Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PRL Gene

Aliases for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin 2 3 5
  • Decidual Prolactin 3
  • Growth Hormone A1 3
  • GHA1 3

External Ids for PRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRL Gene

  • GC06M022345
  • GC06M022395

Summaries for PRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRL Gene

  • This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene

PRL (Prolactin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include impotence and hyperprolactinemia. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and prolactin receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Gene Wiki entry for PRL Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRL Gene

Genomics for PRL Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRL Gene

Genomic Location for PRL Gene

Chromosome:
6
Start:
22,287,244 bp from pter
End:
22,302,883 bp from pter
Size:
15,640 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRL Gene

Genes around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRL Gene

Proteins for PRL Gene

  • Protein details for PRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01236-PRL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prolactin
    Protein Accession:
    P01236
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15199
    • Q92996

    Protein attributes for PRL Gene

    Size:
    227 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25876 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=8; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRL Gene

neXtProt entry for PRL Gene

Proteomics data for PRL Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PRL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 59
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PRL Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRL Gene

Domains & Families for PRL Gene

Gene Families for PRL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01236

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PRL_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRL: view

Function for PRL Gene

Molecular function for PRL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prolactin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23048206
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRL: view

Animal Models for PRL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRL:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRL Gene

Localization for PRL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PRL Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
golgi apparatus 2
lysosome 2
plasma membrane 2
vacuole 2
endosome 1
mitochondrion 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRL: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRL Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007565 female pregnancy NAS 7221563
GO:0008283 cell proliferation TAS 10854700
GO:0040014 regulation of multicellular organism growth IEP 8421089
GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process TAS --
GO:0046427 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade IDA 12552091
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRL Gene

(93) Drugs for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(28) Additional Compounds for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRL: view

Transcripts for PRL Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRL Gene

Prolactin:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: -
SP7:

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRL
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PRL

Expression for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x52.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal gut (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PRL Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRL Gene Hs.1905

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRL: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRL Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRL Gene

Orthologs for PRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRL 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
PRL 35
  • 99.27 (n)
  • 98.68 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRL 35
  • 80.32 (n)
  • 73.13 (a)
-- 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 43 (a)
OneToMany
CSH1 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
PRL 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
PRP1 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
PRP14 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
PRP2 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
PRP5 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
PRP6 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
PRP7 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
PRP8 36
  • 40 (a)
OneToMany
PRP9 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRL 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
PRL 35
  • 86.34 (n)
  • 80.49 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prl 16
Prl 36
  • 58 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2a1 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2b1 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c1 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c2 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c3 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c5 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3a1 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3b1 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3c1 36
  • 26 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3d1 36
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3d2 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3d3 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl4a1 36
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Prl5a1 36
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Prl6a1 36
  • 40 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7a1 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7a2 36
  • 28 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7b1 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7c1 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7d1 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a1 36
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a2 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a6 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a8 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a9 36
  • 28 (a)
OneToMany
Prl 35
  • 71.85 (n)
  • 61.33 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRL 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRL 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prl 35
  • 72.41 (n)
  • 63.05 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRL 35
  • 72.06 (n)
  • 70.1 (a)
PRL 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRL 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prl.1 35
  • 66.17 (n)
  • 66.34 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prl 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for PRL:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PRL (if available)

Paralogs for PRL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PRL Gene

Variants for PRL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs849877 -- 22,298,470(-) ACTAA(A/G)GAAAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1341239 -- 22,303,975(-) AAAGA(G/T)AATTT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1341240 -- 22,303,930(-) CCAAC(C/T)GGTTG upstream-variant-2KB
rs1205960 -- 22,287,931(-) TCCTC(A/G)AGTGA intron-variant
rs1474626 -- 22,288,474(-) cacca(C/T)aatct intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830604 CNV Loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PRL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.81; 16.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PRL
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PRL

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

Disorders for PRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(131) MalaCards diseases for PRL Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
impotence
  • erectile dysfunction
hyperprolactinemia
  • chiari-frommel syndrome
empty sella syndrome
  • empty sella turcica
sheehan syndrome
  • postpartum hypopituitarism
varicocele
  • scrotal varices
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PRL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PRL
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PRL
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
PRL
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PRL
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRL Gene

Publications for PRL Gene

  1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PMID: 18053149) Lee S.A. … Stram D.O. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007) 3 23 48 67
  2. Biological significance of prolactin in gynecologic cancers. (PMID: 19491263) Levina V.V. … Lokshin A.E. (Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23
  3. [Variance of serum prolactin in controlled ovarian stimulation]. (PMID: 18843963) Liang X.Y. … Zhuang G.L. (Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2008) 3 23
  4. Prolactin release by adipose explants, primary adipocytes, and LS14 adipocytes. (PMID: 18647802) Hugo E.R. … Ben-Jonathan N. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008) 3 23
  5. Prolactin drives estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent ductal expansion and synergizes with transforming growth factor-alpha to induce mammary tumors in males. (PMID: 18156207) Arendt L.M. … Schuler L.A. (Am. J. Pathol. 2008) 3 23

Products for PRL Gene

Sources for PRL Gene

Back to Top

Content