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PRLR Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 72
GCID: GC05M035084

Prolactin Receptor

  See PRLR-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Prolactin Receptor1 2     hPRLrI2
PRL-R2 3     HPRL Receptor2
HPRL2 5     Secreted Prolactin Binding Protein2
MFAB2 5     

External Ids:    HGNC: 94461   Entrez Gene: 56182   Ensembl: ENSG000001134947   OMIM: 1767615   UniProtKB: P164713   

Export aliases for PRLR gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05M035082 GC05M036075 GC05M035094


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PRLR Gene:
This gene encodes a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone, prolactin, and belongs to the type I cytokine
receptor family. Prolactin-dependent signaling occurs as the result of ligand-induced dimerization of the
prolactin receptor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different membrane-bound and
soluble isoforms have been described for this gene, which may function to modulate the endocrine and autocrine
effects of prolactin in normal tissue and cancer. (provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PRLR Gene:
PRLR (prolactin receptor) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PRLR include hyperprolactinemia, and tongue cancer. GO annotations related to this gene include ornithine decarboxylase activator activity and protein homodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is GHR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRLR_HUMAN, P16471
Function: This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for
spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and stimulation of AKT.
Isoform 4 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling. Isoform 6 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000005.9  NT_006576.17  NC_018916.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRLR gene promoter:
         COUP-TF1   GR   COUP   HNF-4alpha2   IRF-1   HNF-4alpha1   CREB   COUP-TF   deltaCREB   GR-alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRLR promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PRLR

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PRLR


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5p13.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5p13.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5p14-p13

PRLR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRLR gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05M035084:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
35,048,861 bp from pter      End:
35,230,823 bp from pter
Size:
181,963 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRLR_HUMAN, P16471 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prolactin receptor precursor  
Size: 622 amino acids; 69506 Da
Subunit: Homodimer upon hormone binding. Interacts with SMARCA1. Interacts with GH1. Interacts with CSH. Interacts
with NEK3 and VAV2 and this interaction is prolactin-dependent
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PRLR (see all 11):
1BP3 (3D)        2LFG (3D)        3D48 (3D)        3MZG (3D)        3N06 (3D)        3N0P (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2R882 D1MDP1 Q16354 Q8TD75 Q8TD78 Q96P35 Q96P36 Q9BX87 Q9UHJ5
Alternative splicing: 9 isoforms:  P16471-1   P16471-2   P16471-3   P16471-4   P16471-5   P16471-6   P16471-7   P16471-8   
P16471-9   (SF1b with deletion of exon 4. May be produced at very low levels due to a premature stop codon in the mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRLR: NX_P16471

Explore proteomics data for PRLR at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn59, Asn104, Asn233
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PRLR Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000940.1  NP_001191243.1  NP_001191244.1  NP_001191245.1  NP_001191246.1  NP_001191247.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000231423   ENSP00000424841   ENSP00000422935   ENSP00000311613   ENSP00000425300  
     ENSP00000371432   ENSP00000427236   ENSP00000422556   ENSP00000309008   ENSP00000423493  
     ENSP00000427060   ENSP00000422385   ENSP00000422867   ENSP00000421864   ENSP00000441813  
     ENSP00000380546   ENSP00000339213  
    Reactome Protein details: P16471

    PRLR Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PRLR
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
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    Novus Biologicals PRLR Proteins
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    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PRLR
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PRLR
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PRLR
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PRLR

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PRLR 

    PRLR Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PRLR
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PRLR (Prolactin R)
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    Novus Biologicals PRLR Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PRLR
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PRLR
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PRLR
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRLR

    PRLR Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PRLR 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Prolactin receptor
    Prolactin receptor family

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR003961 Fibronectin_type3
     IPR013783 Ig-like_fold
     IPR015152 Growth/epo_recpt_lig-bind
     IPR003528 Long_hematopoietin_rcpt_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P16471

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P16471

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003528 Long hematopoietin receptor

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRLR_HUMAN, P16471
    Domain: The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular
    transport and cell-surface receptor binding
    Domain: The box 1 motif is required for JAK interaction and/or activation
    Similarity: Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Type 1 subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains


    Find genes that share domains with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PRLR_HUMAN, P16471
    Function: This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for
    spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and stimulation of AKT.
    Isoform 4 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling. Isoform 6 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PRLR:
    prolactin receptor with two alternatively spliced isoforms,expressed in breast cancer,breast normal tissue,gonad
    and liver

