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Aliases for PRLR Gene

Aliases for PRLR Gene

  • Prolactin Receptor 2 3
  • HPRL 3 6
  • MFAB 3 6
  • Secreted Prolactin Binding Protein 3
  • HPRL Receptor 3
  • HPRLrI 3
  • PRL-R 4

External Ids for PRLR Gene

Summaries for PRLR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRLR Gene

  • This gene encodes a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone, prolactin, and belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Prolactin-dependent signaling occurs as the result of ligand-induced dimerization of the prolactin receptor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different membrane-bound and soluble isoforms have been described for this gene, which may function to modulate the endocrine and autocrine effects of prolactin in normal tissue and cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PRLR Gene

PRLR (Prolactin Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRLR include hyperprolactinemia and tongue cancer. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and PI-3K cascade. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and ornithine decarboxylase activator activity. An important paralog of this gene is GHR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRLR Gene

  • This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and stimulation of AKT. Isoform 4 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling. Isoform 6 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRLR Gene

Genomics for PRLR Gene

Genomic Location for PRLR Gene

35,048,756 bp from pter
35,230,721 bp from pter
181,966 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRLR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PRLR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRLR Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRLR Gene

Proteins for PRLR Gene

  • Protein details for PRLR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prolactin receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R882
    • D1MDP1
    • Q16354
    • Q8TD75
    • Q8TD78
    • Q96P35
    • Q96P36
    • Q9BX87
    • Q9UHJ5

    Protein attributes for PRLR Gene

    622 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    69506 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer upon hormone binding. Interacts with SMARCA1. Interacts with GH1. Interacts with CSH. Interacts with NEK3 and VAV2 and this interaction is prolactin-dependent.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRLR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRLR Gene

neXtProt entry for PRLR Gene

Proteomics data for PRLR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PRLR Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Asn59, Asn104, and Asn233

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRLR Gene

Domains for PRLR Gene

Gene Families for PRLR Gene


  • The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular transport and cell-surface receptor binding:
    • P16471
  • The box 1 motif is required for JAK interaction and/or activation:
    • P16471
  • Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains.:
    • P16471
  • Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Type 1 subfamily.:
    • P16471
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRLR: view

Function for PRLR Gene

Molecular function for PRLR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: prolactin receptor with two alternatively spliced isoforms,expressed in breast cancer,breast normal tissue,gonad and liver
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and stimulation of AKT. Isoform 4 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling. Isoform 6 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004896 cytokine receptor activity --
GO:0004925 prolactin receptor activity NAS 10585417
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23048206
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IPI 7984244
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity NAS 10585417
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRLR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRLR: view

Animal Models for PRLR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRLR:

miRNA for PRLR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRLR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PRLR Gene

Localization for PRLR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRLR Gene

Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.
Isoform 7: Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PRLR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRLR gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endosome 4
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 10585417
GO:0016020 membrane --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRLR: view

Pathways for PRLR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRLR: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006694 steroid biosynthetic process NAS 10585417
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway NAS 10585417
GO:0007171 activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity IDA 10585417
GO:0007259 JAK-STAT cascade --
GO:0007566 embryo implantation TAS 9009200
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRLR: view

Compounds for PRLR Gene

(2) Drugbank Compounds for PRLR Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • Androfluorene
76-43-7 target antagonist
Somatropin recombinant
  • GH
12629-01-5 target

(3) IUPHAR Ligand for PRLR Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
prolactin Agonist Agonist
chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-like 1 Agonist Agonist
choriomammotropin Agonist Agonist

(42) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PRLR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
tyrosine 53.4 33
bromocriptine 51.1 5
progesterone 48 21
ribonucleic acid 45.2 8
estradiol 37.2 7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRLR: view

Transcripts for PRLR Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRLR Gene

