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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PRL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC06M022230

Prolactin

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
prolactin1 2
Decidual Prolactin2

External Ids:    HGNC: 94451   Entrez Gene: 56172   Ensembl: ENSG000001721797   OMIM: 1767605   UniProtKB: P012363   

Export aliases for PRL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06M022345 GC06M022395


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PRL Gene:
This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many
tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis,
and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the
same protein. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene: 
PRL (prolactin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include hyperprolactinemia, and prolactinoma, and among its related super-pathways are Development Prolactin receptor signaling and Prolactin receptor signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include prolactin receptor binding and hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
Function: Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation

Gene Wiki entry for PRL (Prolactin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_007592.15  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRL gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   FOXO1a   STAT3   IRF-1   c-Jun   NF-kappaB1   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRL promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PRL

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PRL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p22.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p22.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p22.3

PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06M022230:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
22,287,475 bp from pter      End:
22,303,082 bp from pter
Size:
15,608 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prolactin precursor  
Size: 227 amino acids; 25876 Da
Subcellular location: Secreted
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=8;
6/12 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PRL (see all 12):
1RW5 (3D)        2Q98 (3D)        3D48 (3D)        3EW3 (3D)        3MZG (3D)        3N06 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q15199 Q92996

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRL: NX_P01236

Explore proteomics data for PRL at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P01236

  • PRL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PRL Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000939.1  NP_001157030.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000302150  
    Reactome Protein details: P01236
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PRL: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PRL (Prolactin)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for PRL
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PRL
    OriGene MassSpec for PRL 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PRL
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PRL
    Novus Biologicals PRL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PRL Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PRL
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PRL 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PRL 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0030141secretory granule IEA--

    PRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PRL Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PRL
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PRL (Prolactin)
    OriGene Antibodies for PRL
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PRL
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for PRL
    Novus Biologicals PRL Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PRL 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PRL
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRL 

    Assay Products for PRL: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PRL
    R&D Systems ELISAs for PRL (Prolactin)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PRL
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PRL 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PRL


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018116 Somatotropin_CS
     IPR012351 4_helix_cytokine_core
     IPR009079 4_helix_cytokine-like_core
     IPR001400 Somatotropin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01236

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01236

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001400 Somatotropin hormone

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
    Similarity: Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family


    PRL for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
    Function: Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PRL:
    prolactin

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005148prolactin receptor binding TAS10854700
    GO:0005179hormone activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    PRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Prl):
     behavior/neurological  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     integument  liver/biliary system  nervous system  reproductive system  tumorigenesis 

    PRL for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Prltm1Hmn for PRL

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PRL 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PRL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PRL 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PRL 

    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PRL
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRL
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
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    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRL

    Gene Editing
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    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of PRL

    Clone
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    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PRL (see all 12)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PRL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRL (NM_004248)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRL
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PRL 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PRL 

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    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PRL
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRL


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PRL About   (see all 18)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Development Prolactin receptor signaling
    Development Prolactin receptor signaling0.39
    Prolactin signaling pathway0.33
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway0.39
    2Prolactin receptor signaling
    Prolactin receptor signaling0.38
    Growth hormone receptor signaling0.31
    Nuclear signaling by ERBB40.38
    3PIP3 activates AKT signaling
    Signaling by ERBB40.67
    4Interferon Signaling
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system0.61
    5TGF-Beta Pathway
    JAK-STAT Pathway0.57

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for PRL
        Development Prolactin receptor signaling

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PRL
        JAK-STAT Pathway
    Prolactin Signaling

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PRL
        Development Prolactin receptor signaling

    5 BioSystems Pathways for PRL
        Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway
    ErbB4 signaling events
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network


    5/9        Reactome Pathways for PRL (see all 9)
        Cytokine Signaling in Immune system
    Prolactin receptor signaling
    Disease
    Amyloids
    Signal Transduction


    5         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PRL):
        Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway
    Prolactin signaling pathway