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004896cytokine receptor activity ----
    GO:0004925prolactin receptor activity NAS10585417
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0017046peptide hormone binding IPI7984244
    GO:0042803protein homodimerization activity NAS10585417
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PRLR:
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         15 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Prlr):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cellular  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland 
     growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism  integument  limbs/digits/tail  nervous system 
     reproductive system  skeleton  taste/olfaction  tumorigenesis  vision/eye 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Prlrtm1Cnp for PRLR

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PRLR
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PRLR

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PRLR
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PRLR

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRLR:
    hsa-mir-181a-5p (MIRT025183)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PRLR using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRLR (see all 32):
    hsa-miR-194* hsa-let-7a-2* hsa-miR-10b* hsa-miR-183* hsa-miR-181b hsa-miR-181a hsa-miR-551b* hsa-miR-182*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRLR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PRLR
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRLR

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PRLR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 6): PRLR (NM_000949)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PRLR
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRLR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRLR

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRLR


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PRLR_HUMAN, P16471: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    PRLR_HUMAN, P16471: Isoform 7: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    endosome4
    plasma membrane4
    nucleus2
    peroxisome2
    cytoskeleton1
    cytosol1
    endoplasmic reticulum1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0009986cell surface IDA10585417
    GO:0016020membrane ----
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PRLR About   (see all 17)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Prolactin Signaling Pathway
    Development Prolactin receptor signaling0.39
    Prolactin signaling pathway0.33
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway0.39
    2Nuclear signaling by ERBB4
    Nuclear signaling by ERBB4
    Prolactin receptor signaling0.00
    3PI-3K cascade
    Signaling by ERBB40.66
    4Interferon Signaling
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system0.59
    5Signaling by GPCR
    Signal Transduction0.58


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PRLR
        JAK-STAT Pathway
    Prolactin Signaling

    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PRLR
        Development Prolactin receptor signaling
    Transcription Ligand-dependent activation of the ESR1/SP pathway

    5 BioSystems Pathways for PRLR
        Adipogenesis
    Ovarian Infertility Genes
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway
    ErbB4 signaling events
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B


    2 Reactome Pathways for PRLR
        Growth hormone receptor signaling
    Prolactin receptor signaling


    5 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PRLR):
        Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway
    Prolactin signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PRLR (see all 6): 
              Interferons & Receptors in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat
              JAK / STAT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PRLR

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PRLR (P164711, 2, 3 ENSP000003714324) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 46)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    YWHAGP619812, 3, ENSP000003063304MINT-16385 MINT-16386 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000306330
    YWHAZP631042, 3, ENSP000003095034MINT-14772 MINT-14773 MINT-8006399 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000309503
    PRLP012361, 3, ENSP000003021504EBI-6903057,EBI-6903064 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000302150
    GH1P012413, ENSP000003126734I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000312673
    NEK3P519563, ENSP000003832104I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000383210
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006694steroid biosynthetic process NAS10585417
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway NAS10585417
    GO:0007171activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity IDA10585417
    GO:0007566embryo implantation TAS9009200
    GO:0007595lactation NAS10585417

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PRLR

    2 DrugBank Compounds for PRLR    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Somatropin recombinantGH (see all 7)12629-01-5target--2270485 17395896 17317019 17279774
    FluoxymesteroneAndrofluorene (see all 8)76-43-7targetantagonist17139284 17016423

    3 IUPHAR Ligands for PRLR (Prolactin receptor)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    prolactin
    AgonistAgonist--
    chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-like 1
    AgonistAgonist--
    choriomammotropin
    AgonistAgonist--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PRLR gene (see all 42)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 53.4 60 8188682 (3), 7537382 (3), 12819209 (2), 10887516 (2) (see all 27)
    bromocriptine 51.1 8 9062514 (3), 9777197 (1), 18596217 (1)
    progesterone 48 28 11668597 (2), 18551363 (2), 10701763 (2), 2223582 (2) (see all 17)
    ribonucleic acid 45.2 10 9435452 (1), 10830440 (1), 8869066 (1), 9062514 (1) (see all 8)
    estradiol 37.2 7 16651265 (2), 18551363 (2), 17267700 (1), 9467590 (1) (see all 5)
    estrogen 35.3 28 15026085 (2), 19687284 (2), 18596217 (2), 9614645 (2) (see all 13)
    2-arachidonoylglycerol 35.3 2 10614630 (1)
    anandamide 27.8 9 10606728 (2), 9653194 (2), 10614630 (2)
    phosphotyrosine 25 1 7537382 (1)
    zinc 24.4 14 9383367 (3), 1793007 (1), 8641144 (1), 16890764 (1) (see all 9)



    Find genes that share compounds with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRLR gene (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000949.5  NM_001204314.1  NM_001204315.1  NM_001204316.1  NM_001204317.1  NM_001204318.1  