Prolactin receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRLR Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b
SP1: -
SP2: - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for PRLR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRLR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PRLR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRLR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cervix - Ectocervix (7.9), Adrenal Gland (6.3), Uterus (5.7), and Cervix - Endocervix (4.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PRLR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRLR Gene Hs.368587

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRLR Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in breast, placenta, kidney, liver and pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PRLR: view

Orthologs for PRLR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PRLR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRLR 36
  • 99.68 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRLR 36
  • 80.59 (n)
  • 69.84 (a)
  • 69 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRLR 36
  • 83.01 (n)
  • 75.4 (a)
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gm21973 37
  • 79 (a)
Prlr 36
  • 78.36 (n)
  • 69.83 (a)
Prlr 16
Prlr 37
  • 69 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRLR 37
  • 66 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRLR 37
  • 61 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prlr 36
  • 79.44 (n)
  • 70.17 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRLR 36
  • 62.43 (n)
  • 51.34 (a)
  • 39 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRLR 37
  • 36 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia prlr-B 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prlr 36
  • 58.72 (n)
  • 49.91 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8049 36
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prlra 36
  • 50.38 (n)
  • 40.15 (a)
prlra 37
  • 35 (a)
prlrb 37
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PRLR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRLR Gene

Gene Tree for PRLR (if available)
Gene Tree for PRLR (if available)

Paralogs for PRLR Gene

Paralogs for PRLR Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PRLR Gene using alignment to 10 proteins: Pseudogenes for PRLR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRLR: view

Variants for PRLR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRLR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs37364 -- 35,072,278(-) GGCAC(A/C)AGGTG intron-variant
rs37365 -- 35,072,111(-) agaca(A/T)gcctg intron-variant
rs37366 -- 35,071,756(-) gccag(C/G)catgg intron-variant
rs37367 -- 35,067,058(-) AGGCC(A/G)GGCGC intron-variant
rs37382 -- 35,092,966(-) CACAG(C/T)GTGGT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRLR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6032n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv4790 CNV Loss 18451855
esv992972 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1447971 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2730060 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2092288 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2730061 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv526901 CNV Loss 19592680
esv3174 CNV Deletion 18987735
esv2661957 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2730063 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv327901 CNV Loss 16902084
esv2267873 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2730064 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv327297 CNV Loss 16902084
esv1008308 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1083244 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2730065 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for PRLR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for PRLR Gene

(2) OMIM Diseases for PRLR Gene (176761)


  • Multiple fibroadenomas of the breast (MFAB) [MIM:615554]: A benign breast disease marked by lobuloalveolar growth with abnormally high proliferation of the epithelium, and characterized by the presence of more than 3 fibroadenomas in one breast. Fibroadenomas are adenomas containing fibrous tissue. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18779591}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) [MIM:615555]: A disorder characterized by increased levels of prolactin in the blood not associated with gestation or the puerperium. HPRL may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:24195502}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PRLR Gene

(31) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PRLR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hyperprolactinemia 62.3 8
cerebral meningioma 60.1 1
breast cancer 58.5 85
breast carcinoma 34.2 8
breast diseases 32.6 4

Relevant External Links for PRLR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRLR: view

Publications for PRLR Gene

  1. Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors. (PMID: 18779591) Bogorad R.L. … Touraine P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 4 23 49
  2. Could prolactin receptor gene polymorphism play a role in pathogenesis of breast carcinoma? (PMID: 15119991) Canbay E. … Bardakci F. (Curr Med Res Opin 2004) 3 23 49
  3. Association of prolactin and its receptor gene regions with familial breast cancer. (PMID: 16434456) Vaclavicek A. … FAPrsti A. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2006) 3 23 49
  4. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PMID: 18053149) Lee S.A. … Stram D.O. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007) 3 23 49
  5. Prolactin receptor antagonists that inhibit the growth of breast cancer cell lines. (PMID: 7768908) Fuh G. … Wells J.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995) 3 4 23

Products for PRLR Gene

Sources for PRLR Gene

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