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Aliases for PRKCD Gene

Aliases for PRKCD Gene

  • Protein Kinase C Delta 2 3 5
  • Tyrosine-Protein Kinase PRKCD 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.13 4 61
  • NPKC-Delta 3 4
  • Protein Kinase C Delta VIII 3
  • Protein Kinase C Delta Type 3
  • Protein Kinase C, Delta 2
  • EC 2.7.10.2 4
  • EC 2.7.11 61
  • ALPS3 3
  • CVID9 3
  • MAY1 3
  • PKCD 3

External Ids for PRKCD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKCD Gene

  • GC03P052287
  • GC03P052446
  • GC03P053050
  • GC03P053152
  • GC03P053170

Summaries for PRKCD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRKCD Gene

  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. Studies both in human and mice demonstrate that this kinase is involved in B cell signaling and in the regulation of growth, apoptosis, and differentiation of a variety of cell types. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PRKCD Gene

PRKCD (Protein Kinase C Delta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKCD include Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, Type Iii and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 16. Among its related pathways are CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages and Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKCQ.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKCD Gene

  • Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays contrasting roles in cell death and cell survival by functioning as a pro-apoptotic protein during DNA damage-induced apoptosis, but acting as an anti-apoptotic protein during cytokine receptor-initiated cell death, is involved in tumor suppression as well as survival of several cancers, is required for oxygen radical production by NADPH oxidase and acts as positive or negative regulator in platelet functional responses. Negatively regulates B cell proliferation and also has an important function in self-antigen induced B cell tolerance induction. Upon DNA damage, activates the promoter of the death-promoting transcription factor BCLAF1/Btf to trigger BCLAF1-mediated p53/TP53 gene transcription and apoptosis. In response to oxidative stress, interact with and activate CHUK/IKKA in the nucleus, causing the phosphorylation of p53/TP53. In the case of ER stress or DNA damage-induced apoptosis, can form a complex with the tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 which trigger apoptosis independently of p53/TP53. In cytosol can trigger apoptosis by activating MAPK11 or MAPK14, inhibiting AKT1 and decreasing the level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), whereas in nucleus induces apoptosis via the activation of MAPK8 or MAPK9. Upon ionizing radiation treatment, is required for the activation of the apoptosis regulators BAX and BAK, which trigger the mitochondrial cell death pathway. Can phosphorylate MCL1 and target it for degradation which is sufficient to trigger for BAX activation and apoptosis. Is required for the control of cell cycle progression both at G1/S and G2/M phases. Mediates phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression at G1/S phase by up-regulating the CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 and inhibiting the cyclin CCNA2 promoter activity. In response to UV irradiation can phosphorylate CDK1, which is important for the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint activation. Can protect glioma cells from the apoptosis induced by TNFSF10/TRAIL, probably by inducing increased phosphorylation and subsequent activation of AKT1. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells and promotes cell survival and resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) and hyperphosphorylation of RB1, and via several pro-survival pathways, including NF-kappa-B, AKT1 and MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2). Can also act as tumor suppressor upon mitogenic stimulation with PMA or TPA. In N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-treated cells, is required for NCF1 (p47-phox) phosphorylation and activation of NADPH oxidase activity, and regulates TNF-elicited superoxide anion production in neutrophils, by direct phosphorylation and activation of NCF1 or indirectly through MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. May also play a role in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in eosinophil after stimulation with IL5, leukotriene B4 or PMA. In collagen-induced platelet aggregation, acts a negative regulator of filopodia formation and actin polymerization by interacting with and negatively regulating VASP phosphorylation. Downstream of PAR1, PAR4 and CD36/GP4 receptors, regulates differentially platelet dense granule secretion; acts as a positive regulator in PAR-mediated granule secretion, whereas it negatively regulates CD36/GP4-mediated granule release. Phosphorylates MUC1 in the C-terminal and regulates the interaction between MUC1 and beta-catenin. The catalytic subunit phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins (YWHAB, YWHAZ and YWHAH) in a sphingosine-dependent fashion (By similarity). Phosphorylates ELAVL1 in response to angiotensin-2 treatment (PubMed:18285462).