    PRL for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PRL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/41 Interacting proteins for PRL (P012363 ENSP000003021504) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 41)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PPIBP232843, ENSP000003000264I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000300026
    PRLRP164713, ENSP000003714324I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000371432
    UBQLN4Q9NRR53, ENSP000003572924I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000357292
    PAK2Q131773I2D: score=1 
    APCSENSP000002550404STRING: ENSP00000255040
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/24 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 24):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS10854700
    GO:0007262STAT protein import into nucleus IEA--
    GO:0007565female pregnancy NAS7221563
    GO:0007567parturition IEA--
    GO:0007584response to nutrient IEA--

    PRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PRL for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for PRL

    10/121 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PRL gene (see all 121)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    bromocriptine 93.1 682 17917811 (5), 11579944 (5), 1490255 (4), 1543025 (4) (see all 99)
    acth 89.4 1254 9876339 (6), 14533141 (6), 14604600 (6), 12475731 (5) (see all 99)
    cabergoline 88.6 223 10931080 (6), 10404830 (5), 11579944 (4), 12699451 (4) (see all 99)
    testosterone 88.4 1978 9334596 (7), 15670199 (6), 10639190 (5), 11966629 (5) (see all 99)
    quinagolide 87.3 71 7889620 (5), 8921822 (4), 10931080 (4), 18211974 (3) (see all 27)
    estradiol 87.1 1052 16775175 (6), 16557037 (6), 2209924 (5), 2162014 (5) (see all 99)
    fenfluramine 85.8 552 11959359 (7), 12680745 (7), 10760377 (6), 10674278 (6) (see all 99)
    progesterone 83.1 1127 9158065 (9), 14559722 (7), 2209924 (7), 19215357 (6) (see all 99)
    dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 82.3 356 9159534 (7), 1832389 (5), 7586621 (4), 11499189 (4) (see all 99)
    dopamine 81.4 1015 7977731 (8), 8284103 (8), 8119166 (8), 1618163 (6) (see all 99)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PRL

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRL gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000948.5  NM_001163558.2  

    Unigene Clusters for PRL:

    Prolactin
    Hs.1905  [show with all ESTs], Hs.735971  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequences: CD242874, BQ441738
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000306482(uc003ndo.3 uc003ndp.3 uc003ndq.3 uc003ndr.1)

    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PRL
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRL
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PRL
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRL
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PRL (see all 12)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PRL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRL (NM_004248)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRL
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PRL 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PRL 
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PRL
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PRL
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PRL
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL

    Additional mRNA sequence: M58594.1 

    24/38 DOTS entries (see all 38):

    DT.100893336  DT.216750  DT.100893346  DT.92459805  DT.100893365  DT.100893341  DT.100893371  DT.100893374 
    DT.100893360  DT.95181547  DT.100893338  DT.95283527  DT.100893355  DT.100893368  DT.100893372  DT.95181598 
    DT.100842013  DT.100893325  DT.121387776  DT.91843361  DT.95181552  DT.95181593  DT.100893324  DT.100893332 

    24/1041 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1041):

    CD239727 CD108474 CD105775 CD107994 CD105695 CD108933 CD251270 CD250978 
    CD106462 CD239882 CD106496 CR596710 CD107921 CD107483 CD239046 CD250884 
    CD250869 CD108225 CD242329 CD108227 CD238951 CD108266 CD106943 CD239720 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/7 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL (see all 7)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
    SP1:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP2:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP3:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP4:                          -                 -           -     -     -                     
    SP5:                          -                 -                                             


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PRL

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PRL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PRL embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTTGGGTGTA
    PRL Expression
    About this image


    PRL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/11 selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     
     Placenta (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             placenta ; trophoblastic cells   
             placenta   
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hematopoietic Bone Marrow
     
     Smooth Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)
             smooth muscle ; smooth muscle cells   
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             T-Cytotoxic Cells Thymus
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             kidney ; cells in glomeruli   

