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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PRL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC06M022230

Prolactin

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
prolactin1 2
Decidual Prolactin2

External Ids:    HGNC: 94451   Entrez Gene: 56172   Ensembl: ENSG000001721797   OMIM: 1767605   UniProtKB: P012363   

Export aliases for PRL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06M022345 GC06M022395


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PRL Gene:
This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many
tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis,
and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the
same protein. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene: 
PRL (prolactin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include hyperprolactinemia, and prolactinoma, and among its related super-pathways are Development Prolactin receptor signaling and Prolactin receptor signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include prolactin receptor binding and hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
Function: Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation

Gene Wiki entry for PRL (Prolactin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_007592.15  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRL gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   FOXO1a   STAT3   IRF-1   c-Jun   NF-kappaB1   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRL promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PRL

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PRL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p22.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p22.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p22.3

PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06M022230:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
22,287,475 bp from pter      End:
22,303,082 bp from pter
Size:
15,608 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Prolactin precursor  
Size: 227 amino acids; 25876 Da
Subcellular location: Secreted
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=8;
6/12 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PRL (see all 12):
1RW5 (3D)        2Q98 (3D)        3D48 (3D)        3EW3 (3D)        3MZG (3D)        3N06 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q15199 Q92996

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRL: NX_P01236

Explore proteomics data for PRL at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P01236

  • PRL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PRL Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000939.1  NP_001157030.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000302150  
    Reactome Protein details: P01236
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PRL: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PRL (Prolactin)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for PRL
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PRL
    OriGene MassSpec for PRL 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PRL
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PRL
    Novus Biologicals PRL Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PRL Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PRL
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PRL 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PRL 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0030141secretory granule IEA--

    PRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PRL Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PRL
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PRL (Prolactin)
    OriGene Antibodies for PRL
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PRL
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for PRL
    Novus Biologicals PRL Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PRL
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PRL 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PRL
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRL 

    Assay Products for PRL: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PRL
    R&D Systems ELISAs for PRL (Prolactin)         (see first)
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for PRL (Prolactin)
    See all other biochemical assays at R&D Systems
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PRL
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PRL 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PRL


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018116 Somatotropin_CS
     IPR012351 4_helix_cytokine_core
     IPR009079 4_helix_cytokine-like_core
     IPR001400 Somatotropin

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01236

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01236

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001400 Somatotropin hormone

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
    Similarity: Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family


    PRL for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PRL_HUMAN, P01236
    Function: Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PRL:
    prolactin

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005148prolactin receptor binding TAS10854700
    GO:0005179hormone activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    PRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Prl):
     behavior/neurological  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system 
     integument  liver/biliary system  nervous system  reproductive system  tumorigenesis 

    PRL for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Prltm1Hmn for PRL

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PRL 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PRL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PRL 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PRL 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PRL
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRL
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PRL
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRL

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PRL
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of PRL

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PRL (see all 12)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PRL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRL (NM_004248)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRL
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PRL 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PRL 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PRL
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PRL
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRL


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PRL About   (see all 18)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Development Prolactin receptor signaling
    Development Prolactin receptor signaling0.39
    Prolactin signaling pathway0.33
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway0.39
    2Prolactin receptor signaling
    Prolactin receptor signaling0.38
    Growth hormone receptor signaling0.31
    Nuclear signaling by ERBB40.38
    3PIP3 activates AKT signaling
    Signaling by ERBB40.67
    4Interferon Signaling
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system0.61
    5TGF-Beta Pathway
    JAK-STAT Pathway0.57

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for PRL
        Development Prolactin receptor signaling

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PRL
        JAK-STAT Pathway
    Prolactin Signaling

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PRL
        Development Prolactin receptor signaling

    5 BioSystems Pathways for PRL
        Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway
    ErbB4 signaling events
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network


    5/9        Reactome Pathways for PRL (see all 9)
        Cytokine Signaling in Immune system
    Prolactin receptor signaling
    Disease
    Amyloids
    Signal Transduction


