PROKR2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PROKR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PROKR2 Gene

Proteins for PROKR2 Gene

  • Protein details for PROKR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prokineticin receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5JUU1
    • Q2M3C0
    • Q5TDY1
    • Q9NTT0

    Protein attributes for PROKR2 Gene

    384 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    43996 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

neXtProt entry for PROKR2 Gene

Proteomics data for PROKR2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PROKR2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn7 and Asn27
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PROKR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PROKR2 Gene

Domains for PROKR2 Gene

Gene Families for PROKR2 Gene

  • PROKR :GPCR / Class A : Prokineticin receptors

Protein Domains for PROKR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PROKR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q8NFJ6
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PROKR2: view

Function for PROKR2 Gene

Molecular function for PROKR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Receptor for prokineticin 2. Exclusively coupled to the G(q) subclass of heteromeric G proteins. Activation leads to mobilization of calcium, stimulation of phosphoinositide turnover and activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PROKR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0004983 neuropeptide Y receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROKR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PROKR2: view

Animal Models for PROKR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PROKR2:

miRNA for PROKR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PROKR2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PROKR2 Gene

Localization for PROKR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROKR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PROKR2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PROKR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PROKR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROKR2: view

Pathways for PROKR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PROKR2: view

Pathways by source for PROKR2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for PROKR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PROKR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007623 circadian rhythm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROKR2: view

Compounds for PROKR2 Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for PROKR2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca

(6) IUPHAR Ligand for PROKR2 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
MIT1 Agonist Full agonist 9.2
prokineticin-2 Agonist Full agonist 8.2
PKR-A Antagonist Antagonist 7.36
prokineticin-1 Agonist Full agonist 7.3
prokineticin-2beta Agonist Full agonist 6
triazine compound 1 Antagonist Antagonist 5.79
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PROKR2: view

Transcripts for PROKR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PROKR2 Gene

(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PROKR2 Gene

Prokineticin receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PROKR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PROKR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PROKR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PROKR2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PROKR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (10.1), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (9.8), Brain - Cortex (6.6), and Brain - Hippocampus (4.4).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PROKR2 Gene Hs.375029

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PROKR2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in the ileocecum, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, salivary gland, adrenal gland, testis, ovary and brain
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PROKR2: view

No data available for Protein expression for PROKR2 Gene

Orthologs for PROKR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PROKR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PROKR2 35
  • 99.13 (n)
  • 98.96 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PROKR2 35
  • 87.85 (n)
  • 90.62 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PROKR2 35
  • 90.45 (n)
  • 94.01 (a)
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prokr2 35
  • 86.18 (n)
  • 90.29 (a)
Prokr2 16
Prokr2 36
  • 90 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 88 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 85 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prokr2 35
  • 86.34 (n)
  • 90.08 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PROKR2 35
  • 76.5 (n)
  • 87.13 (a)
  • 76 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prokr2 35
  • 73.76 (n)
  • 85.36 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CU929052.1 36
  • 61 (a)
LOC798231 35
  • 69.24 (n)
  • 69.73 (a)
prokr1a 36
  • 59 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PROKR2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PROKR2 Gene

Gene Tree for PROKR2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PROKR2 (if available)

Paralogs for PROKR2 Gene

Paralogs for PROKR2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PROKR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PROKR2: view

Variants for PROKR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PROKR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs927106 -- 5,301,690(+) TTTTT(G/T)ATTAC downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1969702 -- 5,307,647(+) gtctg(C/T)gtgcc intron-variant
rs1969703 -- 5,307,854(+) GGaaa(G/T)aataa intron-variant
rs1969704 -- 5,308,709(+) gtctc(A/G)gcaGC intron-variant
rs2019051 -- 5,301,470(+) AAGTG(A/T)TCCAC utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PROKR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833904 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv515639 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv522879 CNV Loss 19592680
esv29566 CNV Loss 19812545

Relevant External Links for PROKR2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROKR2 Gene

Disorders for PROKR2 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for PROKR2 Gene (607123)


  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 3 with or without anosmia (HH3) [MIM:244200]: A disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In some cases, it is associated with non-reproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss. Anosmia or hyposmia is related to the absence or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. Hypogonadism is due to deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and probably results from a failure of embryonic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is referred to as Kallmann syndrome, whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17054399, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18559922, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18826963, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22927827, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25077900}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting distinct genetic loci, including the gene represented in this entry. The genetics of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism involves various modes of transmission. Oligogenic inheritance has been reported in some patients carrying mutations in PROKR2 as well as in other HH-associated genes including KAL1, SEMA3A, PROK2, GNRH1 and FGFR1 (PubMed:17054399, PubMed:22927827, PubMed:23643382). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17054399, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22927827, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}.

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PROKR2 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PROKR2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
kallmann syndrome 95.4 8
congenital malformation 35.1 2

Relevant External Links for PROKR2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PROKR2: view

Publications for PROKR2 Gene

  1. Kallmann syndrome: mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 and prokineticin receptor-2. (PMID: 17054399) Dode C. … Hardelin J.-P. (PLoS Genet. 2006) 2 3 4 23
  2. Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 or prokineticin receptor-2 cause autosomal recessive Kallmann syndrome. (PMID: 18682503) Abreu A.P. … Latronico A.C. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008) 3 23 48
  3. Genetic analysis in patients with Kallmann syndrome: coexistence of mutations in prokineticin receptor 2 and KAL1. (PMID: 18723471) Canto P. … MAcndez J.P. (J. Androl. 2009) 3 23 48
  4. PROKR2 missense mutations associated with Kallmann syndrome impair receptor signalling activity. (PMID: 18826963) Monnier C. … Rondard P. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2009) 3 4 23
  5. Mutations in prokineticin 2 and prokineticin receptor 2 genes in human gonadotrophin-releasing hormone deficiency: molecular genetics and clinical spectrum. (PMID: 18559922) Cole L.W. … Pitteloud N. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008) 3 4 23

Products for PROKR2 Gene

  • antibodies-online peptides for PROKR2
  • antibodies-online antibodies for PROKR2
  • antibodies-online kits for PROKR2

Sources for PROKR2 Gene

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