    See PRL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PRL

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.1905 Hs.735971
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PRL: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              JAK / STAT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

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    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRL

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PRL gene from 5/11 species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prl1 , 5 prolactin1, 5 72(n)1
    61.33(a)1
      13 (12.25 cM)5
    191091  NM_011164.21  NP_035294.21 
     270575775 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRL1 prolactin 71.51(n)
    68.28(a)
      396453  NM_205466.2  NP_990797.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRL6
    Uncharacterized protein
    66(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(54981767-54989741)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia CD302094.12   -- 73.67(n)    CD302094.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prl6
    prl26
    prolactin 2
    33(a)
    28(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    possible ortholog
    3(32478893-32482876)
    4(13409098-13414203)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/354 SNPs in PRL are shown (see all 354)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1841026651,2
    --22208998(+) TTGTAC/GAATGA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1411613951,2
    C--22209017(+) ATTAAC/TAATCT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1434595781,2
    --22209030(+) CTCTTC/TGATTC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1466753541,2
    --22209133(+) TCTGAC/TAAGAA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1401052691,2
    --22209135(+) TGATAA/TGAACT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs93585301,2
    H--22209300(+) TACAAC/TTAAAA 2 -- ut314Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NS EA 418
    rs1502890101,2
    --22209310(+) AGAAGC/TTTGCA 2 -- ut310--------
    rs1886419431,2
    C--22209322(+) TGGAAC/TGGATC 2 -- ut310--------
    rs2020533991,2
    --22209342(+) CTTCTC/TAGAAA 2 -- ut310--------
    rs2008313761,2
    --22209367(+) GTGGGC/TTTAGC 2 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRL (22287475 - 22303082 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PRL:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv830604CNV Loss17160897


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PRL
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PRL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 176760    OMIM disorders: --

    20/303 diseases for PRL (see all 303):    About MalaCards
    hyperprolactinemia    prolactinoma    sheehan syndrome    adenohypophysitis
    empty sella syndrome    prolactin producing pituitary tumor    choristoma    premenstrual tension
    endocrine gland cancer    impotence    pituitary apoplexy    sexual disorder
    pedophilia    schizophreniform disorder    amenorrhea    varicocele
    acth deficiency    stereotypic movement disorder    obstructive hydrocephalus    generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

    20/29 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PRL (see all 29):
    Hyperprolactinemia     Pituitary adenoma     Adenoma     Amenorrhea
    Neuroendocrine tumor     Acromegaly     Hypothyroidism     Hypopituitarism
    Hypogonadism     Infertility     Cushing's syndrome     Polycystic ovary syndrome
    Empty sella syndrome     Anovulation     Hypoglycemia     Sexual dysfunction
    Breast cancer     Gynecomastia     Diabetes insipidus     Pituitary apoplexy