    5         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PRL):
        Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway
    Prolactin signaling pathway


    PRL for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PRL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/41 Interacting proteins for PRL (P012363 ENSP000003021504) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 41)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PPIBP232843, ENSP000003000264I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000300026
    PRLRP164713, ENSP000003714324I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000371432
    UBQLN4Q9NRR53, ENSP000003572924I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000357292
    PAK2Q131773I2D: score=1 
    APCSENSP000002550404STRING: ENSP00000255040
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/24 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 24):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007166cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS10854700
    GO:0007262STAT protein import into nucleus IEA--
    GO:0007565female pregnancy NAS7221563
    GO:0007567parturition IEA--
    GO:0007584response to nutrient IEA--

    PRL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PRL for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for PRL

    10/121 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PRL gene (see all 121)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    bromocriptine 93.1 682 17917811 (5), 11579944 (5), 1490255 (4), 1543025 (4) (see all 99)
    acth 89.4 1254 9876339 (6), 14533141 (6), 14604600 (6), 12475731 (5) (see all 99)
    cabergoline 88.6 223 10931080 (6), 10404830 (5), 11579944 (4), 12699451 (4) (see all 99)
    testosterone 88.4 1978 9334596 (7), 15670199 (6), 10639190 (5), 11966629 (5) (see all 99)
    quinagolide 87.3 71 7889620 (5), 8921822 (4), 10931080 (4), 18211974 (3) (see all 27)
    estradiol 87.1 1052 16775175 (6), 16557037 (6), 2209924 (5), 2162014 (5) (see all 99)
    fenfluramine 85.8 552 11959359 (7), 12680745 (7), 10760377 (6), 10674278 (6) (see all 99)
    progesterone 83.1 1127 9158065 (9), 14559722 (7), 2209924 (7), 19215357 (6) (see all 99)
    dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 82.3 356 9159534 (7), 1832389 (5), 7586621 (4), 11499189 (4) (see all 99)
    dopamine 81.4 1015 7977731 (8), 8284103 (8), 8119166 (8), 1618163 (6) (see all 99)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PRL

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRL gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000948.5  NM_001163558.2  

    Unigene Clusters for PRL:

    Prolactin
    Hs.1905  [show with all ESTs], Hs.735971  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequences: CD242874, BQ441738
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000306482(uc003ndo.3 uc003ndp.3 uc003ndq.3 uc003ndr.1)

    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PRL
    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRL
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PRL
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRL
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PRL (see all 12)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PRL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRL (NM_004248)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRL
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PRL 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PRL 
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PRL
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PRL
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PRL
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL

    Additional mRNA sequence: M58594.1 

    24/38 DOTS entries (see all 38):

    DT.100893336  DT.216750  DT.100893346  DT.92459805  DT.100893365  DT.100893341  DT.100893371  DT.100893374 
    DT.100893360  DT.95181547  DT.100893338  DT.95283527  DT.100893355  DT.100893368  DT.100893372  DT.95181598 
    DT.100842013  DT.100893325  DT.121387776  DT.91843361  DT.95181552  DT.95181593  DT.100893324  DT.100893332 

