Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PRL Gene

Aliases for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin 2 3 3 5
  • Decidual Prolactin 3
  • Growth Hormone A1 3
  • GHA1 3

External Ids for PRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRL Gene

  • GC06M022345
  • GC06M022395

Summaries for PRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRL Gene

  • This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene

PRL (Prolactin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include Empty Sella Syndrome and Sheehan Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Growth hormone receptor signaling and Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and prolactin receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Gene Wiki entry for PRL Gene

Additional gene information for PRL Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRL Gene

Genomics for PRL Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRL Gene

Enhancers for PRL Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH06H022320 0.5 ENCODE 0.4 -18.1 -18084 0.2 JUND JUN FOS PRL GC06P022347
GH06H022271 0.6 Ensembl 0.3 +31.7 31683 0.4 TBL1XR1 EED ZBED1 ETV6 RUNX3 IKZF2 SPI1 PRL ENSG00000261568
GH06H022248 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 0.2 +53.9 53928 1.4 CEBPB ZEB2 NR2F2 FOXA1 JUND GATA3 CTBP1 FOS ENSG00000261568 PRL
GH06H022236 0.7 ENCODE 0.2 +65.9 65905 1.6 SMARCE1 PKNOX1 SIN3A NR3C1 FOXA1 CTBP1 JUND GATA3 CREB1 FOSL2 ENSG00000261568 PRL
GH06H022249 0.6 ENCODE 0.2 +51.9 51923 2.3 JUND RFX1 JUN CEBPB FOS EP300 ZXDB TCF7L2 ENSG00000261568 PRL
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for PRL Gene

Genomic Locations for PRL Gene
15,640 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRL Gene

Genes around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRL Gene

Proteins for PRL Gene

  • Protein details for PRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15199
    • Q92996

    Protein attributes for PRL Gene

    227 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25876 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=8; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRL Gene

neXtProt entry for PRL Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRL Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=59
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PRL Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRL Gene

Domains & Families for PRL Gene

Gene Families for PRL Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRL: view

Function for PRL Gene

Molecular function for PRL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PRL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005148 prolactin receptor binding TAS 10854700
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23048206
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRL: view

Animal Models for PRL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRL:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRL Gene

Localization for PRL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endosome 5
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0031904 endosome lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRL: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRL Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 10854700
GO:0007565 female pregnancy NAS 7221563
GO:0007595 lactation IEA --
GO:0008283 cell proliferation TAS 10854700
GO:0040014 regulation of multicellular organism growth IEP 8421089
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRL Gene

(99) Drugs for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(22) Additional Compounds for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRL: view

Transcripts for PRL Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRL Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x52.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal gut (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PRL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRL Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRL Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRL Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Blood(4)
  • Eye(3.3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
  • Thyroid gland(2.6)
  • Skin(2.2)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Liver(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRL: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRL Gene

Orthologs for PRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRL 33 34
  • 99.27 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRL 34 33
  • 86.34 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRL 34 33
  • 80.32 (n)
-- 34
  • 43 (a)
-- 34
  • 42 (a)
PRP9 34
  • 42 (a)
PRP8 34
  • 40 (a)
-- 34
  • 39 (a)
PRP2 34
  • 39 (a)
-- 34
  • 38 (a)
PRP14 34
  • 38 (a)
PRP6 34
  • 38 (a)
PRP7 34
  • 38 (a)
PRP1 34
  • 37 (a)
PRP5 34
  • 37 (a)
CSH1 34
  • 37 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRL 34
  • 74 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prl 33
  • 72.41 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prl 34 16 33
  • 71.85 (n)
Prl2a1 34
  • 42 (a)
Prl6a1 34
  • 40 (a)
Prl3a1 34
  • 39 (a)
Prl3b1 34
  • 39 (a)
Prl4a1 34
  • 39 (a)
Prl2c1 34
  • 37 (a)
Prl2c5 34
  • 37 (a)
Prl7d1 34
  • 37 (a)
Prl3d1 34
  • 36 (a)
Prl2c2 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl2c3 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl3d2 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl3d3 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl7b1 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl7c1 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl2b1 34
  • 32 (a)
Prl5a1 34
  • 32 (a)
Prl8a1 34
  • 30 (a)
Prl7a1 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a2 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a6 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a8 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl7a2 34
  • 28 (a)
Prl8a9 34
  • 28 (a)
Prl3c1 34
  • 26 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRL 34
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRL 34 33
  • 72.06 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRL 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prl.1 33
  • 66.17 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prl 34
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PRL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRL Gene

Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
Gene Tree for PRL (if available)

Paralogs for PRL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PRL Gene

Variants for PRL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000159359 -- 22,304,149(+) GAGGT(A/G)GAGGA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000232359 -- 22,303,593(+) GGCTG(A/C)ATCTA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000405800 -- 22,289,400(+) TCACT(A/G)ATGTT intron-variant
rs1000768869 -- 22,303,259(+) AAATC(A/G)CAGCA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1001425245 -- 22,290,886(+) GAAGA(A/G)ACAAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830604 CNV loss 17160897
nsv601119 CNV loss 21841781
esv3608333 CNV loss 21293372
dgv5924n100 CNV loss 25217958

Variation tolerance for PRL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.81; 16.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

Disorders for PRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(120) MalaCards diseases for PRL Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
empty sella syndrome
  • empty sella turcica
sheehan syndrome
  • simmond's disease
pituitary apoplexy
  • chiari-frommel syndrome
  • erectile dysfunction
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PRL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRL Gene

Publications for PRL Gene

  1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PMID: 18053149) Lee SA … Stram DO (BMC medical genetics 2007) 3 22 45 60
  2. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the cytochrome P450 17A1, prolactin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. (PMID: 16214922) Skibola CF … Holly EA (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2005) 3 22 45 60
  3. Genome-wide association identifies three new susceptibility loci for Paget's disease of bone. (PMID: 21623375) Albagha OM … Genetic Determinants of Paget's Disease (GDPD) Consortium (Nature genetics 2011) 3 45 60
  4. Characterization of two constitutively active prolactin receptor variants in a cohort of 95 women with multiple breast fibroadenomas. (PMID: 19897676) Courtillot C … Benign Breast Diseases Study Group (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2010) 3 45 60
  5. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K … Hosoya T (Nephron. Clinical practice 2010) 3 45 60

Products for PRL Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

Sources for PRL Gene

Loading form....