    PRL for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    90 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PRL gene (see top 10)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hyperprolactinemia 97.2 764 8456892 (5), 7899431 (5), 9156042 (5), 16817144 (5) (see all 99)
    prolactinoma 95.4 432 12012125 (6), 18426817 (5), 1903012 (5), 12574225 (4) (see all 99)
    macroprolactinoma 92.5 95 8737186 (6), 10931080 (5), 8729527 (3), 10216513 (3) (see all 60)
    pituitary adenoma 91.3 250 8392915 (5), 1910948 (3), 14615416 (3), 12713252 (3) (see all 99)
    microprolactinoma 91.3 77 10931080 (5), 14616880 (4), 10216513 (3), 1774132 (2) (see all 48)
    pituitary tumors 87.7 119 15251707 (3), 2325501 (2), 10933752 (2), 7664652 (2) (see all 90)
    acromegaly 83.2 73 1574954 (2), 8531896 (2), 8127416 (2), 15473133 (2) (see all 52)
    adenoma 82.3 774 8949563 (7), 1625993 (6), 8162255 (5), 8890999 (5) (see all 99)
    hypogonadism 80 51 8733264 (3), 2099670 (1), 10699620 (1), 11207632 (1) (see all 36)
    panhypopituitarism 78.9 26 10698595 (2), 2045062 (1), 8805025 (1), 9285205 (1) (see all 20)
    tsh deficiency 78.1 29 9632165 (2), 7852536 (2), 18174732 (2), 9626142 (1) (see all 21)
    prolactin deficiency 77.2 28 16621908 (5), 14974916 (3), 17077946 (2), 15049963 (2) (see all 17)
    hypopituitarism 76.9 35 8530591 (4), 10843153 (2), 9627600 (2), 8045946 (2) (see all 24)
    empty sella 75.8 14 1521641 (3), 8796337 (2), 1752237 (1), 8299703 (1) (see all 9)
    polycystic ovary syndrome 74.5 33 1916652 (2), 14648180 (2), 19533481 (2), 9542361 (2) (see all 21)
    oligomenorrhea 73.8 9 11788013 (1), 15921180 (1), 9879157 (1), 18480682 (1) (see all 8)
    prolactin deficiency, isolated 73.3 6 11264615 (1), 9174694 (1), 18404389 (1), 1426359 (1) (see all 6)
    adenoma chromophobe 73.1 7 1789066 (2), 11297766 (1), 8875756 (1), 2070893 (1) (see all 5)
    pituitary adenoma nonfunctioning 72.3 5 18079591 (2), 8769379 (1), 15181094 (1)
    menstrual irregularity 70.7 17 12580934 (2), 10770172 (1), 1460786 (1), 16466670 (1) (see all 12)
    gynecomastia 70.6 27 9586418 (2), 9334596 (2), 11434671 (1), 12522680 (1) (see all 21)
    endocrine effects 70.2 6 7897617 (1), 7813744 (1), 15138671 (1), 11797027 (1) (see all 5)
    secondary amenorrhea 70.1 20 2119170 (2), 9542361 (2), 9838765 (2), 2048615 (2) (see all 13)
    infertility 69.5 87 9093188 (5), 14502861 (3), 9076428 (3), 19624865 (3) (see all 53)
    pituitary dysfunction 67.9 3 7750626 (1), 7941955 (1), 2128941 (1)
    anovulation 67.4 17 18393218 (4), 1939525 (1), 7900499 (1), 12522680 (1) (see all 12)
    hypothyroidism primary 67 38 7899431 (5), 1344440 (3), 8035765 (2), 7750626 (2) (see all 17)
    acth deficiency 66.5 5 10523016 (1), 17162714 (1), 1333997 (1), 12717343 (1)
    schizophrenia 66 111 2354227 (4), 15939977 (4), 12897637 (3), 1486148 (3) (see all 78)
    hypothyroidism 65.4 55 1605145 (3), 14611708 (3), 7753340 (2), 12705335 (2) (see all 38)
    hyperandrogenism 65.2 12 2080142 (2), 15024892 (1), 18377903 (1), 16409817 (1) (see all 5)
    hormone deficiency 64.7 12 16918947 (1), 15844473 (1), 16879162 (1), 11268409 (1) (see all 11)
    endocrine disorder 62.7 13 1480591 (2), 8210516 (1), 17253440 (1), 20137674 (1) (see all 10)
    prolactin-producing pituitary tumor 62.4 2 9531902 (1), 11808216 (1)
    pituitary diseases 61.8 4 10887453 (1), 8675591 (1), 2105144 (1), 1846002 (1)
    menstrual disorder 61.8 8 1774453 (2), 7991872 (1), 1526627 (1), 9879157 (1) (see all 7)
    sheehan syndrome 61.4 8 1304515 (4), 1411718 (1), 7982772 (1), 16785150 (1)
    gigantism pituitary 61.2 2 1425451 (2)
    polycystic ovaries 61.2 6 14648180 (1), 7927560 (1), 9696215 (1), 1924408 (1)
    adenoma acth secreting 59.8 6 9876339 (1), 2155694 (1), 7951491 (1), 8738481 (1) (see all 5)
    gigantism 59.7 3 10517473 (1), 17242703 (1)
    oligozoospermia 59.5 13 8554433 (2), 9140616 (2), 8743354 (1), 12788420 (1) (see all 10)
    anovulatory cycle 59.2 1 2125674 (1)
