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PRL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC06M022230

Prolactin

  See PRL-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
prolactin1 2
Decidual Prolactin2

External Ids:    HGNC: 94451   Entrez Gene: 56172   Ensembl: ENSG000001721797   OMIM: 1767605   UniProtKB: P012363   

Export aliases for PRL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06M022345 GC06M022395


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PRL Gene:
This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many
tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis,
and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the
same protein. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene:
PRL (prolactin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include hypogonadotropism, and sheehan syndrome. GO annotations related to this gene include prolactin receptor binding and hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
Function: Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation

Gene Wiki entry for PRL (Prolactin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_007592.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRL gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   FOXO1a   STAT3   IRF-1   c-Jun   NF-kappaB1   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRL promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PRL

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PRL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p22.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p22.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p22.3

PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06M022230:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
22,287,475 bp from pter      End:
22,303,082 bp from pter
Size:
15,608 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prolactin precursor  
Size: 227 amino acids; 25876 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=8;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PRL (see all 12):
1RW5 (3D)        2Q98 (3D)        3D48 (3D)        3EW3 (3D)        3MZG (3D)        3N06 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q15199 Q92996

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRL: NX_P01236

Explore proteomics data for PRL at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn59
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PRL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000939.1  NP_001157030.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000302150  
    Reactome Protein details: P01236

    PRL Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PRL (Prolactin)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for PRL
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PRL
    OriGene MassSpec for PRL
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PRL
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PRL
    Novus Biologicals PRL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PRL Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PRL
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PRL
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PRL

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PRL 

    PRL Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PRL
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PRL (Prolactin)
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    Novus Biologicals PRL Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PRL
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PRL
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRL

    PRL Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PRL
    R&D Systems ELISAs for PRL (Prolactin)         (see first)
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for PRL (Prolactin)
    See all other biochemical assays at R&D Systems
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PRL
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PRL
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PRL 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018116 Somatotropin_CS
     IPR012351 4_helix_cytokine_core
     IPR009079 4_helix_cytokine-like_core
     IPR001400 Somatotropin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01236

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01236

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001400 Somatotropin hormone

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
    Similarity: Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family


    Find genes that share domains with PRL           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
    Function: Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PRL:
    prolactin

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005148prolactin receptor binding TAS10854700
    GO:0005179hormone activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PRL           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         9 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Prl):
     behavior/neurological  endocrine/exocrine gland  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument 
     liver/biliary system  nervous system  reproductive system  tumorigenesis 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PRL           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Prltm1Hmn for PRL

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PRL
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PRL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PRL
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PRL

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PRL using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRL
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PRL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRL

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PRL

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PRL (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PRL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRL (NM_004248)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRL

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PRL
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PRL 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRL


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PRL_HUMAN, P01236: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    nucleus3
    cytoskeleton2
    cytosol2
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    golgi apparatus2
    plasma membrane2
    lysosome1
    mitochondrion1
    vacuole1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0030141secretory granule ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRL           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PRL About   (see all 18)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Prolactin Signaling Pathway
    Development Prolactin receptor signaling0.39
    Prolactin signaling pathway0.33
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway0.39
    2Nuclear signaling by ERBB4
    Nuclear signaling by ERBB4
    Prolactin receptor signaling0.00
    3RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening
    Amyloids0.68
    4PI-3K cascade
    Signaling by ERBB40.66
    5Interferon Signaling
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system0.59


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PRL           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PRL
        JAK-STAT Pathway
    Prolactin Signaling

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PRL
        Development Prolactin receptor signaling

    5 BioSystems Pathways for PRL
        Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway
    ErbB4 signaling events
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B


    3 Reactome Pathways for PRL
        Amyloids
    Growth hormone receptor signaling
    Prolactin receptor signaling


    5 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PRL):
        Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway
    Prolactin signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PRL: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              JAK / STAT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PRL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PRL (P012361, 3 ENSP000003021504) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 41)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PPIBP232843, ENSP000003000264I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000300026
    UBQLN4Q9NRR53, ENSP000003572924I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000357292
    PAK2Q131773I2D: score=1 
    PRLRP16471-71, ENSP000003714324EBI-6903064,EBI-6903057 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000371432
    APCSENSP000002550404STRING: ENSP00000255040
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 19):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS10854700
    GO:0007262STAT protein import into nucleus ----
    GO:0007565female pregnancy NAS7221563
    GO:0007567parturition ----
    GO:0007584response to nutrient ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PRL