    1041 AceView cDNA sequences (see top 24):

    CD239727 CD108474 CD105775 CD107994 CD105695 CD108933 CD251270 CD250978 
    CD106462 CD239882 CD106496 CR596710 CD107921 CD107483 CD239046 CD250884 
    CD250869 CD108225 CD242329 CD108227 CD238951 CD108266 CD106943 CD239720 
    CD238274 CD513801 CD106867 CD251144 CD239178 CD239746 CD513482 BF511062 
    CD251482 CD108824 CD108032 CD106978 CD239714 CD239820 CD109109 CD556652 
    CD105814 CD108583 CD251113 CD105648 AV750987 CD109161 CD243076 CD107842 
    CD108894 CD239749 CD108270 AA371662 CD238030 CD107309 CD108019 CD107115 
    CD108473 AV752034 CD251157 CD251609 CD106918 CD105236 CD238851 CD251668 
    BM723334 CD238232 CD106737 CD251218 CD237013 CD243014 CD251266 CD108115 
    T29541 CD106427 CD108070 CD106243 CD108703 CD108614 CD239773 CD239398 
    CD238862 CD514046 CD108091 CD239676 CD250885 CD239780 CD243107 BC015850 
    CD238542 CD105905 CD238892 CD105487 CD109196 CD109230 CD108638 CD107678 
    M58594 CD106713 BM712875 CD242668 CD106099 CD239782 CD106237 CD238511 
    CD107860 CD106396 CD108778 CD243132 CD518211 CD514084 CD108001 CD239547 
    CD236964 CD251505 CD108217 CD251316 CD251647 CD105928 CD105459 BX106632 
    CD239750 CD513048 CD105846 BG393056 CD108179 CD108480 CD106577 CD107243 
    CD109155 CD556859 CD239665 CD106477 CD242863 CD105371 CD109012 CD107493 
    CD108102 CD106017 CD242847 AA371713 AA371794 CD105939 CD108216 CD238552 
    CD519045 CD105439 CD107118 CD107449 CD107142 CD106694 CD236716 CD238413 
    CD251262 CD106653 CD243111 CD109087 CD106717 CD105418 CR608839 CD239044 
    CD107600 CD251508 CD242839 CD107233 CD107114 CD108150 CD107878 CD250871 
    CD106131 BM673732 CD106101 CD106406 AA371842 CD243041 CD106290 CD108026 
    AV753278 CD513586 CD107815 CD106785 CD108484 CD106883 CD106349 CD251546 
    BX336440 CD243100 CD107514 CD251762 CD518766 CD106637 CD239693 CD105722 
    AV753515 CD108633 CD513601 CD108021 CD105883 CD106782 CD108806 BM682199 
    CD251416 CD236965 CD106572 CD237428 CD237008 AV752536 CD243183 CD242312 
    CD242636 M29386 CD108472 BQ441738 CD242455 CD107727 CD238612 CD513187 
    CD239799 CD107546 CD108493 CD242551 AA371874 CD239900 CD239655 CD513744 
    X54393 CD242252 CD237848 CD237786 CD242793 CD237821 CD238135 CD237803 
    CD251517 CD105478 CD107543 CD109210 AV747026 CD238632 CD557015 AV753290 
    CD237793 CD557033 CD513826 CD238884 BX380686 V00566 CD556460 CD238896 
    CD238228 CD239042 CD239557 CD240010 CD238535 AV751604 AA371344 CD240037 
    CD239315 CD512894 CD239079 AA371763 U75583 CD236945 CD238858 CD513541 
    CD556806 AV753215 CD513254 CD250947 CD107480 CD108168 CD237960 CD238976 
    AA371814 CD108531 CD238439 AV752057 CD237955 CD242958 CD238633 CD609883 
    CD105263 CD106078 CD556944 CD513942 CD237888 CD237896 AV752338 CD238397 
    CD107540 CD239038 CD237125 CD239760 BX348372 CD237630 BG505714 CD238794 
    CD238765 CD251660 CD238698 CD556786 CD518926 CD251021 CD243003 CD238628 
    CD239663 AV747817 CD238856 CD238978 CD239001 CD239184 CD239429 CD238997 
    CD239032 CD242335 CD513353 AI123963 AV753032 CD239274 BX339441 CD107718 
    CD513211 CD108717 CD239078 CD106332 CD609880 CD238536 AV751384 CD106414 
    CD242797 CD237042 CD238229 CD237113 CD239592 AA371800 CD238755 CD239215 
    CD239769 AV747404 CD237045 CD239382 CD243095 CD512939 NM_000948 CD238298 
    CD513333 CD519470 CD236985 CD236988 CD236797 CD238480 CD237773 AV750066 
    CD514064 CD106423 AV748123 CD239909 CD106118 CD106835 CD236856 CD514032 
    CD239915 CD251429 CD239888 CD512718 CD109108 CD513945 CD239623 CD108129 
    AV745890 CD238191 AV753127 CD556297 CD237872 BX380174 CD108855 CD513912 
    CD513379 CD513430 CD238162 AA705538 CD239360 CD240017 CD513845 CD237069 
    AV752914 CD237817 CD239460 CD237044 CD238702 CD240055 CD238415 AA371868 
    CD514096 CD237994 CD251473 CD251598 CD236929 CD239318 CD238900 CD609881 
    X54394 CD519594 CD105310 CD609878 CD105545 CD238731 CD512943 CD512773 
    CD239332 BU598743 CD237963 CD239597 CD013952 CD239916 CD242981 CD242859 
    CD239853 CD239345 CD238910 CD107688 CD239033 CD239210 CD236904 CD556804 
    CD236980 CD237502 CD609877 CD238352 CD238664 BU192090 CD108411 CD238486 
    CD238853 AA693912 CD108519 CD242700 CD239054 CD556755 CD107606 CD238435 
    CD513647 CD242985 CD238587 CD242742 CD239816 AV751661 CD238713 CD237041 
    CD105805 CD105203 CD238385 CD237632 CD250905 BX339442 CD238517 CD513842 
    CD238087 CD239030 CD236924 CD236807 CD105579 CD237090 CD516411 CD239698 
    CD107432 AV753552 CD239191 CD238683 CD107077 BI753701 CD516390 CD239195 
    CD251255 CD238238 CD239100 AV751541 CD108725 CD239903 AV752418 CD239470 
    AA037488 CD237692 CD237877 CD238859 CD237048 CD243031 AV751947 AA371775 
    CD242633 CD239093 CD513599 CD237284 CD238705 CD108488 CD239231 AA371661 
    CD239907 CD239635 CD556890 CD556331 CD239363 CD556543 CD237778 CD609875 
    CD239393 AV751448 CD239362 CD238070 CD238887 CD238925 CD518911 CD238416 
    CD238956 AA035447 CD513218 CD556312 CD238772 CD239584 CD236919 CD237810 
    CD239536 BG504305 CD106209 CD238601 CD239992 CD556560 CD237149 D00411 
    CD251430 CD107141 AV752096 CD242756 CD251611 CD239384 AV747660 CD108333 
    CD242372 CD236837 AV752423 CD239027 CD239603 CD242345 CD239326 CD239945 
    CD239811 CD513829 BX336439 CD238930 CD238654 CD105752 CD239291 CD106086 
    CD105974 CD242477 CD107478 CD108665 CD239111 CD239929 CD251797 AV747855 
    CD519615 AV753532 AV752728 CD237571 AV753239 AV747998 CD108983 AV754348 
    AV753141 CD237123 CD239448 H83930 CD512736 AV751323 AV746220 CD556639 
    CD237488 CD512953 CD237618 AV752380 CD237918 AA661993 AV752497 AV745743 
    AV748434 AV747791 CD237265 CD609874 D78866 CD238677 AV745824 H51034 
    N69665 CD236711 AV746212 CD107458 AV751291 CD238992 CD243131 CD237364 
    AV747587 AV751005 AV751629 CD239083 CD239134 AV746049 AA704863 CD518864 
    AV747839 CD239277 AV747135 CD237706 CD239502 AV745245 CD513524 AV754820 
    CD243002 CD609879 AV745785 AV751755 AV748322 CD237148 CD239541 CD242350 
    CD518896 CD512863 CD238638 AA371726 CD237698 CD236782 CD237585 CD242719 
    CD106369 CD236833 CD609882 CD106551 CD237172 CD237214 AV745802 CD556424 
    AA133920 CD239941 CD237324 CD557052 AV753207 CD237203 AV751847 AV747347 
    AV745886 AV752820 CD107741 AV748430 AV751666 AV750775 CD237162 CD108963 
    CD105194 CD513233 CD242817 AV753254 CD513661 AV748528 CD251306 AV748721 
    CD237669 AV750456 AV745282 CD556951 AV751708 CD237401 CD237101 CD109058 
    CD237657 CD238844 AV747659 CD516351 CD609876 CD237175 CD239048 CD242803 
    CD237820 AV747648 AV746121 AV754448 AV753292 CD237120 AA371723 AV752924 
    AV747960 CD237736 AV750340 CD239630 CD237259 CD107894 AV747243 AV747942 
    CD236816 AV749361 CD105885 AV748468 AV745434 AV748283 AV750958 AV749259 
    AA130238 AV745441 CD512818 AI056744 CD516328 AV745866 AV745191 CD236717 
    AV754485 CD252113 AV747716 AV749690 AV745989 AV750597 AV750465 AV747325 
    CD237742 CD239316 CD237174 CD107136 CD512979 CD237396 CD242564 CD251744 
    AV751211 AV750334 AV749973 AV752352 CD242953 AV753978 AV746143 CD237559 
    AV745856 CD239959 H51033 AV754803 CD239873 AV747560 AV745558 CD251145 
    D59032 CD108697 AV745223 AV748269 AV750090 AV749747 AV745532 CD251785 
    CD239314 AV745557 AV753132 CD107122 AV747349 AV746811 AV749842 AV749454 
    BQ429729 AV749818 AV746405 AV749434 CD237236 AV746053 N31956 CD251063 
    CD239076 CD107348 CD513357 AV748364 AV751275 AV750337 AV746043 AV748317 
    AV750855 AV746709 BX380685 CD105569 AV752760 AV746115 AV746922 CD106499 
    AV745898 CD237270 AV746151 AA371720 AV750941 CD106830 AV748090 CD556381 
    CD237475 AV747242 AV753411 AV747687 AV751935 AV750426 AV754397 AV752956 
    AV752180 CD238613 AV754768 AV749871 CD237566 CD105834 AV751913 AV749619 
    CD236931 AV749638 AV746995 CD251721 H83788 AV752125 AV750756 AV747197 
    AV747594 AV751846 CD237593 AV750333 AV752363 CD106158 AV747703 CD237535 
    AV750795 AA884187 CD238655 CD519528 AV749199 CD236939 AV753004 AV747246 
    AV749873 AV747569 N53569 AV747940 AV750123 AV751375 AV748194 AV747409 
    AV748052 CD513339 CB051796 CD243276 AV747396 AV745899 AV750840 CD251015 
    AV746024 CD251404 CD556958 AV753265 AV748902 AV748237 AV749438 CD106130 
    CD556345 CD518885 AV748658 AV750081 AV748087 AV748153 AV750669 AV745505 
    AV752782 AV750335 CD236685 AV748366 CD242284 AV746326 CD513117 CD243021 
    CD239136 CD513055 AV747222 AV745394 AV745376 AV753525 AV750162 CD513729 
    AV749620 AV752015 AV747211 AA151622 AV749822 AV746860 CD106769 AV749464 
    CD517967 CD237431 AV745602 AA923706 AV751136 AV750675 AV750587 CD513268 
    CD251242 CD513928 AA709022 R27857 AV748308 AV747267 CD238785 AV746972 
    CD556592 AV746983 AV752207 AV747192 AV746204 AV746474 CD251351 AV754867 
    AI241435 AV747261 AV747525 CD251192 AV747017 CD514117 AV747941 AV745195 
    CD242774 CD556986 CD609885 AV750354 AV746345 AV751273 AV750187 AV748232 
    AV748699 W76563 AV747141 AV746792 AV745599 AV745351 AV746545 CD239074 
    AV746765 CD238915 CD105381 AV747238 AV751341 CD514017 BG184483 AV748845 
    AV745622 AV750148 AV746717 CD609884 CD239739 AV751579 CD556589 AV750451 
    CD251650 CD242459 AV752532 AV745231 AV750403 AV751564 CD242735 AV745993 
    AV747681 AV749035 AV751203 AV751873 AV753217 N72528 CD512812 AV746000 
    AV750308 CD106856 CD237217 AV747847 AV751387 AV752155 AV748145 AV750296 
    AV749905 AV753604 W72598 AV748188 CD106775 CD108011 AV751442 AV749588 
    AV747462 AV747688 AV746644 CD105451 AV751266 AV748286 AV749243 AV746935 
    CD106979 AV752662 AV749501 AV748906 AV751694 N72337 CD556818 CD239551 
    AV749740 AV749993 CD239836 CD236814 AV748828 N94273 AV745123 AV750346 
    AV752048 AV750218 AV750670 CD107124 CD108827 CD106337 AV753744 CD242401 
    CD242917 CD609893 AV750758 AV747935 CD105602 CD609895 CD609894 CD237556 
    CD609891 CD609887 CD609890 CD239366 CD609889 AA371556 CD609886 CD513728 
    CD609888 CD609892 AV746361 AA035474 AV750764 AV751867 CD513536 CD239838 
    AV745999 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/7 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL (see all 7)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
    SP1:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP2:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP3:                          -                 -                       -                     
    SP4:                          -                 -           -     -     -                     
    SP5:                          -                 -                                             


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PRL

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PRL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PRL embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTTGGGTGTA
    PRL Expression
    About this image


    PRL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/11 selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     
     Placenta (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             placenta ; trophoblastic cells   
             placenta   
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Hematopoietic Stem Cells Hematopoietic Bone Marrow
     
     Smooth Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)
             smooth muscle ; smooth muscle cells   
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             T-Cytotoxic Cells Thymus
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             kidney ; cells in glomeruli   

    See PRL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PRL

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.1905 Hs.735971
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PRL: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              Insulin Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              JAK / STAT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity 384HT in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PRL
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PRL
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PRL
    QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL
    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PRL
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRL

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PRL gene from 5/11 species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prl1 , 5 prolactin1, 5 72(n)1
    61.33(a)1
      13 (12.25 cM)5
    191091  NM_011164.21  NP_035294.21 
     270575775 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRL1 prolactin 71.51(n)
    68.28(a)
      396453  NM_205466.2  NP_990797.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRL6
    Uncharacterized protein
    66(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(54981767-54989741)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia CD302094.12   -- 73.67(n)    CD302094.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prl6
    prl26
    prolactin 2
    33(a)
    28(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    possible ortholog
    3(32478893-32482876)
    4(13409098-13414203)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/354 SNPs in PRL are shown (see all 354)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1841026651,2
    --22208998(+) TTGTAC/GAATGA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1411613951,2
    C--22209017(+) ATTAAC/TAATCT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1434595781,2
    --22209030(+) CTCTTC/TGATTC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1466753541,2
    --22209133(+) TCTGAC/TAAGAA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1401052691,2
    --22209135(+) TGATAA/TGAACT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs93585301,2
    H--22209300(+) TACAAC/TTAAAA 2 -- ut314Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NS EA 418
    rs1502890101,2
    --22209310(+) AGAAGC/TTTGCA 2 -- ut310--------
    rs1886419431,2
    C--22209322(+) TGGAAC/TGGATC 2 -- ut310--------
    rs2020533991,2
    --22209342(+) CTTCTC/TAGAAA 2 -- ut310--------
    rs2008313761,2
    --22209367(+) GTGGGC/TTTAGC 2 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRL (22287475 - 22303082 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PRL:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv830604CNV Loss17160897


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PRL
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PRL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PRL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 176760    OMIM disorders: --

    20/303 diseases for PRL (see all 303):    About MalaCards
    hyperprolactinemia    prolactinoma    sheehan syndrome    adenohypophysitis
    empty sella syndrome    prolactin producing pituitary tumor    choristoma    premenstrual tension
    endocrine gland cancer    impotence    pituitary apoplexy    sexual disorder
    pedophilia    schizophreniform disorder    amenorrhea    varicocele
    acth deficiency    stereotypic movement disorder    obstructive hydrocephalus    generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

    20/29 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PRL (see all 29):
    Hyperprolactinemia     Pituitary adenoma     Adenoma     Amenorrhea
    Neuroendocrine tumor     Acromegaly     Hypothyroidism     Hypopituitarism
    Hypogonadism     Infertility     Cushing's syndrome     Polycystic ovary syndrome
    Empty sella syndrome     Anovulation     Hypoglycemia     Sexual dysfunction
    Breast cancer     Gynecomastia     Diabetes insipidus     Pituitary apoplexy

    PRL for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/90 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PRL gene (see all 90)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    hyperprolactinemia 97.2 764 8456892 (5), 7899431 (5), 9156042 (5), 16817144 (5) (see all 99)
    prolactinoma 95.4 432 12012125 (6), 18426817 (5), 1903012 (5), 12574225 (4) (see all 99)
    macroprolactinoma 92.5 95 8737186 (6), 10931080 (5), 8729527 (3), 10216513 (3) (see all 60)
    pituitary adenoma 91.3 250 8392915 (5), 1910948 (3), 14615416 (3), 12713252 (3) (see all 99)
    microprolactinoma 91.3 77 10931080 (5), 14616880 (4), 10216513 (3), 1774132 (2) (see all 48)
    pituitary tumors 87.7 119 15251707 (3), 2325501 (2), 10933752 (2), 7664652 (2) (see all 90)
    acromegaly 83.2 73 1574954 (2), 8531896 (2), 8127416 (2), 15473133 (2) (see all 52)
    adenoma 82.3 774 8949563 (7), 1625993 (6), 8162255 (5), 8890999 (5) (see all 99)
    hypogonadism 80 51 8733264 (3), 2099670 (1), 10699620 (1), 11207632 (1) (see all 36)
    panhypopituitarism 78.9 26 10698595 (2), 2045062 (1), 8805025 (1), 9285205 (1) (see all 20)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PRL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PRL (67 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): PRL

    Export disorders for PRL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PRL gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 4450):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PubMed id 18053149)1, 4, 9 Lee S.A....Stram D.O. (2007)
    2. Association of prolactin and its receptor gene regions with familial breast cancer. (PubMed id 16434456)1, 4, 9 Vaclavicek A....Forsti A. (2006)
    3. Prolactin and prolactin receptor gene polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (PubMed id 12559630)1, 4, 9 Mellai M....Momigliano-Richiardi P. (2003)
    4. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the cytochrome P450 17A1, prolactin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. (PubMed id 16214922)1, 4, 9 Skibola C.F....Holly E.A. (2005)
    5. Characterization of two constitutively active prolact in receptor variants in a cohort of 95 women with multiple breast fibroadenomas . (PubMed id 19897676)1, 4, 9 Courtillot C....Touraine P. (2010)
    6. Extrapituitary prolactin promoter polymorphism in Czech patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 17468404)1, 4, 9 Fojtikova M....Dostal C. (2007)
    7. Genome-wide association identifies three new suscepti bility loci for Paget's disease of bone. (PubMed id 21623375)1, 4 Albagha O.M....Ralston S.H. (2011)
    8. No association between oxytocin or prolactin gene var iants and childhood-onset mood disorders. (PubMed id 20547007)1, 4 Strauss J.S....Kennedy J.L. (2010)
    9. Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection. (PubMed id 20587610)1, 4 Ucisik-Akkaya E....Tevfik Dorak M. (2010)
    10. Genetic variation within the hypothalamus-pituitary-o varian axis in women with recurrent miscarriage. (PubMed id 20716560)1, 4 Hanna C.W....Robinson W.P. (2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5617 HGNC: 9445 AceView: PRL Ensembl:ENSG00000172179 euGenes: HUgn5617
    ECgene: PRL Kegg: 5617 H-InvDB: PRL

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PRL Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolactin

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PRL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

     Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
     Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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     Proteins for PRL
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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    Category
    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
    GIFtS Group
    The GeneCards human gene database gene index: 1 3 5 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


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