    Unigene Cluster for PRLR:

    Prolactin receptor
    Hs.368587  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000949
    18 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000231423(uc003jjg.2) ENST00000513753(uc003jjk.1 uc003jjh.2 uc003jji.2 uc003jjj.2)
    ENST00000514088 ENST00000348262 ENST00000509140 ENST00000382002(uc003jjm.3 uc021xxl.1)
    ENST00000508107 ENST00000511486 ENST00000310101 ENST00000509934 ENST00000514206
    ENST00000509839 ENST00000503330 ENST00000504500 ENST00000515839 ENST00000542609(uc010iuw.1)
    ENST00000397391 ENST00000342362(uc003jjl.4)
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRLR (see all 32):
    hsa-miR-194* hsa-let-7a-2* hsa-miR-10b* hsa-miR-183* hsa-miR-181b hsa-miR-181a hsa-miR-551b* hsa-miR-182*
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    Inhib. RNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 6): PRLR (NM_000949)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRLR
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PRLR
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PRLR
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PRLR
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PRLR
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRLR

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF166329.1 AF349939.1 AF416618.1 AF416619.1 AF492470.1 AF493068.1 AF493069.1 AF512796.1 
    AK001889.1 AK023665.1 AK313270.1 AY062295.1 BC059392.1 BX538149.1 GU133399.1 M31661.1 
    NR_037910.1 S78505.1 

    15 DOTS entries:

    DT.112959  DT.100776078  DT.95158945  DT.95158946  DT.101981235  DT.92418030  DT.120799728  DT.92418031 
    DT.95158944  DT.120799721  DT.75124380  DT.95281146  DT.97823214  DT.100044923  DT.92035122 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 188):

    AF349939 BX538149 BP358927 AU139264 BP356931 AF492470 AL710204 BM713805 
    AA888799 BP357887 NM_000949 AI038436 BP359070 AI079548 AI435838 AF493069 
    BP357783 AI275095 BP357087 AI022810 CB045808 AF416618 BM930913 AK023665 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRLR (see all 11)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b
    SP1:                          -                                                                                                         
    SP2:                                                                                                        -     -     -               
    SP3:                                                                                                                                    
    SP4:                                                                                                  -     -     -     -               
    SP5:                                                        -     -     -                                   -     -     -               


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PRLR

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PRLR expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AAAATTGCTT
    PRLR Expression
    About this image


    PRLR expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 9) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Mature Choroid Plexus Cells Choroid Plexus
             Medulla Oblongata
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Granulosa Cells Primary Follicle
             Mature follicles
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Mature Choroid Plexus Cells Choroid Plexus
     
     Dermis (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Zigzag Dermal Papilla Cells Dermal Papilla
    PRLR Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PRLR Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.368587

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRLR_HUMAN, P16471
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in breast, placenta, kidney, liver and pancreas

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PRLR (see all 6): 
              Interferons & Receptors in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis 384HT in human mouse rat
              Apoptosis in human mouse rat
              T-cell & B-cell Activation in human mouse rat
              JAK / STAT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PRLR gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prlr1 , 5 prolactin receptor1, 5 78.36(n)1
    69.83(a)1
      15 (5.23 cM)5
    191161  NM_011169.51  NP_035299.41 
     101772385 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRLR1 prolactin receptor 62.43(n)
    51.34(a)
      395660  NM_204854.1  NP_990185.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRLR6
    prolactin receptor
    36(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343241.1(1870618-1977874)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia prlr-B2 prolactin receptor 74.92(n)    AF193801.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prlra1 prolactin receptor a 50.38(n)
    40.15(a)
      407651  NM_001128677.1  NP_001122149.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRLR (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRLR (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PRLR gene
    GHR2  CRLF12  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for PRLR using alignment to 10 protein entries:     PRLR_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    CRLF1

    Find genes that share paralogs with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for PRLR
    PGOHUM00000259974


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PRLR (see all 3732)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs795988771,2
    C,F--34991070(+) AGGACA/GTGGTT 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- G:0.03WA 118
    rs594794971,2
    F--34991142(+) TGAAGT/CGAATG 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs405291,2
    C,F,O,H--34991226(+) AAGCTG/CAGAGT 4 -- ds500136Minor allele frequency- C:0.31NA EA NS WA CSA 3491
    rs131776691,2
    C,F,H--34991256(+) TTCTGG/CACAGC 4 -- ds500118Minor allele frequency- C:0.10NS EA NA WA 2308
    rs745062981,2
    C,F--34991289(+) AGGAAG/AGCAAA 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.11WA 118
    rs1444597781,2
    --34991431(+) TGGAAC/TGCATT 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs1141500131,2
    C,F--34991432(+) GGAACG/ACATTC 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.03NA 120
    rs730911091,2
    C--34991446(+) TAAAAC/TGTGTA 4 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1922189671,2
    --34991487(+) GTAAAC/TATGTG 4 -- ds50010--------
    rs1473753691,2
    --34991600(+) ACCACA/GTGCTT 4 -- ut31 nc-transcript-variant0--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRLR (35048861 - 35230823 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for PRLR (see all 18):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2730063CNV Deletion23290073
    esv992972CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2730065CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2730064CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2092288CNV Deletion18987734
    esv3174CNV Deletion18987735
    esv1008308CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2267873CNV Deletion18987734
    esv1083244CNV Deletion17803354
    esv1447971CNV Deletion17803354

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PRLR
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PRLR
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PRLR

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 176761   
    OMIM disorders: 615554  615555  
    7 diseases for PRLR:    
    About MalaCards
    hyperprolactinemia    tongue cancer    multiple fibroadenomas of the breast    cerebral meningioma
    breast fibroadenoma    lobular neoplasia    meningioma

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PRLR:
    Hyperprolactinemia     Breast cancer

    Find genes that share disorders with PRLR           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PRLR gene (see all 31)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hyperprolactinemia 62.3 9 18095129 (4), 7490565 (2), 8181582 (1), 17024156 (1)
    cerebral meningioma 60.1 1 8869066 (1)
    breast cancer 58.5 115 18053149 (6), 19153125 (4), 16278670 (4), 7639855 (4) (see all 46)
    breast carcinoma 34.2 8 7534043 (2), 9389544 (2), 10585417 (2), 12351696 (1) (see all 5)
    breast diseases 32.6 5 9583737 (2), 10433247 (1), 20214633 (1)
    tongue cancer 26.7 4 8181582 (3)
    mammary tumor 25.6 7 10713692 (2), 9389738 (2), 1904282 (1), 16434456 (1)
    acromegaly 21.4 2 7490565 (2)
    prostate cancer 14.3 6 10614630 (2), 16989600 (1), 20053995 (1)
    lymphoma 9.56 9 10221598 (2), 2394695 (1), 8226744 (1), 7584712 (1) (see all 8)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PRLR
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PRLR (18 documents)

    Export disorders for PRLR gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PRLR gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 396):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRLR)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Prolactin receptor antagonists that inhibit the growth of breast cancer cell lines. (PubMed id 7768908)1, 2, 9 Fuh G. and Wells J.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    2. Functional characterization of the intermediate isoform of the human prolactin receptor. (PubMed id 10585417)1, 2, 9 Kline J.B.... Clevenger C.V. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999)
    3. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PubMed id 18053149)1, 4, 9 Lee S.A....Stram D.O. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007)
    4. Prolactin and prolactin receptor gene polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (PubMed id 12559630)1, 4, 9 Mellai M....Momigliano-Richiardi P. (Hum. Immunol. 2003)
    5. Could prolactin receptor gene polymorphism play a role in pathogenesis of breast carcinoma? (PubMed id 15119991)1, 4, 9 Canbay E....Bardakci F. (Curr Med Res Opin 2004)
    6. Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors. (PubMed id 18779591)1, 4, 9 Bogorad R.L....Touraine P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)
    7. Association of prolactin and its receptor gene regions with familial breast cancer. (PubMed id 16434456)1, 4, 9 Vaclavicek A....FAPrsti A. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2006)
    8. Prolactin exerts a prosurvival effect on human spermatozoa via mechanisms that involve the stimulation of Akt phosphorylation and suppression of caspase activation and capacitation. (PubMed id 20032052)1, 2, 9 Pujianto D.A.... Aitken R.J. (Endocrinology 2010)
    9. Alternative splicing to exon 11 of human prolactin receptor gene results in multiple isoforms including a secreted prolactin-binding protein. (PubMed id 12580759)1, 2, 9 Trott J.F.... Vonderhaar B.K. (J. Mol. Endocrinol. 2003)
    10. Characterization of a novel and functional human prolactin receptor isoform (deltaS1PRLr) containing only one extracellular fibronectin- like domain. (PubMed id 12351696)1, 2, 9 Kline J.B.... Clevenger C.V. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5618 HGNC: 9446 AceView: PRLR Ensembl:ENSG00000113494 euGenes: HUgn5618
    ECgene: PRLR Kegg: 5618 H-InvDB: PRLR

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRLR Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PRLR Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PRLR gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRLR

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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