    121 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PRL gene (see top 10)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    bromocriptine 93.1 682 17917811 (5), 11579944 (5), 1490255 (4), 1543025 (4) (see all 99)
    acth 89.4 1254 9876339 (6), 14533141 (6), 14604600 (6), 12475731 (5) (see all 99)
    cabergoline 88.6 223 10931080 (6), 10404830 (5), 11579944 (4), 12699451 (4) (see all 99)
    testosterone 88.4 1978 9334596 (7), 15670199 (6), 10639190 (5), 11966629 (5) (see all 99)
    quinagolide 87.3 71 7889620 (5), 8921822 (4), 10931080 (4), 18211974 (3) (see all 27)
    estradiol 87.1 1052 16775175 (6), 16557037 (6), 2209924 (5), 2162014 (5) (see all 99)
    fenfluramine 85.8 552 11959359 (7), 12680745 (7), 10760377 (6), 10674278 (6) (see all 99)
    progesterone 83.1 1127 9158065 (9), 14559722 (7), 2209924 (7), 19215357 (6) (see all 99)
    dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 82.3 356 9159534 (7), 1832389 (5), 7586621 (4), 11499189 (4) (see all 99)
    dopamine 81.4 1015 7977731 (8), 8284103 (8), 8119166 (8), 1618163 (6) (see all 99)
    androstenedione 78.5 191 1388248 (3), 7927560 (2), 11078439 (2), 18199728 (2) (see all 99)
    risperidone 77.2 292 15289996 (7), 11512043 (6), 11959366 (6), 11155212 (5) (see all 99)
    gnrh 76.3 231 18434364 (6), 1516369 (6), 1905310 (5), 2114008 (4) (see all 99)
    metoclopramide 76.1 324 10732318 (5), 10765095 (5), 9061507 (5), 8701791 (5) (see all 99)
    thyroxine 74.8 287 8451535 (4), 16508259 (4), 8359845 (3), 9802121 (3) (see all 99)
    m-chlorophenylpiperazine 74.5 84 1444722 (4), 2397249 (3), 8313453 (3), 11842446 (3) (see all 37)
    olanzapine 72.7 169 11048906 (6), 19706318 (6), 16333653 (5), 12837139 (5) (see all 81)
    triiodothyronine 71 224 8451535 (4), 7868307 (3), 1287557 (3), 8612408 (3) (see all 99)
    estrogen 70.5 439 19215357 (6), 16896282 (5), 15019161 (5), 11407318 (5) (see all 99)
    melatonin 69.9 479 8559274 (8), 8456892 (7), 2352119 (7), 10869858 (7) (see all 99)
    quetiapine 69.2 66 12505103 (4), 17073213 (4), 15469666 (3), 16198059 (2) (see all 44)
    17-hydroxyprogesterone 69 65 19217093 (2), 11078439 (2), 1323921 (1), 9270338 (1) (see all 52)
    mcpp 68.4 90 8570772 (5), 12496949 (4), 8944393 (3), 7831445 (3) (see all 36)
    ziprasidone 67.9 31 19702492 (2), 19175979 (2), 10771454 (2), 11320682 (1) (see all 26)
    hexarelin 65.6 49 8706295 (5), 9285939 (4), 10341859 (3), 8954038 (3) (see all 17)
    aripiprazole 65.4 54 19038534 (5), 19687170 (4), 16554049 (3), 17728426 (2) (see all 31)
    haloperidol 64.7 249 11048906 (7), 11697576 (6), 2018629 (5), 11156818 (5) (see all 98)
    dhea 64.4 141 15817837 (4), 9589555 (2), 11445999 (2), 18297397 (2) (see all 75)
    octreotide 62.9 98 8778155 (7), 11318782 (5), 8097570 (4), 1543025 (3) (see all 39)
    clozapine 62 114 2325501 (7), 11156818 (5), 15365707 (5), 17110820 (4) (see all 43)
    domperidone 61 80 9156042 (10), 10732318 (5), 1631251 (4), 8796337 (4) (see all 27)
    lisuride 61 13 1676676 (3), 8019107 (2), 16311416 (1), 1563463 (1) (see all 8)
    norfenfluramine 60.8 4 8218609 (1), 9090335 (1), 11104107 (1), 1603882 (1)
    steroid 60.8 143 17850461 (3), 2026744 (3), 9360527 (3), 14575357 (3) (see all 99)
    estrone 60.7 62 11078439 (3), 8641169 (2), 17030978 (2), 1554888 (1) (see all 46)
    amisulpride 60.6 27 12207145 (6), 14997280 (5), 16938372 (4), 18063941 (1) (see all 12)
