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Aliases for PRL Gene

Aliases for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin 2 3 3 5
  • Decidual Prolactin 3
  • Growth Hormone A1 3
  • GHA1 3

External Ids for PRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRL Gene

  • GC06M022345
  • GC06M022395

Summaries for PRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRL Gene

  • This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene

PRL (Prolactin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include Pituitary Adenoma and Empty Sella Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System and Metabolism of proteins. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and prolactin receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Gene Wiki entry for PRL Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRL Gene

Genomics for PRL Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRL Gene

Enhancers for PRL Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH06G022271 0.7 Ensembl 0.3 +31.7 31683 0.4 TBL1XR1 ZBED1 TBX21 EP300 ARID3A CBX5 IKZF1 EED TCF7 ETV6 PRL ENSG00000261568
GH06G022320 0.5 ENCODE 0.4 -18.1 -18084 0.2 JUND GATA2 JUN BHLHE40 FOS PRL GC06P022347
GH06G022248 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 0.2 +53.9 53928 1.4 CEBPB ZEB2 NR2F2 FOXA1 JUND PRDM6 CTBP1 GATA3 FOS EZH2 ENSG00000261568 PRL
GH06G022221 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 0.2 +81.2 81214 1.3 JUND POLR2A BCL11A TEAD4 CHD1 CHD7 ENSG00000261568 PRL
GH06G022249 0.7 ENCODE 0.2 +51.9 51923 2.3 RFX1 JUN CEBPB CHD7 EP300 RAD21 JUND SMARCA4 SMC3 FOS ENSG00000261568 PRL
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PRL Gene

22,287,244 bp from pter
22,302,883 bp from pter
15,640 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRL Gene

Genes around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRL Gene

Proteins for PRL Gene

  • Protein details for PRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15199
    • Q92996

    Protein attributes for PRL Gene

    227 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25876 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=8; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRL Gene

neXtProt entry for PRL Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn59
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PRL Gene

Protein Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRL Gene

Domains & Families for PRL Gene

Gene Families for PRL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRL: view

Function for PRL Gene

Molecular function for PRL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005148 prolactin receptor binding TAS 10854700
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23048206
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRL: view

Animal Models for PRL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRL:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRL Gene

Localization for PRL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endosome 5
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0030141 secretory granule IEA --
GO:0031904 endosome lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRL: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRL Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 10854700
GO:0007565 female pregnancy NAS 7221563
GO:0007567 parturition IEA --
GO:0007584 response to nutrient IEA --
GO:0007595 lactation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRL Gene

(98) Drugs for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(23) Additional Compounds for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRL: view

Transcripts for PRL Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRL Gene

Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x52.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal gut (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PRL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRL Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRL Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRL Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Blood(4)
  • Eye(3.3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
  • Thyroid gland(2.6)
  • Skin(2.2)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Liver(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRL: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRL Gene

Orthologs for PRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRL 34 35
  • 99.27 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRL 34 35
  • 86.34 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRL 34 35
  • 80.32 (n)
-- 35
  • 43 (a)
-- 35
  • 42 (a)
PRP9 35
  • 42 (a)
PRP8 35
  • 40 (a)
-- 35
  • 39 (a)
PRP2 35
  • 39 (a)
-- 35
  • 38 (a)
PRP14 35
  • 38 (a)
PRP6 35
  • 38 (a)
PRP7 35
  • 38 (a)
CSH1 35
  • 37 (a)
PRP1 35
  • 37 (a)
PRP5 35
  • 37 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRL 35
  • 74 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prl 34
  • 72.41 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prl 34 16 35
  • 71.85 (n)
Prl2a1 35
  • 42 (a)
Prl6a1 35
  • 40 (a)
Prl3a1 35
  • 39 (a)
Prl3b1 35
  • 39 (a)
Prl4a1 35
  • 39 (a)
Prl2c1 35
  • 37 (a)
Prl2c5 35
  • 37 (a)
Prl7d1 35
  • 37 (a)
Prl3d1 35
  • 36 (a)
Prl2c2 35
  • 35 (a)
Prl2c3 35
  • 35 (a)
Prl3d2 35
  • 35 (a)
Prl3d3 35
  • 35 (a)
Prl7b1 35
  • 35 (a)
Prl7c1 35
  • 35 (a)
Prl2b1 35
  • 32 (a)
Prl5a1 35
  • 32 (a)
Prl8a1 35
  • 30 (a)
Prl7a1 35
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a2 35
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a6 35
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a8 35
  • 29 (a)
Prl7a2 35
  • 28 (a)
Prl8a9 35
  • 28 (a)
Prl3c1 35
  • 26 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRL 35
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRL 34 35
  • 72.06 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRL 35
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prl.1 34
  • 66.17 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prl 35
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PRL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRL Gene

Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
Gene Tree for PRL (if available)

Paralogs for PRL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PRL Gene

Variants for PRL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000159359 -- 22,304,149(+) GAGGT(A/G)GAGGA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000232359 -- 22,303,593(+) GGCTG(A/C)ATCTA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000405800 -- 22,289,400(+) TCACT(A/G)ATGTT intron-variant
rs1000768869 -- 22,303,259(+) AAATC(A/G)CAGCA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1001425245 -- 22,290,886(+) GAAGA(A/G)ACAAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5924n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv3608333 CNV loss 21293372
nsv601119 CNV loss 21841781
nsv830604 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PRL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.81; 16.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

Disorders for PRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(125) MalaCards diseases for PRL Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pituitary adenoma
  • adenoma of the pituitary gland
empty sella syndrome
  • empty sella turcica
pituitary apoplexy
sheehan syndrome
  • simmond's disease
  • chiari-frommel syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PRL

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRL Gene

Publications for PRL Gene

  1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PMID: 18053149) Lee S.A. … Stram D.O. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007) 3 22 46 64
  2. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the cytochrome P450 17A1, prolactin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. (PMID: 16214922) Skibola C.F. … Holly E.A. (Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2005) 3 22 46 64
  3. Genome-wide association identifies three new susceptibility loci for Paget's disease of bone. (PMID: 21623375) Albagha O.M. … Ralston S.H. (Nat. Genet. 2011) 3 46 64
  4. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K. … Hosoya T. (Nephron Clin Pract 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection. (PMID: 20587610) Ucisik-Akkaya E. … Dorak M.T. (Mol. Hum. Reprod. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for PRL Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

Sources for PRL Gene

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