    nonfunctioning pituitary tumor 58.5 1 7964988 (1)
    impotence 58.4 16 8077999 (3), 12522680 (1), 19365914 (1), 1352308 (1) (see all 12)
    erectile dysfunction 57.4 23 9334596 (4), 8801788 (1), 17213792 (1), 15794243 (1) (see all 15)
    growth hormone secreting adenoma 56.4 5 11297766 (1), 8759496 (1), 1553037 (1), 16932323 (1)
    schizoaffective disorder 54.4 7 2255750 (1), 19698552 (1), 12140115 (1), 14744169 (1) (see all 7)
    pituitary apoplexy 54 4 17556861 (2), 8929510 (1), 16379032 (1)
    psychotic 53.8 38 2260479 (3), 2255750 (2), 8851636 (2), 16466670 (2) (see all 23)
    breast cancer 53.4 574 18053149 (7), 15856525 (7), 12825859 (6), 17658223 (6) (see all 99)
    azoospermia 53.3 14 9695346 (2), 9140616 (2), 8070717 (1), 11532470 (1) (see all 12)
    lupus erythematosus systemic 53 145 16896282 (3), 11155810 (2), 17516622 (2), 12559630 (2) (see all 81)
    major depression 53 75 9194044 (4), 12943959 (3), 9513746 (2), 15741746 (2) (see all 47)
    hypogonadotropism 52 1 1464665 (1)
    hypothalamic disorder 50.7 4 8530591 (1), 2174755 (1), 7669403 (1), 1846002 (1)
    puberty delayed 50.6 8 8733264 (3), 11838826 (1), 2102979 (1), 7735370 (1) (see all 5)
    growth hormone deficiency 50.2 7 18063946 (2), 8599891 (1), 9829222 (1), 16169408 (1) (see all 6)
    primary amenorrhea 49.9 2 2125965 (1)
    tumors 49.6 890 1352308 (8), 17917811 (6), 10487698 (5), 8370706 (5) (see all 99)
    craniopharyngioma 49 7 17556861 (2), 10659562 (1), 7627336 (1), 8098858 (1) (see all 5)
    imbalance hormonal 48.4 1 19897676 (1)
    ovarian dysfunction 47.6 2 15013320 (1), 2080142 (1)
    hypercortisolism 47.2 5 16789626 (1), 15053928 (1), 16868050 (1), 7886270 (1) (see all 5)
    hypoglycemia 46.6 91 2194712 (6), 8931651 (4), 15670199 (4), 16855141 (4) (see all 47)
    cushing syndrome 46.5 12 1633931 (1), 12223963 (1), 19768550 (1), 2272669 (1) (see all 9)
    nelson syndrome 45.7 1 1987733 (1)
    puberty precocious 45 8 1909701 (2), 9861328 (2), 10517473 (1), 16789626 (1) (see all 5)
    tsh secreting adenoma 44.7 1 10426581 (1)
    hypergonadotropic hypogonadism 43.9 1 8742989 (1)
    chronic schizophrenia 43 8 16545544 (2), 14693356 (1), 12921922 (1), 1631251 (1) (see all 7)
    multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 42.9 7 7913028 (1), 9465604 (1), 12459032 (1), 8675591 (1) (see all 7)
    primary obesity 42.6 4 14655827 (1), 11761634 (1)
    short stature 42.5 12 1289569 (1), 9699131 (1), 11838826 (1), 20197671 (1) (see all 12)
    insulin tolerance 42.4 6 18430769 (1), 11826765 (1), 17371464 (1), 11022176 (1)
    hyperthyroidism 41.9 23 7955444 (3), 7753340 (2), 7716640 (2), 10933752 (1) (see all 13)
    fibrous dysplasia polyostotic 41.1 3 10517473 (1), 7911814 (1), 7962285 (1)
    visual defect 40.5 1 9055023 (1)
    stress psychological 40.3 14 14674722 (2), 1569828 (1), 9882535 (1), 15855040 (1) (see all 11)
    anorexia nervosa 40.3 34 2115046 (3), 1352703 (3), 1811245 (2), 7920581 (2) (see all 19)
    disruptive behavior disorder 40 6 1603882 (2), 1438624 (1), 16832320 (1), 8853619 (1)
    mammary tumor 39.5 41 2322651 (2), 18156207 (2), 10411322 (2), 9202398 (1) (see all 27)
    central diabetes insipidus 39.5 4 19933072 (1), 14714755 (1), 11314750 (1), 11770265 (1)
    prostatic hyperplasia 39.3 16 14703018 (2), 9322957 (2), 15181056 (1), 12824168 (1) (see all 7)
    fibrocystic breast disease 38.9 7 2264419 (1), 1491178 (1), 1648846 (1), 2064347 (1) (see all 5)
    ovarian failure premature 38.7 3 2026757 (1), 1748421 (1), 2125965 (1)
    pituitary-dependent cushings disease 38.2 3 10792343 (1), 1656408 (1), 11095430 (1)
    major depressive episode 38 5 9513746 (1), 8292678 (1), 19288582 (1), 8513038 (1)
    varicocele 37.7 10 10997484 (2), 19234315 (1), 1305061 (1), 9695347 (1) (see all 7)
    ovarian diseases 37.6 1 8291452 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PRL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PRL (67 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): PRL

    Export disorders for PRL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PRL gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 4450):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PubMed id 18053149)1, 4, 9 Lee S.A....Stram D.O. (2007)
    2. Association of prolactin and its receptor gene regions with familial breast cancer. (PubMed id 16434456)1, 4, 9 Vaclavicek A....Forsti A. (2006)
    3. Prolactin and prolactin receptor gene polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (PubMed id 12559630)1, 4, 9 Mellai M....Momigliano-Richiardi P. (2003)
    4. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the cytochrome P450 17A1, prolactin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. (PubMed id 16214922)1, 4, 9 Skibola C.F....Holly E.A. (2005)
    5. Characterization of two constitutively active prolact in receptor variants in a cohort of 95 women with multiple breast fibroadenomas . (PubMed id 19897676)1, 4, 9 Courtillot C....Touraine P. (2010)
    6. Extrapituitary prolactin promoter polymorphism in Czech patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 17468404)1, 4, 9 Fojtikova M....Dostal C. (2007)
    7. Genome-wide association identifies three new suscepti bility loci for Paget's disease of bone. (PubMed id 21623375)1, 4 Albagha O.M....Ralston S.H. (2011)
    8. No association between oxytocin or prolactin gene var iants and childhood-onset mood disorders. (PubMed id 20547007)1, 4 Strauss J.S....Kennedy J.L. (2010)
    9. Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection. (PubMed id 20587610)1, 4 Ucisik-Akkaya E....Tevfik Dorak M. (2010)
    10. Genetic variation within the hypothalamus-pituitary-o varian axis in women with recurrent miscarriage. (PubMed id 20716560)1, 4 Hanna C.W....Robinson W.P. (2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
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      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5617 HGNC: 9445 AceView: PRL Ensembl:ENSG00000172179 euGenes: HUgn5617
    ECgene: PRL Kegg: 5617 H-InvDB: PRL

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PRL Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolactin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PRL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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