    sulpiride 60 101 1624729 (6), 1938655 (5), 11418281 (4), 9110224 (4) (see all 42)
    hydrocortisone 59.9 75 9551777 (4), 11319835 (2), 19542223 (2), 11195536 (2) (see all 52)
    clomiphene citrate 59 32 12570169 (3), 14648180 (2), 19359408 (2), 1770270 (2) (see all 15)
    lanreotide 57.8 9 12527855 (2), 11415850 (2), 10757110 (1), 15994755 (1) (see all 6)
    paliperidone 57.6 25 18053652 (4), 17094165 (3), 15863810 (3), 19109590 (3) (see all 12)
    terguride 57.2 4 8867520 (1), 12704865 (1), 9396291 (1), 1676676 (1)
    buspirone 57.1 95 11713611 (7), 18194152 (5), 2274641 (5), 8547445 (4) (see all 40)
    norepinephrine 56.8 313 11244297 (7), 12732764 (4), 1901539 (4), 10380995 (3) (see all 99)
    clomipramine 53.3 76 11512043 (6), 2016218 (5), 8290659 (5), 2125736 (3) (see all 29)
    ipsapirone 52.7 18 12467943 (2), 9988364 (2), 10629434 (2), 8675971 (1) (see all 10)
    pergolide 52.7 12 1997518 (2), 16279371 (2), 16311416 (1), 20130078 (1) (see all 10)
    dihydrotestosterone 52.3 93 7822149 (6), 9018335 (5), 15181056 (3), 18484195 (3) (see all 38)
    epinephrine 51.8 217 12732764 (4), 8359845 (3), 11070337 (3), 2337209 (2) (see all 99)
    l-fenfluramine 51.5 4 8473721 (1), 8412414 (1), 1864255 (1)
    flesinoxan 50.9 29 12373416 (3), 15013031 (3), 10579422 (2), 10572339 (2) (see all 12)
    mhpg 50.8 41 9080542 (2), 15380401 (2), 7895296 (2), 11244297 (2) (see all 18)
    progestin 49.6 28 8743840 (3), 8923460 (3), 1351839 (2), 1380842 (2) (see all 17)
    glucose 48.6 412 17110820 (7), 17993726 (6), 14559722 (5), 9441209 (5) (see all 99)
    zotepine 47.6 13 9485566 (4), 7868851 (3), 7912012 (2), 20091601 (2) (see all 5)
    5-hydroxytryptophan 46.9 34 7855226 (5), 1298871 (2), 16378695 (2), 1756196 (1) (see all 12)
    l-tryptophan 46.7 35 12728300 (3), 2326398 (2), 1444722 (2), 7517677 (2) (see all 21)
    citalopram 46.5 53 17626900 (4), 19662384 (3), 17492272 (3), 11418230 (3) (see all 24)
    perphenazine 45.5 16 8530591 (5), 8851636 (3), 17429316 (2), 18075468 (2) (see all 5)
    ergoline 44.9 3 11249538 (1), 15087045 (1)
    homovanillic acid 44.6 50 9736322 (4), 9080542 (3), 8539309 (3), 1686811 (2) (see all 22)
    ribonucleic acid 44.6 22 10487709 (2), 8162255 (1), 10946907 (1), 7714100 (1) (see all 16)
    buserelin 43.8 8 1806563 (3), 1901042 (1), 1834511 (1), 2112813 (1) (see all 5)
    ghrp 43.3 5 1915110 (2), 9612233 (1), 10084578 (1)
    dexamethasone 43.2 115 8437991 (4), 14559722 (4), 12450312 (4), 7777588 (4) (see all 57)
    pindolol 43 55 11713611 (5), 2006240 (4), 7568634 (4), 8570772 (4) (see all 18)
    proliferin 42.8 7 1656242 (1), 16897344 (1), 12010630 (1), 15379669 (1)
    remoxipride 42.5 35 7669486 (7), 7636755 (6), 2149882 (5), 1688013 (3) (see all 9)
    damme 41.9 13 8478275 (4), 2174454 (3), 1752829 (1)
    dihydroergocryptine 41.3 3 9364359 (1), 8213227 (1)
    11 deoxycortisol 40.1 15 8539309 (2), 16766369 (2), 15505757 (1), 1329402 (1) (see all 6)
    perospirone 38.5 16 20373475 (5), 15257064 (4), 12686750 (2), 15160263 (2)
    cyproteroneacetate 37.5 2 1532338 (1), 1384013 (1)
    naloxone 36.9 89 1811245 (4), 8300813 (4), 2384365 (4), 2114008 (3) (see all 43)
    apomorphine 36.8 73 12943941 (4), 7870880 (3), 8889285 (3), 11166518 (3) (see all 21)
    veralipride 36.6 1 7926138 (1)
    nemonapride 36 12 11817505 (3), 10823405 (3), 10917400 (2), 9934942 (2) (see all 5)
    corticosterone 35.5 81 16691517 (5), 17920597 (3), 15465537 (3), 17922714 (3) (see all 42)