Tocris Summary for PRKCD Gene

  • Protein kinase C (PKC) refers to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases grouped by their activation mechanism. Conventional PKCs (cPKC alpha-, betaI- , betaII- and gamma-) are activated by phosphatidylserine in a calcium dependent manner and can bind diacylglycerol.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKCD Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRKCD Gene

Genomics for PRKCD Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRKCD Gene

Enhancers for PRKCD Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03G053233 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 23.5 +83.4 83386 10.9 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX CREB3L1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 PRKCD ENSG00000207109 TKT DCP1A ITIH4 GNL3 TMEM110
GH03G053165 1.5 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 21.1 +13.0 12953 7.4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 WRNIP1 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF207 ZNF263 SP5 MIER2 PRKCD TMEM110 GLT8D1 TKT GNL3 DCP1A PBRM1
GH03G053195 1.5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.7 +40.6 40554 1.8 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 AGO1 ARID4B YBX1 BRCA1 ZNF2 ZNF48 RFT1 PRKCD ENSG00000207109 TKT DCP1A ITIH4
GH03G053268 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.8 +114.4 114368 3.6 PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF766 FOS KLF13 PRKCD WDR82 ENSG00000207109 TKT SFMBT1 DCP1A PIR47365 GC03M053284
GH03G053140 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.5 -14.9 -14908 1.4 HDGF ZSCAN4 ZNF133 ZNF143 ZNF207 EGR2 ZNF263 USF2 ZNF398 ZNF148 RFT1 PRKCD ACTR8 NEK4 TMEM110 ITIH4 DCP1A ITIH3 PBRM1 TKT
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PRKCD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRKCD gene promoter:

Genomic Location for PRKCD Gene

Chromosome:
3
Start:
53,156,009 bp from pter
End:
53,192,717 bp from pter
Size:
36,709 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PRKCD Gene

Genes around PRKCD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRKCD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRKCD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRKCD Gene

Proteins for PRKCD Gene

  • Protein details for PRKCD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q05655-KPCD_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protein kinase C delta type
    Protein Accession:
    Q05655
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B0KZ81
    • B2R834
    • Q15144
    • Q86XJ6

    Protein attributes for PRKCD Gene

    Size:
    676 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    77505 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PDPK1 (via N-terminal region), RAD9A, CDCP1, MUC1 and VASP.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRKCD Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRKCD Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PRKCD Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PRKCD Gene

Q05655:
  • GIIYRDLK
  • KVANLCGINQKL
  • PPFRPKVKSP
  • VLGKGSFGKV
  • GKGSFGKV
  • GHIKIAD
  • DDDVECTMVEKRVL
  • WGLNKQGY
  • GVLLYEM
  • DFGMCKE
  • IDMPHRFK
  • LFFVMEFLNGGD
  • FAIKALKK
  • YRDLKLDN
  • TFCDHCGSLL
  • GTPDYIAPE
  • CNAAIHKKCIDK
  • TFCGTPDYIAPEI
  • QKKPTMYP
  • VDWWSFGVLLYEML
  • YIAPEIL
  • GQSPFHG
  • RDLKLDN
  • DRDGHIK

Post-translational modifications for PRKCD Gene

  • Autophosphorylated and/or phosphorylated at Thr-507, within the activation loop; phosphorylation at Thr-507 is not a prerequisite for enzymatic activity. Autophosphorylated at Ser-299, Ser-302 and Ser-304. Upon TNFSF10/TRAIL treatment, phosphorylated at Tyr-155; phosphorylation is required for its translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum and cleavage by caspase-3. Phosphorylated at Tyr-313, Tyr-334 and Tyr-567; phosphorylation of Tyr-313 and Tyr-567 following thrombin stimulation potentiates its kinase activity. Phosphorylated by protein kinase PDPK1; phosphorylation is inhibited by the apoptotic C-terminal cleavage product of PKN2.
  • Proteolytically cleaved into a catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit by caspase-3 during apoptosis which results in kinase activation.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys184, Lys362, and Lys613
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PRKCD (PKCD)

Protein Products

Assay Products

  • Cloud-Clone Corp Assay Kits for PRKCD
  • Abcam assays for PRKCD

Domains & Families for PRKCD Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRKCD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q05655

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KPCD_HUMAN :
  • The C1 domain, containing the phorbol ester/DAG-type region 1 (C1A) and 2 (C1B), is the diacylglycerol sensor.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily.
Domain:
  • The C1 domain, containing the phorbol ester/DAG-type region 1 (C1A) and 2 (C1B), is the diacylglycerol sensor.
  • The C2 domain is a non-calcium binding domain. It binds proteins containing phosphotyrosine in a sequence-specific manner.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRKCD: view

