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Aliases for PRLR Gene

Aliases for PRLR Gene

  • Prolactin Receptor 2 3 5
  • Secreted Prolactin Binding Protein 3
  • HPRL Receptor 3
  • HPRLrI 3
  • PRL-R 4
  • HPRL 3
  • MFAB 3

External Ids for PRLR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRLR Gene

  • GC05M035082
  • GC05M036075
  • GC05M035094

Summaries for PRLR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRLR Gene

  • This gene encodes a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone, prolactin, and belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Prolactin-dependent signaling occurs as the result of ligand-induced dimerization of the prolactin receptor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different membrane-bound and soluble isoforms have been described for this gene, which may function to modulate the endocrine and autocrine effects of prolactin in normal tissue and cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PRLR Gene

PRLR (Prolactin Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRLR include hyperprolactinemia and multiple fibroadenomas of the breast. Among its related pathways are PEDF Induced Signaling and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and peptide hormone binding. An important paralog of this gene is GHR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRLR Gene

  • This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and stimulation of AKT. Isoform 4 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling. Isoform 6 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRLR Gene

Genomics for PRLR Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRLR Gene

Enhancers for PRLR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PRLR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PRLR Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PRLR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PRLR Gene

Chromosome:
5
Start:
35,048,756 bp from pter
End:
35,230,589 bp from pter
Size:
181,834 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRLR Gene

Genes around PRLR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRLR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRLR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRLR Gene

Proteins for PRLR Gene

  • Protein details for PRLR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P16471-PRLR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prolactin receptor
    Protein Accession:
    P16471
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R882
    • D1MDP1
    • Q16354
    • Q8TD75
    • Q8TD78
    • Q96P35
    • Q96P36
    • Q9BX87
    • Q9UHJ5

    Protein attributes for PRLR Gene

    Size:
    622 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    69506 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer upon hormone binding. Interacts with SMARCA1. Interacts with GH1. Interacts with CSH. Interacts with NEK3 and VAV2 and this interaction is prolactin-dependent.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRLR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRLR Gene

neXtProt entry for PRLR Gene

Proteomics data for PRLR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PRLR Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 59, Asn 104, and Asn 233
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PRLR (PRLR)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRLR Gene

Domains & Families for PRLR Gene

Gene Families for PRLR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRLR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P16471

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PRLR_HUMAN :
  • The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular transport and cell-surface receptor binding.
  • Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Type 1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The WSXWS motif appears to be necessary for proper protein folding and thereby efficient intracellular transport and cell-surface receptor binding.
  • The box 1 motif is required for JAK interaction and/or activation.
  • Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains.
Family:
  • Belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. Type 1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRLR: view

Function for PRLR Gene

Molecular function for PRLR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prolactin receptor with two alternatively spliced isoforms,expressed in breast cancer,breast normal tissue,gonad and liver
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
This is a receptor for the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Acts as a prosurvival factor for spermatozoa by inhibiting sperm capacitation through suppression of SRC kinase activation and stimulation of AKT. Isoform 4 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling. Isoform 6 is unable to transduce prolactin signaling.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004925 prolactin receptor activity NAS 10585417
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRLR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRLR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PRLR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PRLR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRLR:

miRNA for PRLR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRLR

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRLR Gene

Localization for PRLR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRLR Gene

Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.
Isoform 7: Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PRLR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRLR gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
endosome 4
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0031904 endosome lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRLR: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRLR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRLR: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRLR Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway NAS 10585417
GO:0007171 activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity IDA 10585417
GO:0007566 embryo implantation TAS 9009200
GO:0030155 regulation of cell adhesion IEA --
GO:0030856 regulation of epithelial cell differentiation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRLR: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRLR Gene

(33) Drugs for PRLR Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Somatropin recombinant Approved, Investigational Pharma binder, Target 0
Fluoxymesterone Approved, Illicit Pharma Target, antagonist 0
choriomammotropin Pharma Agonist 0
chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-like 1 Pharma Agonist 0
prolactin Pharma Agonist 0

(15) Additional Compounds for PRLR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRLR: view

Transcripts for PRLR Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRLR Gene

Prolactin receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRLR Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b
SP1: -
SP2: - - -
SP3:
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - -
SP11:

Relevant External Links for PRLR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRLR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PRLR

Expression for PRLR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PRLR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRLR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cervix - Ectocervix (x7.9), Adrenal Gland (x6.3), Uterus (x5.7), and Cervix - Endocervix (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRLR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (62.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PRLR Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRLR Gene Hs.368587

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRLR Gene

P16471-PRLR_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in breast, placenta, kidney, liver and pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRLR: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRLR Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for PRLR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PRLR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRLR 35
  • 80.59 (n)
  • 69.84 (a)
PRLR 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRLR 35
  • 83.01 (n)
  • 75.4 (a)
PRLR 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prlr 35
  • 78.36 (n)
  • 69.83 (a)
Prlr 16
Gm21973 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToMany
Prlr 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRLR 35
  • 99.68 (n)
  • 100 (a)
PRLR 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prlr 35
  • 79.44 (n)
  • 70.17 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRLR 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRLR 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRLR 35
  • 62.43 (n)
  • 51.34 (a)
PRLR 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRLR 36
  • 36 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prlr 35
  • 58.72 (n)
  • 49.91 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia prlr-B 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prlra 35
  • 50.38 (n)
  • 40.15 (a)
prlra 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
prlrb 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8049 35
Species with no ortholog for PRLR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRLR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PRLR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PRLR (if available)

Paralogs for PRLR Gene

Paralogs for PRLR Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PRLR Gene using alignment to 10 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PRLR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRLR: view

Variants for PRLR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRLR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2228482 - 35,084,545(-) CATAC(A/G)TCATG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
VAR_070894 Multiple fibroadenomas of the breast (MFAB)
VAR_070895 Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL)
rs766594 -- 35,166,085(+) ATACA(C/G)AGCTT intron-variant
rs873456 -- 35,199,555(+) TAAAA(A/C)CACGT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRLR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6032n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv4790 CNV Loss 18451855
esv992972 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1447971 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2730060 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2092288 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2730061 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv526901 CNV Loss 19592680
esv3174 CNV Deletion 18987735
esv2661957 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2730063 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv327901 CNV Loss 16902084
esv2267873 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2730064 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv327297 CNV Loss 16902084
esv1008308 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1083244 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2730065 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for PRLR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 78.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.95; 59.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PRLR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PRLR
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PRLR

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRLR Gene

Disorders for PRLR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for PRLR Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hyperprolactinemia
  • chiari-frommel syndrome
multiple fibroadenomas of the breast
  • multiple fibroadenoma of the breast
familial hyperprolactinemia
  • familial isolated prolactin receptor deficiency
breast disease
  • breast diseases
endometriosis of uterus
  • endometriosis interna
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRLR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

PRLR_HUMAN
  • Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) [MIM:615555]: A disorder characterized by increased levels of prolactin in the blood not associated with gestation or the puerperium. HPRL may result in infertility, hypogonadism, and galactorrhea. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:24195502}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Multiple fibroadenomas of the breast (MFAB) [MIM:615554]: A benign breast disease marked by lobuloalveolar growth with abnormally high proliferation of the epithelium, and characterized by the presence of more than 3 fibroadenomas in one breast. Fibroadenomas are adenomas containing fibrous tissue. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18779591}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for PRLR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PRLR
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PRLR
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PRLR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRLR: view

No data available for Genatlas for PRLR Gene

Publications for PRLR Gene

  1. Identification of a gain-of-function mutation of the prolactin receptor in women with benign breast tumors. (PMID: 18779591) Bogorad R.L. … Touraine P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 4 23 48 67
  2. [The correlation between the expression of PRL-R and ER/PR in breast cancer]. (PMID: 20335148) Zheng R.H. … Tong Q. (Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2010) 3 23
  3. Impaired turnover of prolactin receptor contributes to transformation of human breast cells. (PMID: 19276348) Plotnikov A. … Fuchs S.Y. (Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23
  4. SRC family kinases accelerate prolactin receptor internalization, modulating trafficking and signaling in breast cancer cells. (PMID: 19056863) Piazza T.M. … Schuler L.A. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2009) 3 23
  5. Re-evaluation of the prolactin receptor expression in human breast cancer. (PMID: 19153125) Galsgaard E.D. … Panina S. (J. Endocrinol. 2009) 3 23

Products for PRLR Gene

Sources for PRLR Gene

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