    nalmefene 34.9 10 8300813 (5), 1661859 (2)
    carbidopa 34.6 11 9545000 (3), 18719048 (2), 8836934 (1), 16544004 (1) (see all 6)
    bromperidol 33.9 20 9553995 (5), 11999910 (5), 11353448 (3), 11853119 (1)
    polyethylene glycol 32.2 100 18482912 (7), 10468974 (3), 11403264 (3), 18719199 (3) (see all 36)
    opiate 32.2 35 8501180 (2), 9771773 (2), 8299703 (2), 11409301 (2) (see all 25)
    tamoxifen 32 30 9177456 (3), 15223841 (2), 15950373 (2), 16101186 (2) (see all 18)
    5-hydroxytryptamine 31.5 28 2259242 (2), 18487257 (2), 2326398 (1), 1410142 (1) (see all 12)
    fluoxetine 30.7 40 9194044 (5), 11213313 (4), 7957540 (3), 16848655 (3) (see all 18)
    leuprolide acetate 30.6 11 1525456 (2), 2121552 (1), 7846980 (1), 12431854 (1) (see all 7)
    ritanserin 30.5 24 7613098 (3), 2106150 (3), 7871058 (2), 18533183 (2) (see all 10)
    fluphenazine 30.2 12 16702268 (3), 2349370 (3), 17126974 (2), 16198059 (1) (see all 5)
    mk 212 30.1 3 1756196 (1), 2203327 (1)
    benperidol 29.7 12 7813605 (6)
    levodopa 28.7 96 2291808 (6), 11880864 (6), 1332473 (5), 10765095 (4) (see all 26)
    flutamide 28.5 4 8288699 (1), 7594235 (1), 1384013 (1)
    sertindole 28.4 1 10190227 (1)
    pimozide 27.8 17 8915564 (4), 2280212 (3), 7908423 (2), 1673066 (1) (see all 7)
    metergoline 27.3 3 2305017 (1), 7553254 (1), 2274641 (1)
    chlorpromazine 27.2 16 16414569 (3), 8733264 (3), 8412414 (1), 16675366 (1) (see all 11)
    acth 1-24 27.1 1 11397882 (1)
    arginine 26.7 67 7955444 (6), 9061507 (5), 8980155 (4), 7960402 (3) (see all 38)
    mdma 26.3 23 9988361 (4), 11842446 (3), 15780482 (3), 12191827 (2) (see all 10)
    clonidine 25.2 30 1742750 (5), 10938452 (2), 7870845 (2), 2163062 (2) (see all 13)
    cocaine 24.7 119 18321529 (6), 15064918 (5), 2243892 (4), 16418827 (4) (see all 36)
    mifepristone 22.9 27 8641483 (5), 7962471 (4), 2203805 (3), 1380842 (2) (see all 11)
    estrone sulfate 22.5 8 11588903 (2), 2298851 (1), 18297397 (1), 8547832 (1) (see all 7)
    danazol 21.5 15 1580163 (3), 8938471 (2), 19212662 (1), 19624865 (1) (see all 7)
    estradiol benzoate 21.1 21 8462447 (2), 10984069 (2), 16484327 (2), 1547710 (1) (see all 7)
    pramipexole 20.9 5 1350237 (1), 16675366 (1), 16401653 (1), 19704083 (1) (see all 5)
    valproate 20.1 18 9413804 (4), 8038904 (3), 1525801 (2), 9102843 (1) (see all 9)
    levonorgestrel 19.8 8 18548383 (2), 18772804 (1), 7554977 (1), 8752609 (1)
    trimipramine 19.8 2 9160649 (1), 16342006 (1)
    paroxetine 19 24 11522467 (5), 8739554 (2), 15093954 (2), 15328306 (2) (see all 11)
    flupenthixol 19 6 12207145 (3), 1930878 (1), 8797192 (1)
    leuprolide 18.7 3 8496322 (1), 2105248 (1)
    pyridostigmine 18.4 14 7581970 (2), 12519418 (2), 19215369 (2), 11194708 (1) (see all 5)
    carbamazepine 17.8 23 2142450 (2), 7969856 (2), 2105705 (1), 1794350 (1) (see all 10)
    ibzm 16.3 1 7629253 (1)
    mirtazapine 15.9 18 10451911 (3), 14755134 (3), 12185405 (3), 16237393 (2) (see all 8)
    naltrexone 15.2 11 7852517 (3), 15939519 (2), 10352398 (2), 1700486 (1) (see all 7)
    haloperidol decanoate 15 3 1573034 (1), 2349370 (1)
    toremifene 14.8 6 8155388 (2), 16500151 (1), 9685060 (1), 2142246 (1)
    amoxapine 14.5 2 15956984 (1), 18004123 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PRL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRL gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000948.5  NM_001163558.2  

    Unigene Cluster for PRL:

    Prolactin
    Hs.1905  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: CD242874
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000306482(uc003ndo.3 uc003ndp.3 uc003ndq.3 uc003ndr.1)

    miRNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRL (NM_004248)
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC015850.1 BC088370.1 D00411.1 DQ839492.1 GQ305133.1 M29386.1 U75583.1 V00566.1 
    X54393.1 X54394.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 37):

    DT.100893336  DT.216750  DT.100893346  DT.92459805  DT.100893365  DT.100893341  DT.100893374  DT.100893371 
    DT.100893360  DT.95181547  DT.100893338  DT.95283527  DT.100893355  DT.100893368  DT.100893372  DT.95181598 
    DT.100842013  DT.100893325  DT.121387776  DT.95181552  DT.95181593  DT.100893324  DT.100893332  DT.100893334 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 1041):

    CD107994 CD239749 CD106785 CD106637 CD105814 CD106883 CD236716 CD108070 
    CD107493 CD106717 CD105418 CD243111 CD109161 CD518766 CD251647 CD108583 
    CD239714 CD106713 CD242668 CD519045 CD107878 CD106101 CD251270 AA371842 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL (see all 7)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
    SP1:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP2:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP3:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP4:                          -                 -           -     -     -                     
    SP5:                          -                 -                                             


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PRL

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PRL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTTGGGTGTA
    PRL Expression
    About this image


    PRL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             T-Cytotoxic Cells Thymus
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Blood (Cardiovascular System)
             T-Cytotoxic Cells Thymus
    PRL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PRL Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.1905
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PRL: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              JAK / STAT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRL

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PRL gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prl1 , 5 prolactin1, 5 71.85(n)1
    61.33(a)1
      13 (12.25 cM)5
    191091  NM_011164.21  NP_035294.21 
     270575775 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRL1 prolactin 72.06(n)
    70.1(a)
      396453  NM_205466.2  NP_990797.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRL6
    prolactin
    65(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(54981767-54989741)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia CD302094.12   -- 73.67(n)    CD302094.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prl6
    prolactin
    34(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3(32478893-32482876) ENSDARG00000037946


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

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    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PRL (see all 354)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1841026651,2
    --22208998(+) TTGTAC/GAATGA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1411613951,2
    C--22209017(+) ATTAAC/TAATCT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1434595781,2
    --22209030(+) CTCTTC/TGATTC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1466753541,2
    --22209133(+) TCTGAC/TAAGAA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1401052691,2
    --22209135(+) TGATAA/TGAACT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs93585301,2
    H--22209300(+) TACAAC/TTAAAA 2 -- ut314Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NS EA 418
    rs1502890101,2
    --22209310(+) AGAAGC/TTTGCA 2 -- ut310--------
    rs1886419431,2
    C--22209322(+) TGGAAC/TGGATC 2 -- ut310--------
    rs2020533991,2
    --22209342(+) CTTCTC/TAGAAA 2 -- ut310--------
    rs2008313761,2
    --22209367(+) GTGGGC/TTTAGC 2 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRL (22287475 - 22303082 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PRL:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv830604CNV Loss17160897

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PRL
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PRL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 176760    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for PRL (see all 66):    
    About MalaCards
    hypogonadotropism    sheehan syndrome    empty sella syndrome    choristoma
    prolactin producing pituitary tumor    schizophreniform disorder    hyperprolactinemia    growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma
    pituitary carcinoma    obstructive hydrocephalus    sexual disorder    pituitary apoplexy
    pedophilia    scotoma    6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency    prolactinoma
    impotence    amenorrhea    peripartum cardiomyopathy    generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PRL (see all 29):
    Hyperprolactinemia     Pituitary adenoma     Adenoma     Amenorrhea
    Neuroendocrine tumor     Acromegaly     Hypothyroidism     Hypopituitarism
    Hypogonadism     Infertility     Cushing's syndrome     Polycystic ovary syndrome
    Empty sella syndrome     Anovulation     Hypoglycemia     Sexual dysfunction
    Breast cancer     Gynecomastia     Diabetes insipidus     Pituitary apoplexy

    Find genes that share disorders with PRL           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PRL gene (see all 90)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hyperprolactinemia 97.2 764 8456892 (5), 7899431 (5), 9156042 (5), 16817144 (5) (see all 99)
    prolactinoma 95.4 432 12012125 (6), 18426817 (5), 1903012 (5), 12574225 (4) (see all 99)
    macroprolactinoma 92.5 95 8737186 (6), 10931080 (5), 8729527 (3), 10216513 (3) (see all 60)
    pituitary adenoma 91.3 250 8392915 (5), 1910948 (3), 14615416 (3), 12713252 (3) (see all 99)
    microprolactinoma 91.3 77 10931080 (5), 14616880 (4), 10216513 (3), 1774132 (2) (see all 48)
    pituitary tumors 87.7 119 15251707 (3), 2325501 (2), 10933752 (2), 7664652 (2) (see all 90)
    acromegaly 83.2 73 1574954 (2), 8531896 (2), 8127416 (2), 15473133 (2) (see all 52)
    adenoma 82.3 774 8949563 (7), 1625993 (6), 8162255 (5), 8890999 (5) (see all 99)
    hypogonadism 80 51 8733264 (3), 2099670 (1), 10699620 (1), 11207632 (1) (see all 36)
    panhypopituitarism 78.9 26 10698595 (2), 2045062 (1), 8805025 (1), 9285205 (1) (see all 20)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PRL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PRL (67 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): PRL

    Export disorders for PRL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PRL gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 4459):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PubMed id 18053149)1, 4, 9 Lee S.A....Stram D.O. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007)
    2. Association of prolactin and its receptor gene regions with familial breast cancer. (PubMed id 16434456)1, 4, 9 Vaclavicek A....FAPrsti A. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2006)
    3. Prolactin and prolactin receptor gene polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (PubMed id 12559630)1, 4, 9 Mellai M....Momigliano-Richiardi P. (Hum. Immunol. 2003)
    4. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the cytochrome P450 17A1, prolactin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. (PubMed id 16214922)1, 4, 9 Skibola C.F....Holly E.A. (amp 2005)
    5. Characterization of two constitutively active prolactin receptor variants in a cohort of 95 women with multiple breast fibroadenomas. (PubMed id 19897676)1, 4, 9 Courtillot C....Touraine P. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2010)
    6. Extrapituitary prolactin promoter polymorphism in Czech patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 17468404)1, 4, 9 FojtA-kovA! M....DostA!l C. (Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2007)
    7. Genome-wide association identifies three new susceptibility loci for Paget's disease of bone. (PubMed id 21623375)1, 4 Albagha O.M....Ralston S.H. (Nat. Genet. 2011)
    8. No association between oxytocin or prolactin gene variants and childhood-onset mood disorders. (PubMed id 20547007)1, 4 Strauss J.S....Kennedy J.L. (Psychoneuroendocrinology 2010)
    9. Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection. (PubMed id 20587610)1, 4 Ucisik-Akkaya E....Dorak M.T. (Mol. Hum. Reprod. 2010)
    10. Genetic variation within the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in women with recurrent miscarriage. (PubMed id 20716560)1, 4 Hanna C.W....Robinson W.P. (Hum. Reprod. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5617 HGNC: 9445 AceView: PRL Ensembl:ENSG00000172179 euGenes: HUgn5617
    ECgene: PRL Kegg: 5617 H-InvDB: PRL

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PRL Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolactin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for PRL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014

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