Function for PRKCD Gene

Molecular function for PRKCD Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protein kinase C,delta polypeptide,involved in proheparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) ectodomain shedding upon TPA stimulation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Novel PKCs (PRKCD, PRKCE, PRKCH and PRKCQ) are calcium-insensitive, but activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylserine. Three specific sites; Thr-507 (activation loop of the kinase domain), Ser-645 (turn motif) and Ser-664 (hydrophobic region), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation. Activated by caspase-3 (CASP3) cleavage during apoptosis. After cleavage, the pseudosubstrate motif in the regulatory subunit is released from the substrate recognition site of the catalytic subunit, which enables PRKCD to become constitutively activated. The catalytic subunit which displays properties of a sphingosine-dependent protein kinase is activated by D-erythro-sphingosine (Sph) or N,N-dimethyl-D-erythrosphingosine (DMS) or N,N,N-trimethyl-D-erythrosphingosine (TMS), but not by ceramide or Sph-1-P and is strongly inhibited by phosphatidylserine (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays contrasting roles in cell death and cell survival by functioning as a pro-apoptotic protein during DNA damage-induced apoptosis, but acting as an anti-apoptotic protein during cytokine receptor-initiated cell death, is involved in tumor suppression as well as survival of several cancers, is required for oxygen radical production by NADPH oxidase and acts as positive or negative regulator in platelet functional responses. Negatively regulates B cell proliferation and also has an important function in self-antigen induced B cell tolerance induction. Upon DNA damage, activates the promoter of the death-promoting transcription factor BCLAF1/Btf to trigger BCLAF1-mediated p53/TP53 gene transcription and apoptosis. In response to oxidative stress, interact with and activate CHUK/IKKA in the nucleus, causing the phosphorylation of p53/TP53. In the case of ER stress or DNA damage-induced apoptosis, can form a complex with the tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 which trigger apoptosis independently of p53/TP53. In cytosol can trigger apoptosis by activating MAPK11 or MAPK14, inhibiting AKT1 and decreasing the level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), whereas in nucleus induces apoptosis via the activation of MAPK8 or MAPK9. Upon ionizing radiation treatment, is required for the activation of the apoptosis regulators BAX and BAK, which trigger the mitochondrial cell death pathway. Can phosphorylate MCL1 and target it for degradation which is sufficient to trigger for BAX activation and apoptosis. Is required for the control of cell cycle progression both at G1/S and G2/M phases. Mediates phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression at G1/S phase by up-regulating the CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 and inhibiting the cyclin CCNA2 promoter activity. In response to UV irradiation can phosphorylate CDK1, which is important for the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint activation. Can protect glioma cells from the apoptosis induced by TNFSF10/TRAIL, probably by inducing increased phosphorylation and subsequent activation of AKT1. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells and promotes cell survival and resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) and hyperphosphorylation of RB1, and via several pro-survival pathways, including NF-kappa-B, AKT1 and MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2). Can also act as tumor suppressor upon mitogenic stimulation with PMA or TPA. In N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-treated cells, is required for NCF1 (p47-phox) phosphorylation and activation of NADPH oxidase activity, and regulates TNF-elicited superoxide anion production in neutrophils, by direct phosphorylation and activation of NCF1 or indirectly through MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. May also play a role in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in eosinophil after stimulation with IL5, leukotriene B4 or PMA. In collagen-induced platelet aggregation, acts a negative regulator of filopodia formation and actin polymerization by interacting with and negatively regulating VASP phosphorylation. Downstream of PAR1, PAR4 and CD36/GP4 receptors, regulates differentially platelet dense granule secretion; acts as a positive regulator in PAR-mediated granule secretion, whereas it negatively regulates CD36/GP4-mediated granule release. Phosphorylates MUC1 in the C-terminal and regulates the interaction between MUC1 and beta-catenin. The catalytic subunit phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins (YWHAB, YWHAZ and YWHAH) in a sphingosine-dependent fashion (By similarity). Phosphorylates ELAVL1 in response to angiotensin-2 treatment (PubMed:18285462).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PRKCD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRKCD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IDA 24008408
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS --
GO:0004697 protein kinase C activity TAS --
GO:0004699 calcium-independent protein kinase C activity EXP,TAS 14583092
GO:0004715 non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKCD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRKCD: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PRKCD Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PRKCD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRKCD:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PRKCD

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRKCD

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRKCD Gene

Localization for PRKCD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKCD Gene

Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Nucleus. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRKCD gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 4
golgi apparatus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRKCD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 15632189
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 15632189
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 15774464
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKCD: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRKCD Gene

SuperPathways for PRKCD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRKCD: view

Pathways by source for PRKCD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRKCD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IDA 10713049
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IDA 10770950
GO:0007049 cell cycle IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKCD: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRKCD Gene

(48) Drugs for PRKCD Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ingenol Mebutate Approved Pharma Target, ligand 0
Tamoxifen Approved Pharma Antagonist, Target TGF-β modulatory and PKC inhibitory effects, ER antagonist, Anti-Estrogens 390
Zoledronic acid Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, Osteoclast function modifiers (important in bone metastasis) 294
nolvadex Approved October 1998 Pharma 0
Picato gel Approved January 2012 Pharma 0

(23) Additional Compounds for PRKCD Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB